Adler clark 4e ppt 08

4,118 views

Published on

0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
4,118
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
160
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Adler clark 4e ppt 08

  1. 1. Experimental Research Chapter 8
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Explanatory research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research that seeks to explain the cause of a phenomenon, and typically asks “what causes what?” or “why is it this way?” </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Causal hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A testable expectation about an independent variable’s affect on a dependent variable </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>Causal hypotheses and experimental designs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Empirical association </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporal precedence or time order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-causal relationship </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Introduction <ul><li>Causal hypotheses and experimental designs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimental designs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A study design in which the independent variable is controlled, manipulated, or introduced in some way by the researcher </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Introduction <ul><li>The classic experiment: Data collection technique or study design? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In experimental design the independent variable is introduced, manipulated, or controlled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What does this mean? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The independent variable does not occur naturally, but it is the result of an action taken by the researcher </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unique feature of the classic experimental design </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The researcher controls the placement of sample members into two or more categories of the independent variable </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Introduction <ul><li>The classic experiment: Data collection technique or study design? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If practical and ethical , a study can be designed so that the dependent variable is measured first and then, the independent variable is introduced or manipulated and, finally, the dependent variable is measured again. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can see whether the introduction of the independent variable comes before change in the dependent variable. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Experimental Designs <ul><li>Control group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposed to all the influences that the experimental group is exposed to except for the stimulus </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Experimental Designs <ul><li>Stimulus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The experimental condition of the independent variable that is controlled or “introduced” by the researcher in an experiment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The researcher tries to treat the two groups exactly alike, except instead of the stimulus, the control group receives no treatments, an alternative treatment, or a placebo </li></ul>
  10. 10. Experimental Designs <ul><li>Placebo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A simulated treatment of the control group that is designed to appear authentic </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Experimental Designs <ul><li>Internal validity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agreement between a study’s conclusions about causal connections and what is actually true </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Experimental Designs <ul><li>Experimental design pretest-posttest control group experiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classic controlled experiment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An experimental design with two or more randomly selected groups (an experimental and control group) in which the researcher controls or “introduces” the independent variable and measures the dependent variable at least two times (pretest and posttest measurement) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Experimental Designs <ul><li>Experimental design pretest-posttest control group experiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pretest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The measurement of the dependent variable that occurs before the introduction of the stimulus of independent variable </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Experimental Designs <ul><li>Experimental design pretest-posttest control group experiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Posttest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The measurement of the dependent variable that occurs after the introduction of the stimulus or the independent variable </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Experimental Designs <ul><li>Experimental design pretest-posttest control group experiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Probability sampling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A sample that gives every member of the population a known (nonzero) chance of inclusion </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Experimental Designs <ul><li>Experimental design pretest-posttest control group experiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Random Assignment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A technique for assigning members of the sample to experimental and control groups by chance to maximize the likelihood that the groups are similar at the beginning of the experiment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This can be done by flipping a coin to determine which subject is assigned to which group </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assign each subject a number and using either a random number table or electronic random number generator to select members of each group </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Experimental Designs <ul><li>Experimental design pretest-posttest control group experiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Matching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assigning members of the sample to groups by matching members of the sample on one or more characteristics and separating the pairs into two groups with one group randomly selected to become the experimental group </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Experimental Designs <ul><li>Experimental design pretest-posttest control group experiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The study uses at least one experimental and one control group, selected using a strategy to make the groups as similar as possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The dependent variable is measured at least two time for the experimental and control groups. The first measurement is before and the second is after the independent variable is introduced </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Experimental Designs <ul><li>Experimental design pretest-posttest control group experiment </li></ul><ul><li>3. The independent variable is introduced, manipulated, or controlled by the researcher between the two measurements of the dependent variable. </li></ul><ul><li>4. The differences in the dependent variable between the pretest and posttest are calculated for the experimental group(s) and for the control group. The differences in the dependent variable for the experimental and control groups are compared. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Experimental Designs
  21. 21. Experimental Designs <ul><li>Internal validity and experiments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maturation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The biological and psychological processes that cause people to change over time </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Experimental Designs <ul><li>Internal validity and experiments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Testing effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The sensitizing effect on subjects of the pretest </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Experimental Designs <ul><li>Internal validity and experiments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>History </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The effects of general historical events on study participants </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Experimental Designs <ul><li>Internal validity and experiments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selection bias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A bias in the way the experimental and control or comparison groups are selected that is responsible for preexisting differences between the groups. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Experimental Designs <ul><li>Posttest-only control group experiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An experimental design with no pretest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Either because it is not possible to do a pretest or because of a concern that using a pretest would sensitize the experimental group to the stimulus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Same design elements as other experiments: control of manipulation of the stimulus and two or more groups using random selection or assignment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Experimental Designs <ul><li>Extended experimental design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solomon four-group design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A controlled experiment with an additional experimental and control group with each receiving a posttest only </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Experimental Designs
  28. 28. Experimental Designs <ul><li>Quasi-experimental design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An experimental design that is missing one or more aspects of a true experiment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most frequently random assignment into experimental and control groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used when it is not ethical or practical to do a controlled experiment </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Experimental Designs <ul><li>Experiments in the field </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Field experiment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An experiment done in the “real world” of classrooms, offices, factories, homes, playgrounds, and the like </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Experimental Designs <ul><li>Experiments in the field </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generalizability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The ability to apply the results of a study to groups or situations beyond those actually studied </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Focal Research <ul><li>A Field Experiment in the Classroom by Chris Caldeira </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothesized that using film clips to teach sociological concepts in conjunction with the textbook and lecture is more effective in helping students learn core concepts than the lecture and textbook without the clips. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Experimental Designs <ul><li>Experiments in the laboratory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Laboratory research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Research done in settings that allows the researcher control over the conditions, such as in a university or medical setting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Research examples </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hobza and Aaron Rochlen (2009) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bushman and Anderson (2009) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Experimental Designs <ul><li>Experiments in the laboratory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important to evaluate a study’s external validity – or the ability to generalize the results from the laboratory to the “real world” </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Experimental Designs <ul><li>Experiments in the laboratory </li></ul><ul><li>External Validity – Issues to Consider </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Was the situation very artificial, or did it approximate “real life?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How different were study participants from other populations? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To what extent did the participants believe that they were up for inspection, serving as guinea pigs or play acting, or have other feelings that would affect responses to the stimulus? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To what extent did the researcher communicate his or her expectations for results to the subjects with verbal or nonverbal cues? </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Experimental Designs <ul><li>Experiments in the laboratory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimenter expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When expected behaviors or outcomes are communicated to subjects by the researcher </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One way to handle the issue of experimenter expectations is to use a double-blind experiment. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Experimental Designs <ul><li>Experiments in the laboratory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Double-blind experiment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An experiment in which neither the subjects nor research staff who interact with them knows the memberships of the experimental or control groups. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Experimental Designs <ul><li>Natural experiments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A study using a real-work phenomena that approximates an experimental design even though the independent variable is not controlled, manipulated, or introduced by the researcher </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Experimental Designs <ul><li>Natural experiments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wars, hurricanes, & political events might effect some groups and not others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Studying the of deployment on military families </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The researcher cannot control deployment, but two groups could be created by those families who were deployed and those families who were not deployed </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Comparing Experiments to Other Designs <ul><li>Many research questions cannot be studied using experimental design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large samples are required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not practical, ethical, and possible to manipulate the independent variable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In these scenarios researchers may consider panel, trend, cross-sectional, or case study designs </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Summary <ul><li>Study design options </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refer to Table 8.2 - Summary of Design Studies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Issues to consider in designing a study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethical considerations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practicality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feasibility of controlling the independent variable </li></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Quiz – Question 1 <ul><li>An experimental design has the advantage over non-experimental approaches of determining the order in which events occur and </li></ul><ul><ul><li>controlling the effects of other variables. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>minimizing the costs of the research. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>accommodating ethical concerns. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>proving conclusively that a relationship is causal. </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Quiz – Question 2 <ul><li>In a classic experimental design, it is important to take measures of control and experimental groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>before and after treatment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>at least once during the research. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>after the treatment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>before the treatment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>it is not important to take measures. </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Quiz – Question 3 <ul><li>In experimental designs, it is important that the control group and the experimental group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>are as similar as possible. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>represent very different groups so that the research is generalizable. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>do not come from the same background. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>receive the same treatment. </li></ul></ul>

×