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NAME:- ARPIT PATEL
CLASS:- XII, ‘A’
CHEMISTRY INVESTIGATORY PROJECTCHEMISTRY INVESTIGATORY PROJECT
DRUGS ADDICTION AND ABUSE
Drug Addiction word is make by two words:
What is a Drug?
Any substance, other than food, used in the prevention, diagnosis, all
aviation or treatment of a disease is called a drug. A drug may also be defined as a
chemical which, when taken in some way after the body function. Drug is also
known as a medicine. Generally, the term drugs applied to any stimulating or
depressing substance that can be habituating or addictive.
What is a Addiction?
Addiction is the habitual, psychological and physiological dependence on a
substance or practice, which is beyond voluntary control. A person who is
habituated to a substance or a practice, especially a harmful one, is called an
Drugs are prescribed by physicians for the prevention or treatment of
diseases, or for increasing the physical and mental performance and are withdrawn
as soon as the desired effect is achieved. Repeated use of certain drugs on a
periodic or continuous basis may make the bodydependence. Such drugs are called
psychotropic drugs. They act on the brain and alter behaviour, consciousness and
capacity of perception. Hence, they are also termed mood-altering drugs. Some
people start taking drugs without medical advice due to one reason or the other and
become drugs dependent.
Classification of Drugs
There are a large number of drugs on which people become dependent.
These are classifies into four major groups: sedatives and tranquillizers, opiate
narcotics, stimulants and hallucinogens.
Type of Drug Examples Effect
Depress CNS activity give
feeling of calmness, relaxation,
Opium, Morphine, Codeine,
Suppress brain activity &
Make a person more wakeful
and active & cause excitement.
LSD, Mescaline, Psilocybin,
Ganja, Chares, Hashish
Alter thoughts, feeling and
Combinations of Drugs and Alcohol:
Some addicts use mixtures of drugs to have immediate ‘kid’ or ‘charge’.
Simultaneous use of drug and alcohol may produce dangerous effects, including
death. When barbiturates and alcohol are taken together, each doubles the effect of
the other. A mixture of cocaine and heroin called speed ball, gives spontaneous
kick of cocaine and prolonged pleasure of heroin.
1. Alcohol + Barbiturates Increases depressant effect.
2. Alcohol + Antihistamines Marked drowsiness.
3. Alcohol + Valium Drastic increase of sedative effect.
4. Alcohol + Marijuana/Hashish Decreases coordination, increases reaction time &
5. Alcohol + Aspirin Increases changes of damage to gastric mucosa.
How drug addiction Begin?
There are many factors that lead people to drug addiction.
1. Curiosity: Frequent references to drugs by public media create curiosity for
having a personal experience of the drugs.
2. Friend’s pressure: Frequent appreciation of drug experience by friends
allures others to start the use of drugs.
3. Frustration and Depression: Some people start taking drugs to get relief
from frustration and depression.
4. Desire for More Work: Students sometimes take drugs to keep awake the
whole night to prepare for examination. It is not desirable as it may cause
5. Looking for a Different World: A wrong notion that the drugs open up a
new world tempts some youngsters to start taking-drugs.
6. Relief from Pain: A prolonged use of pain-relieving drugs with physician’s
advice at times leads to addiction.
7. Family History: Children may take to drugs by seeing their elders in the
8. Excitement and Adventure: The young take to drugs to satisfy their
instinct for excitement and adventure.
Sources: It is a native of South Africa, where the Red Indian first started smoking.
Now the tobacco plant has spread the world over. It has large, quote to lanceloate
leaves and terminal clusters of tubular, white or pink flowers.
Modes of Use: Tobacco is used for smoking, chewing and snuffing. Its main
stimulating component is poisonous volatile alkaloid nicotine, which causes
Effect of Nicotine:
Low concentration of Nicotine:
(i) Stimulates conduction of nerve impulses.
(ii) Relaxes the muscles.
(iii) Releases adrenaline, increasing heart beat rate and pressure.
(iv) Increased blood pressure due to smoking chances the risk of heart
(v) Retards foetal growth in expecting mothers and
(vi) Causes tobacco addiction.
High concentration of nicotine paralyses nerve cells.
Other Harmful components of Tobacco Smoke:
Besides the poisonous nicotine, the tobacco smoke contains carbon-
monoxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and tar.
(i) Smoking affects economy: A smoker not only waste money, but also
runs risk of burns and fires.
(ii) Smoking mars personality: Teeth may become stained. Lips may get
discoloured and breath becomes foul. A person with a cigarette hanging
from the mouth look odd.
(iii) Smoking is annoying to others: Cigarette smoke is quite annoying to
non-smokers. It may prove even more harmful to them. A smoker should
avoid smoking when in the company of non smokers. A smoker makes
the person nearby person passive smokers through inhaling smoke
released by him.
Sources: Ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, flammable, colourness liquid having a
penetrating odour and burning taste. It is one of the products of the distillation of
fermented grains, fruit juices and starches with the help of yeast enzymes. It is the
principal constituent and the intoxicating principle of wines.
Modes of Use: Alcohol is taken in low concentration, as the beer, toddy and wine
and in relatively high concentration as arrack, brandy, whisky, rum, gin, vodka etc.
Addition: Addition to alcohol is called alcoholism. Alcoholics are found in all
society section of society. Alcohol causes intoxication and thus, acts as a poison.
They drinkers begin with small doses, but many of them soon start consuming
large doses and become addicts. By the time they realize that drinking in adversely
affecting them; it is too late to give it up.
Why People Take to Drinking?
The drinkers offer one or more of the following reasons for starting drinking:-
(i) Social pressure
(ii) Desire for excitement
(iii) Feeling of independence
(iv) Liking of taste
(v) Desire to escape from such realities of life as disappointments and failures
(vi) Desire to offset the hardships and monotony of daily life.
What Happens After taking Alcohol?
Alcohol is quickly absorbed in the stomach and upper part of small intestine
and reaches all the tissues in minutes. Its oxidation starts at once and a large amount
of heat in produced. Since heat is not needed in the body, it is taken up by the blood
and carried to the skin for dissipation. Since the receptors of heat are located in the
skin, the rush of blood to the skin gives a false impression of warmth in the body. The
blood supply of internal organs is greatly reduced resulting in fall of temperature in
them. Energy released by alcohol is not used in any life process. Rather the energy
derived from food is used up in ridding the body of excess heat.
Is Alcohol A Stimulant?
Many people take alcohol for stimulation. Actually alcohol is a depressant, a
substance which dulls the senses. It reduces the efficiency of every tissue the body.
Any feeling of lift a person may claim to feel is a mistaken impression or an attempt
to justify the act in his own mind.