Adler clark 4e ppt 13


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Adler clark 4e ppt 13

  1. 1. Content Analysis Chapter 13
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Content Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A method of data collection in which some form of communication is studied systematically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses available data such as speeches, TV programs, newspaper articles, films, and advertisements </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Focal Research <ul><li>Reloading the Canon: The Timing of Diversification in American Literature Anthologies by Mikaila Mariel Lemonik Arthur, Adam Clark, Roger Clark & Jennifer Racine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examines the changing visibility of women, African American, Native American, Hispanic American and Asian American authors in American literature anthologies over the last half century </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Focal Research <ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In this research, Arthur, Clark, Clark and Racine are studying published materials rather than human subjects, so their main ethical responsibility is to report their findings honestly. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Appropriate Topics for Content Analysis <ul><li>Can be applied to any form of communication including movies, television shows, speeches, letters, obituaries, editorials, and song lyrics </li></ul>
  6. 6. Appropriate Topics for Content Analysis <ul><li>Materials appropriate for content analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Studies have focused on suicide notes, letters, magazines, wills, textbooks, radio programs, personal ads, verbal exchanges, speeches, etc… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systematic content analysis seems to date to the late 1600s with counting the words in religious hymns </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Appropriate Topics for Content Analysis <ul><li>Questions Asked by Content Analyzers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who says what, to whom, why, how, and with what effect? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Another frequent use of content analysis is hypothesis testing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do you think local, regional, or national newspapers are more likely to headline international stories on the top of the front page? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Quantitative Content Analysis <ul><li>Quantitative Content Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis focused on the variable characteristics of communication </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Quantitative Content Analysis <ul><li>Units of analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The units about which information is collected </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Quantitative Content Analysis <ul><li>Units of observation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The units from which information is collected </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Quantitative Content Analysis <ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you were interested in the difference between commercials during children’s and adults’ TV programs, your units of observation would be children’s and adults’ TV programs, but the units of analysis would be the commercials attached to those programs. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Quantitative Content Analysis <ul><li>Sampling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In content analysis, units of analysis can be words, phrases, sentences, themes, photographs, chapters, authors, books, etc… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Once you have chosen the units of analysis, you can sample them with any conventional sampling technique </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Quantitative Content Analysis <ul><li>Creating Meaningful Variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content analysis depends on the researcher's capacity to create and record meaningful variables for classifying units of analysis </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Quantitative Content Analysis
  15. 15. Qualitative Content Analysis? <ul><li>Quantitative content analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content analysis designed for statistical analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantitative content analysis is the most common kind in the social sciences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tends to be more deductive </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Qualitative Content Analysis? <ul><li>Qualitative content analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content analysis designed for verbal analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Few guidelines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tends to be more inductive </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Visual Analysis <ul><li>Visual Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A set of techniques used to analyze images </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual analysts study photographs, video images, paintings, drawings, maps, single images, and collections of images </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Images can be used as sources of factual information, as a record of reality or how their creators think of reality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be quantitative or qualitative </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Stop and Think <ul><li>Have a look at the picture on the cover of your text book. </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think the authors were trying to convey about the book by using it? </li></ul><ul><li>In answering this question, have you done a quantitative or qualitative visual analysis? </li></ul>
  19. 19. Advantages and Disadvantages of Content Analysis <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheap </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unobtrusive </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Advantages and Disadvantages of Content Analysis <ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May only be used with recorded communications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issues surrounding validity </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Summary <ul><li>Content analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unit of analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothesis testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meaningful variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coding schemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Quiz – Question 1 <ul><li>Like other kinds of social research, one of the first steps in content analysis is to determine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the number of cases that the research will focus on. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the kind of medium that the analysis will focus on. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the units of analysis that the research will focus on. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>None of the above </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Quiz – Question 2 <ul><li>Units of analysis are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the units from which information is collected. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the units about which information is collected. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the standard unit of measure in all types of social research. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>None of the above </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Quiz – Question 3 <ul><li>What type of sampling is used in content analysis? </li></ul><ul><li>Simple </li></ul><ul><li>Random </li></ul><ul><li>Stratified </li></ul><ul><li>All of the above </li></ul><ul><li>None, sampling does not occur </li></ul>