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Adler clark 4e ppt 06


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Adler clark 4e ppt 06

  1. 1. Measurement Chapter 6
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Measurement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classifying units of analysis by categories to represent variable concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You may classify individuals into the categories, such as--satisfied with life or not satisfied with life--to represent the variable concepts of life of satisfaction </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Quantitative research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research focused on variables, including their description and relationships </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>Qualitative research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research focused on the interpretation of the action of, or representation of meaning created by, individual cases </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Introduction <ul><li>Measure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A specific way of sorting units of analysis into categories </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Introduction <ul><li>The concepts in social science research can often be difficult to measure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concept examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feelings regarding fatherhood, satisfaction with life, suicide, and power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement is a way to define a concept </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Conceptualization <ul><li>The process of clarifying what we mean by a concept </li></ul>
  8. 8. Conceptualization <ul><li>Conceptual Definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A definition of a concept through other concepts </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Conceptualization <ul><li>Concepts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Words or signs that refer to phenomena that share common characteristics </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Conceptualization <ul><li>Dimensions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If a concept is so large that it may need to be divided into different aspects or dimensions to further clarify it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dimensions are aspects or parts of a larger concept </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Conceptualization <ul><li>Multidimensionality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A concept that refers to a phenomenon that is expected to have different ways of showing up or manifesting itself is said to be multidimensional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multidimensionality is the degree to which a concept has more than one discernible aspect </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Operationalization <ul><li>The process of specifying what particular indicator(s) one will use for a variable </li></ul>
  13. 13. Operationalization <ul><li>Indicators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observations that we think reflect the presence or absence of the phenomenon to which a concept refers </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Operationalization <ul><li>Example – Age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conceptualize age – as chronological age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Still need to determine an operational definition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are you old? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How old are you? Circle the letter of your age category </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. 25 or younger b. 26 to 64 c. 65 or older </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How old are you? </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Operationalization <ul><li>Operationalization involves providing operational definitions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Declarations of how a specific phenomena described by concepts are determined for a specific instance. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Operational Definitions <ul><li>Example – age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Several ways to conceptualize age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chronological age (time since birth) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Functional age (the way people look or the things they can do) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Life stages (adolescence, young adulthood, and so on) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Operationalization <ul><li>An Example of Conceptualization and Operationalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality of Life Measure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Study interested in quality of life and how stress and coping resources affect life satisfaction, with a particular interest in comparing younger, middle aged, and older adults </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Operationalization <ul><li>Index </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A composite measure that is constructed by adding scores from several indicators </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Operationalization
  20. 20. Operationalization <ul><li>Composite Measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A measure with more than one indicator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed to solve problems of ambiguity that are associated with single indicators by including indicators of a variable in one measure </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Operationalization <ul><li>Composite measure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indexes in which some items are given more weight than others in the determination of the final measure of a concept </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Quiz – Question 1 <ul><li>Professor Johnson is interested in examining the connection between age at first sexual experience and high school completion. Which of these concepts must be operationalized? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First sexual experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High school completion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>College enrollment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A and B </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>None of the above </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Focal Research <ul><li>“Impostor Tendencies and Academic Dishonesty” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How is the impostor phenomenon conceptualized by Ferrari and by other social psychologists? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are you surprised by this way of thinking about “impostors”? </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Focal Research <ul><li>Thinking about ethics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students were given informed consent forms to sign before they were asked to fill out Ferrari’s questionnaire. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By not putting their names on the questionnaires, the anonymity of respondents is guaranteed. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Focal Research <ul><li>Measurement error </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The kind of error that occurs when the measurement we obtain is not an accurate portrayal of what we tried to measure </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Measurement in Visual Analysis and Qualitative Research <ul><li>Visual analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A set of techniques used to analyze images] refers to a set of techniques used to analyze images </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Measurement in Visual Analysis and Qualitative Research <ul><li>Coding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assigning observations to categories </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Exhaustive and Mutually Exclusive Categories <ul><li>Exhaustive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The capacity of a variable’s categories to permit the classification of every unit of analysis </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Exhaustive and Mutually Exclusive Categories <ul><li>Mutually exclusive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The capacity of a variable’s categories to permit the classification of each unit of analysis into one and only one category </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Quiz – Question 2 <ul><li>What is the problem with the following survey response set for the question “how old are you”? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>25 or less </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25 to 65 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>65 and older </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The concept is not operationalized </li></ul><ul><li>The response set is not mutually exclusive </li></ul><ul><li>The constructs are multi-dimensional </li></ul><ul><li>The conceptual definition </li></ul><ul><li>None of the above </li></ul>
  31. 31. Quality of Measurement <ul><li>Reliability & Validity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability - the degree to which a measure yields consistent results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A measure is reliable if it yields consistent results time after time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Validity – the degree to which a measure taps what we think it’s measuring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A measure is valid if you measure what you think your are measuring </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Quality of Measurement <ul><li>Checking Reliability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A yard stick will consistently measure 30 inches time after time, so it is reliable—but it is possible to have the first inch sawed off, so we need to check reliability. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Quality of Measurement <ul><li>Checking Reliability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Test-retest method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Split-half method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interobserver Reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interrater Reliability method </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Quality of Measurement <ul><li>Checking Reliability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Test-retest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A method of checking reliability of a test that involves comparing its results at one time with results, using the same subject at another time </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Quality of Measurement <ul><li>Checking Reliability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Test-retest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measuring the width of a desk two or more times in close succession with the same yard stick </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problems: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phenomenon under investigation might actually change between the test and the retest – change in life satisfaction </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Earlier test results may influence you the second time you test </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Quality of Measurement <ul><li>Checking Reliability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Split-half method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A method of checking the reliability of several measures by dividing the measure into two sets of measures and determining whether the two sets are associated with each other. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deals with the problems of the test-retest method </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Making more than one measurement of a phenomenon at the same time </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Quality of Measurement <ul><li>Checking Reliability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interobserver reliability method – compares the results obtained by one observer with results obtained by another using exactly the same method. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assessing the traits of individual characters in children's’ books using a pre-defined measurement scheme, they agreed 88 percent of the time on average </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Quiz – Question 3 <ul><li>If we administer a survey to measure school-related stress and re-administer it one month from today to the same group and obtain different results, what does this indicate to us about our measurement? </li></ul><ul><li>It may not be a reliable measure </li></ul><ul><li>Stress may have changed in the group </li></ul><ul><li>We may need to re-administer the survey again to determine more conclusively if the measure is reliable </li></ul><ul><li>All of the above </li></ul><ul><li>None of the above </li></ul>
  39. 39. Quality of Measurement <ul><li>Checking Validity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does this measurement strategy feel as if it’s getting what it is supposed to? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Face validity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content validity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predictive validity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construct validity </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Quality of Measurement <ul><li>Checking Validity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Face Validity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The degree to which a measure seems to be measuring what it’s supposed to be measuring </li></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Quality of Measurement <ul><li>Checking Validity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content validity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How well a measure covers the range of meanings associate with a concept </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If most people know something about a concept, feel that a given set of questions “gets at” that concept and the set of questions asked about a question cover the usual range of “content” implied by the concept </li></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Quality of Measurement <ul><li>Checking Validity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predictive validity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How well a measure is associated with future behaviors you would expect it to be associated with </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Involves comparing the results of your measurement scheme with a criteria variable that it should predict </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compare the SAT scores of high school seniors with their performance in college and found that students with higher test scores did better in college, then you could say the SAT test has predictive validity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Quality of Measurement <ul><li>Checking Validity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to validate social science measures using behavioral criteria, b/c limited in finding behaviors that they obviously predict to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many of the social science indicators are meant to measure abstract concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social scientists tend to use construct validity </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Quality of Measurement <ul><li>Construct Validity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How well a measure of a concept is associated with a measure of another concept that some theory says the first concept should be associated with </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Level of Measurement <ul><li>Nominal level variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes a variable whose categories have names </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nominal level variables permit us to sort our data into categories that are mutually exclusive </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Level of Measurement <ul><li>Nominal Level Variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Said to be the lowest level of measurement, b/c it is virtually impossible to create a variable that is not nominally scaled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sex (Male, Female) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Religion (Christian, Muslin, Jewish, Other) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cause of Death (Suicide, Homicide, Accident) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Level of Measurement <ul><li>Ordinal Level Variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes a variable whose categories have names and can be rank-ordered in some way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social Class (upper, middle, lower) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ordinal level variables guarantee that categories are mutually exclusive and that the categories can be ranked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All ordinal variables can be treated as nominal, but not all nominal variables may be treated as ordinal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sex vs. Age </li></ul></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Level of Measurement <ul><li>Interval Level Variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes a variable whose categories have names, can be ranked-ordered, and whose adjacent categories are a standard distance from another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All interval variables can be treated as nominal or ordinal variables, but ordinal and nominal variables cannot be treated as interval </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Level of Measurement <ul><li>Interval Level Variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Categories of interval variables can be meaningfully added and subtracted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fahrenheit temperature scale </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SAT score </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The difference between 550 and 600 on the math aptitude test can be seen as the same as the difference between 500 and 550 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Level of Measurement <ul><li>Ratio level variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes a variable whose categories have names, can be rank-ordered, has a standard distance from another AND HAS AN ABSOLUTE ZERO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absolute zero is the point at which there is a complete absence of the phenomenon in question </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weight </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Income </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Length </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ratio level variables can also be interval, ordinal, and nominal level variables </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Quiz – Question 4 <ul><li>Letter grades given at the end of the term are an example of _____________ measurements; calculated GPAs are a type of _________________ measurements. </li></ul><ul><li>ordinal, interval </li></ul><ul><li>ordinal, ratio </li></ul><ul><li>interval, ratio </li></ul><ul><li>Nominal, ratio </li></ul><ul><li>None of the above </li></ul>
  52. 52. Quiz – Question 5 <ul><li>A researcher designs a survey question asking respondents to indicate their class standing as either: First-Year, Sophomore, Junior, Senior, or Graduate School. </li></ul><ul><li>a. nominal </li></ul><ul><li>b. ordinal </li></ul><ul><li>c. interval </li></ul><ul><li>d. ratio </li></ul>
  53. 53. Level of Measurement <ul><li>The practical significance of level of measurement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Researchers find themselves wanting to summarize the information that has been collected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Certain statistics require different levels of measurement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three ways to describe central tendency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mean – interval, ratio </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Median – ordinal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mode - nominal </li></ul></ul></ul>
  54. 54. Level of Measurement <ul><ul><li>Given a choice, measure a variable in a higher level of measurement than a lower one </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The higher the level of measurement, the more statistics that can be performed on the data </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. Summary <ul><li>The importance of measurement </li></ul>