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Zika virus

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Zika virus
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Zika virus is a virus spread by aedes mosquito- the same mosquito that spreads dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever. The virus is known to circulate in Africa, the Americas, Asia and the Pacific. People with Zika virus disease usually have a mild fever, skin rash (exanthema) and conjunctivitis. These symptoms normally last for 2-7 days. There is no specific treatment or vaccine currently available. The best form of prevention is protection against mosquito bites.

Zika virus is a virus spread by aedes mosquito- the same mosquito that spreads dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever. The virus is known to circulate in Africa, the Americas, Asia and the Pacific. People with Zika virus disease usually have a mild fever, skin rash (exanthema) and conjunctivitis. These symptoms normally last for 2-7 days. There is no specific treatment or vaccine currently available. The best form of prevention is protection against mosquito bites.

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Zika virus

  1. 1. ZIKA VIRUS By- Arpit Patel
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION • Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that was first identified in 1947 through a network that monitored yellow fever. • In 1947, scientists identify a new virus in a rhesus monkey in the Zika forest of Uganda - named as the Zika virus. • Zika virus disease is transmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitoes. • Outbreaks of Zika virus disease have been recorded in Africa, the Americas, Asia and the Pacific. • The incubation period of Zika virus disease is not clear, but is likely to be a few days.
  3. 3. DISEASES • Based on a systematic review of the literature up to 30 May 2016, WHO has concluded that Zika virus infection during pregnancy is a cause of congenital brain abnormalities, including microcephaly. • Microcephaly is a condition where a baby’s head is smaller than those of other babies of the same age and sex. • Zika virus is a trigger of Guillain-Barré syndrome. • Guillain-Barré syndrome is a rare condition in which a person’s immune system attacks his or her nerves.
  4. 4. FIG: BABY WITH MICROCEPHALY
  5. 5. SYMPTOMS  The symptoms are similar to other arbovirus infections such as dengue, and include: • fever • skin rashes • conjunctivitis • muscle and joint pain • malaise • headache  These symptoms are usually mild and last for 2-7 days.
  6. 6. OUTBREAK IN BRAZIL • In May 2015, the public health authorities of Brazil confirmed autochthonous transmission of Zika virus in the northeastern part of the country. • WHO/PAHO release an epidemiological alert for possible Zika virus infection in Brazil. • Brazil reports 3,893 suspected cases of microcephaly, including 49 deaths. • Brazil reports that 1,708 cases of Guillain–Barré syndrome have been registered by hospitals between January and November 2015. • In July 2015 Brazil reported an association between Zika virus infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome. • October 2015 Brazil reported an association between Zika virus infection and microcephaly.
  7. 7. DIAGNOSIS • Zika virus is diagnosed through PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and virus isolation from blood samples or other body fluids, such as urine, saliva or semen. • Diagnosis by serology can be difficult as the virus can cross-react with other flaviviruses such as dengue, West Nile and yellow fever.
  8. 8. TREATMENT • Zika virus disease is usually relatively mild and requires no specific treatment. People sick with Zika virus should get plenty of rest, drink enough fluids, and treat pain and fever with common medicines. • If symptoms worsen, they should seek medical care and advice. • There is currently no vaccine available.
  9. 9. PREVENTION • This can be done by wearing clothes that cover as much of the body as possible; using physical barriers such as window screens or closing doors and windows; sleeping under mosquito nets; and using insect repellent . • It is important to cover, empty or clean potential mosquito breeding sites in and around houses such as buckets, drums, pots, gutters, and used tyres.
  10. 10. FUTURE STRATEGY  In terms of prevention, In line with WHO advice, some innovative approaches to mosquito control are being piloted in a number of countries, with promising results such as • pursuing development of a common bacterium that stops viruses from replicating inside mosquitoes; and • modifying the genes of male mosquitoes so that their offspring die early.  Some 40 candidate vaccines are in the pipeline, while some have moved into clinical trials.  WHO is supporting countries to control Zika virus disease by taking actions outlined in the “Zika Strategic Response Framework“

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