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  1. 1. Myers’ EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed) <ul><li>Chapter 6 </li></ul><ul><li>States of Consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>James A. McCubbin, PhD </li></ul><ul><li>Clemson University </li></ul><ul><li>Worth Publishers </li></ul>
  2. 2. Waking Consciousness <ul><li>Consciousness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>our awareness of ourselves and our environments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Selective Attention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Sleep and Dreams <ul><li>Circadian Rhythm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the biological clock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>regular bodily rhythms, such as of wakefulness and body temperature, that occur on a 24-hour cycle </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Sleep and Dreams <ul><li>REM ( R apid E ye M ovement) Sleep </li></ul><ul><ul><li>recurring sleep stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vivid dreams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ paradoxical sleep” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>muscles are generally relaxed, but other body systems are active </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Sleep </li></ul><ul><ul><li>periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Sleep and Dreams <ul><li>Measuring sleep activity </li></ul>
  6. 6. Brain Waves and Sleep Stages <ul><li>Alpha Waves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>slow waves of a relaxed, awake brain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Delta Waves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>large, slow waves of deep sleep </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hallucinations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>false sensory experiences </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Stages in a Typical Night’s Sleep 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4 3 2 1 Sleep stages Awake Hours of sleep REM
  8. 8. Stages in a Typical Night’s Sleep Hours of sleep Minutes of Stage 4 and REM 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 10 15 20 25 5 Decreasing Stage 4 Increasing REM
  9. 9. Sleep Deprivation <ul><li>Effects of Sleep Loss </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fatigue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>impaired concentration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>depressed immune system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>greater vulnerability to accidents </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Sleep Deprivation 2,400 2,700 2,600 2,500 2,800 Spring time change (hour sleep loss) 3,600 4,200 4000 3,800 Fall time change (hour sleep gained) Less sleep, more accidents More sleep, fewer accidents Monday before time change Monday after time change Accident frequency
  11. 11. Sleep Disorders <ul><li>Insomnia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>persistent problems in falling or staying asleep </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Narcolepsy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>uncontrollable sleep attacks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sleep Apnea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>temporary cessation of breathing during sleep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>momentary reawakenings </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Night Terrors and Nightmares <ul><li>Night Terrors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>occur within 2 or 3 hours of falling asleep, usually during Stage 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>high arousal - appearance of being terrified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>seldom remembered </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Dreams: Freud <ul><li>Dreams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person’s mind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hallucinatory imagery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>discontinuities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>incongruities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>delusional acceptance of the content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>difficulties remembering </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Dreams: Freud <ul><li>Sigmund Freud -- The Interpretation of Dreams (1900) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>wish fulfillment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>discharge otherwise unacceptable feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manifest Content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>remembered story line </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Latent Content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>underlying meaning </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Dreams <ul><li>As Information Processing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>helps facilitate memories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As a Physiological Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>periodic brain stimulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>REM Rebound </li></ul><ul><ul><li>REM sleep increases following REM sleep deprivation </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Sleep Across the Lifespan
  17. 17. Hypnosis <ul><li>Hypnosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Hypnosis <ul><li>Posthypnotic Amnesia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>supposed inability to recall what one experienced during hypnosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>induced by the hypnotist’s suggestion </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Hypnosis <ul><li>Orne & Evans (1965) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hypnotized group told to dip hand in fake acid, then throw the “acid” in assistant’s face </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>control group instructed to “pretend” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>unhypnotized subjects performed the same acts as the hypnotized ones </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Hypnosis <ul><li>Posthypnotic Suggestion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>suggestion to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Hypnosis <ul><li>Dissociation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a split in consciousness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hidden Observer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hilgard’s term describing a hypnotized subject’s awareness of experiences, such as pain, that go unreported during hypnosis </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Explaining Hypnosis
  23. 23. Drugs and Consciousness <ul><li>Psychoactive Drug </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical Dependence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>physiological need for a drug </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychological Dependence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a psychological need to use a drug </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for example, to relieve negative emotions </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Dependence and Addiction <ul><li>Tolerance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>diminishing effect with regular use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Withdrawal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>discomfort and distress that follow discontinued use </li></ul></ul>Small Large Drug dose Little effect Big effect Drug effect Response to first exposure After repeated exposure, more drug is needed to produce same effect
  25. 25. Psychoactive Drugs <ul><li>Depressants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>drugs that reduce neural activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>alcohol, barbiturates, opiates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>slow body functions </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Psychoactive Drugs <ul><li>Alcohol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>affects motor skills, judgment, and memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reduces self awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Barbiturates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Psychoactive Drugs <ul><li>Opiates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>opium and its derivatives (morphine and heroin) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>opiates depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>highly addictive </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Psychoactive Drugs <ul><li>Stimulants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>drugs that excite neural activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>speed up body functions </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. The Physiological Effects of Nicotine
  30. 30. Psychoactive Drugs <ul><li>Amphetamines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Psychoactive Drugs <ul><li>Cocaine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>effects depend on dosage, form, expectations, personality and situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>coca leaves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>powder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>crack </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Cocaine Euphoria and Crash
  33. 33. Psychoactive Drugs <ul><li>Ecstasy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MDMA (methylenedioxymethamphetamine) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stimulant and mild hallucinogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dangerous short and long term effects </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Psychoactive Drugs <ul><li>Hallucinogens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>psychedelic (mind-manifesting) drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LSD </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MDMA (Ecstasy) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Psychoactive Drugs <ul><li>LSD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lysergic acid diethylamide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a powerful hallucinogenic drug </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>also known as acid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>THC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the major active ingredient in marijuana </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Psychoactive Drugs
  37. 37. Trends in Drug Use
  38. 38. Perceived Marijuana Risk
  39. 39. Near-Death Experiences <ul><li>Near-Death Experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>often similar to drug-induced hallucinations </li></ul></ul>