Upcat 2009 handout


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Upcat 2009 handout

  1. 1. UPCAT REVIEWER 2009~AJDRC (arrajeuneze@yahoo.com) : UPCAT Lecturer SCIENCESSolar SystemMang Mercury Nearest to the sun, thin atmosphereVictor Venus Hottest planet, greenhouse effect, retrogadeEspinosa Earth Planet of lifeMag Mars The red planetJogging Jupiter Largest planet, with ringsSa Saturn 100 ringsUmaga Uranus Rotates on side, retrogadeNg Neptune Has ringsPumayat Pluto (not a planet anymore)Principles of biology • Cell theory. Cell Theory is the study of everything that involves cells.All living organisms are made of at least one cell, the basic unit of function in all organisms. In addition, the core mechanisms and chemistry of all cells in all organisms are similar, and cells emerge only from preexisting cells that multiply through cell division. The study of cell theory will tell you how cells are made, how they reproduce, how they interact with their environment, what it is composed of, and how the materials that make up a cell work and there interaction with the other sections of the cells. • Evolution. Through natural selection and genetic drift, a populations inherited traits change from generation to generation. • Gene theory. A living organisms traits are encoded in DNA, the fundamental component of genes. In addition, traits are passed on from one generation to the next by way of these genes. All information flows from the genotype to the phenotype, the observable physical or biochemical characteristics of the organism. Although the phenotype expressed by the gene may adapt to the environment of the organism, that information is not transferred back to the genes. Only through the process of evolution do genes change in response to the environment. • Homeostasis. The physiological processes that allow an organism to maintain its internal environment notwithstanding its external environment.Levels of Biological OrganizationSubatomic Particle - Atom - Molecule - Organelle – Cell (unit of life) - Tissue - Organ -Organ System - Organism - Population - Community - Ecosystem - Biosphere.Classification of Matter 1
  2. 2. Matter Anything with mass and volume. Substance Mixture Matter with constant composition Matter with variable composition Element Compound Heterogeneous Mixture Homogeneous Mixtures Substance Two or more Mixtures that are made Also called solutions. made up of elements that are up of more than one Mixtures that are made up only one type chemically phase of only one phase of atom combined Examples - Examples - water, Examples - sand, soil, Examples - salt water, gold, silver, carbon dioxide, chicken soup, pizza, pure air, metal alloys, carbon, sodium chocolate chip cookies. seltzer water. oxygen and bicarbonate, carbon hydrogen monoxide List of animal phyla Phylum Meaning GroupAcanthocephala Thorny head Thorny-headed wormsAcoelomorpha Without gut AcoelsAnnelida Little ring Segmented wormsArthropoda Jointed foot ArthropodsBrachiopoda Arm foot Lamp shellsChordata Cord ChordatesCnidaria CoelenteratesEchinodermata Spiny skin EchinodermsMollusca Thin shell Mollusks / molluscsNematoda Thread like Round wormsNematomorpha Thread form Horsehair wormsNemertea A sea nymph Ribbon wormsOnychophora Claw bearer Velvet wormsOrthonectida Straight swimPlatyhelminthes Flat worms Flat wormsPorifera Pore bearer Sponges King Phillip came over for good spaghetti ~kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Branches of Biology Guest Author - Alegra Bartzat 2
  3. 3. Branches of BiologyAgriculture - study of producing crops from the land, with an emphasis on practical applicationsAnatomy - the study of the animal form, with an emphasis on human bodiesBiochemistry - the study of the chemical reactions required for life to exist and function, usuallya focus on the cellular levelBiotechnology - a new and sometimes controversial branch of biology that studies themanipulation of living matter, including genetic modificationBotany - the study of plantsCell Biology - the study of the cell as a complete unit, and the molecular and chemicalinteractions that occur within a living cell.Ecology - the study of the ecosystem as a complete unit, with an emphasis on how species andgroups of species interact with other living beings and non-living elements.Entomology - the study of insectsEthology - the study of animal behavior.Genetics - the study of genes and heredity.Herpetology - the study of reptilesHistology - The study of cells and tissue, a microscopic branch of anatomy.Ichthyology - the study of fishMammology - the study of mammalsMarine Biology - the study of ocean ecosystems, plants, animals, and other living beings.on alleviating or curing the body from states of diseaseMicrobiology - the study of microscopic organisms (microorganisms) and their interactions withother living thingsMolecular Biology - the study of biology and biological functions at the molecular level, somecross over with biochemistryMycology - the study of fungiNeurobiology - the study of the nervous system, including anatomy, physiology, even pathologyOceanography - the study of the ocean, including ocean life, environment, geography, weather,and other aspects influencing the ocean. See Marine BiologyOrnithology - the study of birdsPaleontology - the study of fossils and sometimes geographic evidence of prehistoric life 3
  4. 4. Pathobiology or pathology - the study of diseases, and the causes, processes, nature, anddevelopment of diseaseParisitology - the study of parasites and parasitismPhysiology - the study of the functioning of living organisms and the organs and parts of livingorganismsVirology - the study of viruses and some other virus-like agents, usually considered part ofmicrobiology or pathologyZoology - the study of animals and animal life, including classification, physiology,development, and behavior (See also Entomology, Ethology, Herpetology, Ichthyology,Mammology, Ornithology 4
  5. 5. Layers of the Atmosphere.1) The troposphere is where weatheroccurs. You breathe the air in thetroposphere.2) Many airplanes fly in the stratospherebecause it is very stable. Also, the ozonelayer is there.3) Many rock fragments from space burnup in the mesosphere.4) The thermosphere is very thin. Itswhere the space shuttle orbits. It isexposed to the ulta violet rays of the sun5) The upper limit of our atmosphere is theexosphere.LITHOSPHEREHYDROSPHERE~ Liquid part of the earth 5
  6. 6. UPCAT REVIEWER~AJDRC (arrajeuneze@yahoo.com) : UPCAT LecturerMATHEMATICSPolynomial Identitiesa 2 - b 2 = (a+b)(a-b) (Difference of squares)a 3 +b 3 = (a +b)(a 2- ab + b 2) (Sum and Difference of Cubes)a 3 -b 3 = (a -b)(a 2+ab + b 2) (Sum and Difference of Cubes)Complex numbersi 4k = 1; i (4k+1) = i; i (4k+2) = -1; i (4k+3) = -i (k = integer)Area FormulasNote: "ab" means "a" multiplied by "b". "a2" means "a squared", which is the same as "a"times "a".square = a 2 trapezoid = h/2 (b1 + b2)rectangle = ab circle = pi r 2parallelogram = bh ellipse = pi r1 r2 one half times the base length timestriangle = the height of the triangleequilateral triangle =regular polygon = (1/2) n sin(360°/n) S2 when n = # of sides and S = length from center to a corner 6
  7. 7. Volume Formulascube = a 3 pyramid = (1/3) b hrectangular prism = a b c cone = (1/3) b h = 1/3 pi r 2 hirregular prism = b h sphere = (4/3) pi r 3cylinder = b h = pi r 2 hConversion of Decimal to fractionNote the following pattern for repeating decimals:0.22222222... = 2/90.54545454... = 54/990.298298298... = 298/999Division by 9s causes the repeating pattern.Note the pattern if zeros precede the repeating decimal:0.022222222... = 2/900.00054545454... = 54/990000.00298298298... = 298/99900Adding zeros to the denominator adds zeros before the repeating decimal.Polygon Formulas(N = # of sides and S = length from center to a corner)Area of a regular polygon = (1/2) N sin(360°/N) S2Sum of the interior angles of a polygon = (N - 2) x 180°The number of diagonals in a polygon = 1/2 N(N-3)The number of triangles (when you draw all the diagonals from onevertex) in a polygon = (N - 2)Information collected by Arra Corpuz. Home service Tutor 2008-present; UP Diliman BSMathematics (1st year). 09175386393 7