Adler clark 4e ppt 10


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Adler clark 4e ppt 10

  1. 1. Qualitative Interviewing Chapter 10
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Qualitative interviews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A data collection method in which an interviewer adapts and modifies the interview for each interviewee. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Qualitative interviews may be used as the sole form of data collection for a study or may be combined with another form of data collection. </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative interviews coupled with observation is typical </li></ul><ul><li>Observational techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Methods of collecting data by observing people, most typically in their natural settings. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Qualitative versus Structured Interviews <ul><li>Qualitative interviews versus structured interviews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similarities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differences </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Focal Research <ul><li>Managing Motherhood in Prison by Sandra Enos </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A sociologist whose research interests included both families and corrections, combined these interests with a study on how the social processes of mothering are worked out when mothers are in prison </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualitative interviews </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Focal Research <ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enos submitted her proposal to her university’s Institutional Review Board (IRB) where it was approved. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All of the women interviewed in this research volunteered and gave informed consent before being interviewed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All information was kept confidential, although each participant was cautioned about the legal limits of confidentiality, and no participant’s actual name is used by Enos. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Variations in Qualitative Interviews <ul><li>Number and length of interviews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depending on the survey type, participants maybe interviewed only once or several times. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Length of time will vary by participant and how much information or open-ended response they provide. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically participants are encouraged to talk as much or as little as they would like. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Variations in Qualitative Interviews <ul><li>Degree of structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualitative interviews can vary from unstructured to semi-structured interactions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semi-Structured Interview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interview with an interview guide containing primarily open-ended questions that can be modified for each interview. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interview guide – the list of topics to cover and the order in which to cover them that can be used to guide less structured interviews. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Variations in Qualitative Interviews <ul><li>Degree of structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constructing questions ahead of time makes the interviewer’s job easier to help ensure all topics are covered. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semi-structured interviews are most useful if you know in advance the kinds of questions to ask, feel fairly sure that you and the interviewees “speak the same language”, and plan an analysis that requires the same information from each participant. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Variations in Qualitative Interviews <ul><li>Degrees of structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unstructured Interview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A data collection method in which the interviewer starts with only a general sense of the topics to be discussed and creates questions as the interaction proceeds. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Start with a sense of what information is needed and formulate questions as the interview unfolds </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility in questioning can provide insight into the participants viewpoint </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very interactive </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Variations in Qualitative Interviews <ul><li>Interviews using visual methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drawings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photographs </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Variations in Qualitative Interviews <ul><li>Interviews using visual methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photo-interviewing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A data collection technique using photographs to elicit information and encourage discussion usually in conjunction with qualitative interviewing </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Variations in Qualitative Interviews <ul><li>Joint interviewers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have 2 or more interviewers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joint interview maybe used at first so that researchers develop similar interviewing styles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncommon method </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Variations in Qualitative Interviews <ul><li>Group and focus group interviews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A group interview has one interviewer and two or more interviewees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals in a group are selected because they have something in common </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: married couple, members of the same church, teachers from schools in different towns, or patients in a given hospital </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can use either a predetermined set or questions or an unstructured format </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Variations in Qualitative Interviews <ul><li>Group and focus group interviews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus group interview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A special kind of group interview, where participants converse with each other and have minimal interaction with a moderator. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be used alone or in combination with other forms of data collection, preceding or supplementing a questionnaire or structured interview. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Variations in Qualitative Interviews <ul><li>Group and focus group interviews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus groups generally have between 3 and 12 participants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are homogenous on the characteristic for which they were recruited </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: People who have been recently widowed or have specific health concerns </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The participants usually do not know each other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also used for market research </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Variations in Qualitative Interviews <ul><li>Group and focus group interviews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concerns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some voices might not be heard </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Participants are less likely to reveal specific behaviors and experiences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sample size – limited generalizability due to small and nonrandom samples </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ethical concerns for participants to keep confidential the information provided by others. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Locating Respondents & Presenting the Project <ul><li>The researcher must decide on the population and the kind of sample before locating potential interviewees and contacting them. </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative researchers are frequently interested in studying groups of people for whom there are no lists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example – mothers in prison, people with depression, fathers who do not live with their children, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Issues of Validity <ul><li>Validity issues still remain with qualitative interviews as with other self-report methods. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inaccurate memories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Misunderstandings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Miscommunications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Typically researchers believe interviewees tell the truth as they understand it and rarely offer false information knowingly </li></ul>
  20. 20. Locating Respondents & Presenting the Project <ul><li>Researchers typically use friendship networks, newspaper ads, notices on bulletin boards, announcements at meetings, posts on websites, blogs, discussion groups or emails to recruit participants. </li></ul><ul><li>Snowball samples are useful </li></ul><ul><li>Participants are often contacted through a gatekeeper. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Locating Respondents & Presenting the Project <ul><li>Gatekeepers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are individuals who can get a researcher into a setting or facilitate access to participants. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parents and guardians of children under 18, the heads of institutions, community organizations, agencies, or groups whose members you want to contact </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Locating Respondents & Presenting the Project <ul><li>Potential Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The more political or controversial one’s topic is, the more difficult it is to gain access to and participation from potential respondents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concern of potential interviewees that the information they provide will be used against them or that the researcher is not who she says she is such as undercover police, investigative reporters, union organizers, or industrial spies. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Locating Respondents & Presenting the Project <ul><li>Some researchers provide participants with incentives for participating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Including food, small gifts, gift certificates, payment </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Planning the Interview <ul><li>Using consent forms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IRB’s typically require interviewers to use a written informed consent form. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informed consent form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A statement that describes they study and the researcher and formally requests participation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Planning the Interview <ul><li>Constructing an interview guide or schedule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The interviewer typically starts with general questions and follows up participants’ comments. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Planning the Interview <ul><li>Constructing an interview guide or schedule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If using a semi-structured interview you will need to construct a list of questions, both basic and follow-up questions to gather information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less structured interviews start with broad interesting questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The guidelines for questions in chapter 9 are also true for qualitative interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid double-barreled, double-negative, or threatening questions and avoid wording that is ambiguous or leading </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Planning the Interview <ul><li>Constructing an interview guide or schedule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After constructing the interview guide, it should be pilot tested with people similar to those who will be interviewed during data collection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The list of questions can continue to evolve during the course of data collection. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Planning the Interview <ul><li>Speaking the same language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is essential for the interviewer and interviewee to literally speak the same language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is important to be familiar with the culture of your participants </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Conducting the Interview <ul><li>Where and how to interview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews can be held in offices, in the interviewee’s home, or elsewhere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If privacy is needed it is important to consider in scheduling and child care may need to be offered. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The interviewers should strive to be nonjudgmental in voice tone, phrasing of questions, and body language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviewer needs to be an active listener </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Conducting the Interview <ul><li>Recording the interview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recordings are essential in data analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The interviewer can be a more active listener when they are not writing everything down. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be cautious – recordings can intimidate participants and inhibit frankness </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Conducting the Interview <ul><li>Being “Real” in the Interview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In traditional qualitative interviewing the interviewer does not share judgments, opinions, or “real conversation” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses a style that gives evidence of interest and understanding in what is being said by nodding, smiling, etc.., but does not share opinions or any personal information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critics of the traditional interview format argue that the interviewer and interviewee should treat each other as full human beings, to allow development of a closer relationship </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Interviewing Across the Great Divides <ul><li>Researchers using interviews need to think about interviewer effect </li></ul><ul><li>Interviewer effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The change in a respondent's behavior or answers that is the result of being interviewed by a specific interviewer. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The researcher’s identities, such as class, race, sexual orientation can affect all aspects of the research process, including data collection </li></ul>
  33. 33. Interviewing Across the Great Divides <ul><li>Matching interviewers and interviewees on social characteristics such as gender, race, age, ethnicity, and class may be considered desirable. </li></ul><ul><li>Similar backgrounds are thought to develop a better rapport </li></ul><ul><li>Depending on the topic discussed dissimilar backgrounds may be desired </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Men typically prefer to be interviewed by women </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Stop and Think <ul><li>Imagine that you’re almost at the end of an interview on college students’ relationships with significant others. </li></ul><ul><li>After describing how the most recent love relationship ended, the student you’re interviewing looks up and says, “I’m so depressed, I feel like killing myself.” </li></ul><ul><li>What would you do? </li></ul>
  35. 35. After the Interview’s Over <ul><li>If covering an emotionally difficult topics, researchers might need to prepare for the emotional aftermath or a request for help. </li></ul><ul><li>Include a series of “cool down” questions at the end of the interview so the interview does not end immediately after talking about sensitive subjects. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare something to leave with the participants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>List of local organizations that provide services in the area under discussion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Locate or provide counseling or therapy sessions for the interviewee </li></ul>
  36. 36. After the Interview’s Over <ul><li>Analyzing interview data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the interview has been recorded, it is then transcribed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transcription is a time-consuming process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of analyzing data is typically more inductive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The researcher should approach data analysis with an open mind and read the data for common patterns or themes. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Summary <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul>
  38. 38. Quiz – Question 1 <ul><li>Qualitative interviews are very appropriate when the purpose of research is </li></ul><ul><ul><li>investigatory. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>explanatory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>critique </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>exploratory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>causal. </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Quiz - Question 2 <ul><li>The purpose of qualitative interviewing is to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>understand how individuals subjectively see the world and make sense of their lives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>test theoretical propositions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>obtain comparable data from a large population. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>engage respondents in a conversation that may help them to understand their situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provide date for statistical analysis. </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Quiz – Question 3 <ul><li>Consent forms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provide information to the respondent on the nature of the research. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ensures confidentiality and anonymity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provides contact information on the principal investigator. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are approved by the IRB prior to the interview. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All of the above </li></ul></ul>