The author is Doctoral Research Scholar and getting UGC-JRF Fellowship, Dept. of Agricultural Communication, College of Agriculture, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar – 263145 (Uttarakhand).
Contents---• Training• Evaluation• Training Evaluation• Types of Training Evaluation• Qualitative and Quantitative methods of Evaluation
TrainingTraining consists largely of well organized opportunities for participants toacquire necessary understanding and skill. Lynton and Pareek (1967)Training as an act of increasing knowledge and skills of an employee. Flippo (1966)Training as activities aimed to provide attitude, knowledge and skillsrequired for employment in a particular occupation for exercising a functionin any field of study. (ILO 1986)
Characteristics of training• Aims to improve the job• Better productivity• Emphasis on application• Involve learning• Learners are adults from diverse backgrounds• Shorter duration• Improve the performance of people
EvaluationEvaluation is systematic determination of merit, worth, and significance of something or someone using criteria against a set of standards.It is a process of establishing a worth of something.The ‘worth’, which means the value, merit or excellence of the thing
Contii…. Evaluation is a continuous effort to judge a programme, activity or thing. Is a systematic instructional process based on empirical data. It measure the extent of achievement of objectives as well as relevance and quality of efforts made.
Training evaluation• Training evaluation ensures that whether candidates are able to implement their learning in their respective workplaces, or to the regular work routines.• Addresses how one determines whether the goals or objectives were met and what impact the training had on actual performance on the job or in the community.
Training Evaluation helps ….• Evaluation helps to measure outcome of training.• It helps to know both strengths and weaknesses• It helps in creating a sense of accountability among staff.• It creates a culture of continuous improvement.
Process of Training Evaluation• Before Training• During Training• After Training
Models of Training Evaluation• Objective oriented training Evaluation• Decision oriented training Evaluation• Transaction training Evaluation• Adversary training Evaluation• Illuminative training Evaluation
Contii---1) Objective oriented Training Evaluation• Tyler• Bench mark2) Decision oriented Training Evaluation• Daniel Stufflebeam• Context- To help the objectives.• Input- To help shape the proposals• Process- To guide implementation• Product- To guide decision- making
3) Transaction Training Evaluation• Robert Stake (1967)• Full description and judgment of programme1. Antecedent2. Transactions3. Outcome
Contii----4) Adversary Training Evaluation Information for decision making5) Illuminative Training Evaluation• Massachusetts(1969)• Instructional System- Formalized plan and standard• Learning Milieu- Social, Psychological
What can be evaluated Remember 3 Ps • The Plan • The Process • The ProductS.M.Israr
Evaluating the Training Programme• To improve the programme as a whole• To improve major components of the training programme• To increase the effectiveness of specific modules or sessions
Evaluating the Training Process• To improve the training climate• To improve the training methodologies• To improve effectiveness of the trainers team.
Evaluating the Training Outcome/Impact• To increase learning by individual participants• To increase use of learning in work performance• To contribute data to organizational effectiveness• To help the organizational change
Evaluating Post Training Factors• To maximize cost effectiveness of training• To ensure post training support at work• To identify helping and hindering factors
Typology of Training Evaluation• According to level of Training Evaluation• According to stages of Training Process
According to level of Training Evaluation1) Reaction Level2) Learning Level3) Job behavior Level
According to stages of training Process• Evaluation for planning• Process Evaluation• Terminal Evaluation
Types of Training evaluationFormative Evaluation• Takes place prior to or during instruction.• It provides ongoing feedback to the curriculum designers and developers to ensure that what is being created really meets the needs of the intended audience.• Used to improve the performance.
Types of Formative Evaluation• Needs assessment• Evaluability assessment• Implementation evaluation• Process evaluation
Process Evaluation• Is conducted during the implementation phase of training.• This includes giving and receiving verbal feedback.• It focuses on procedures and actions being used to produce results.
Training Need Assessment• Training need refer to the gaps between desired and expected levels of performance.• Training need refer to those needs that concern performance of employees.• Thus an employee needs training if there is gap in his attitude, knowledge, understanding or skills related with work.
Performance Appraisal• It can be useful means of establishing effectively and relatively quickly the training needs of individuals• It is the process of obtaining, analyzing, and recording information about the relative worth of an employee to the organizationNeed to Appraise Performance• To assess the ability of the individual in order to make the best use of his talent in the present job
Task Analysis• Task comprises of a number of steps or components.• Analyses each task• Breakdown each task into its constituents elements• Assessing each task
Gap analysis• Gap between what prospective trainees know and what they need to know to function effectively in their job.• What is and what should be
Summative Evaluation• Summative evaluation is a method of judging the worth of a program at the end of the program activities. The focus is on the outcome (Bhola 1990).• Effort are use information about students’ feeling after a set of instructional activities has occurred.
Outcome Evaluation• It determines whether or not the desired results of applying new skills were achieved in the short-term.• "What happened to the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of the intended population?"• Outcomes refer to changes in behavior• Outcome evaluation data is intended to measure what training participants were able to do at the end of training and what they actually did back on the job or in their community as a result of the training.
Impact Evaluation• Changes brought out due to application of learning at work can be measured only after lapse of some time after training.• Impact Evaluation takes even longer than outcome evaluation and you may never know for sure that your project helped bring about the change.• Impact evaluation is meant to assess the extent to which what was learned is making a difference at the community level, or targeted groups, or beneficiaries of the intervention
Qualitative Methods• Based on observation• Descriptive• Easily done• interactive• Generating new product ideas/concepts• Identifying key product attributes or attitudes using focus groups
Quantitative evaluation• Based on data• Precise and unbiased• Trained staff to collect, analyze and report• Formal and totally structured• Comparison of perceptions of usefulness of training
Interview Schedule• Structured interview• Unstructured interview• Semi-Structured interview• Individual or Group interview
Observation• A basic tool of information gathering• The act of apprehending things and events their attributes• Concrete relationship• Direct awareness of our own mental awareness• An act of recognizing and noting some fact or occurrence
Case Study• An intense, qualitative and in-depth study of a social unit to gain holistic understanding of the interrelationship of various factor.• Intensive investigation• It may analyze a person, family or an institution, a cultural group or even entire community.• Full analysis of a limited member of events or conditions and their interrelationship.
Techniques of EvaluationKnowledge Test• Go through the content and objectives of the course• Review the course materials• Identify the area and sub area• Decide on the weightage• Formulate different questions
Skill Test• List sequence of the steps to be followed in performance• State activities in sequence• Make sure that all the observable activities necessary for performing, task is stated.• Decide on standards of performance-what would be excellent, good, fair or poor.• Determine scoring procedure which is quick and convenient.
Evaluation Wheel• Interactive technique1) Trainer give an introduction about the training programme. He invites participants to list criteria on which training should be evaluated.2) Each of participant is given a piece of prepared marker pen. He has to draw a circle.
Conti----3) He has to draw spokes from one side of the wheel to another crossing the radius.4) Each participant has to rate each aspect 1-10.5) Evaluation wheels can be pasted on the wall and photographed for visual documentation.
Guided Discussion/Art from Reflection• Context or background narration• Objective level• Subjective level• Interpretative level• Decision level
Training Performance indicators1) Training Participation Index (TPI) Ta/Ts x 100Ta= No. of trainees attending a training courseTs= No. of trainees slotted for the course2) Training Utility Index (TUI)Te/Ta x 100Te= No. of trainees who found the training course useful on evaluation
Contii--• Training Effectiveness Index (TPI)Te/Ts x 100Te= No. of trainees who found the training course useful on evaluationTEI=TPI X TUI
Training Cost indicators1) Expenditure on training per extension personnel =Total training expenditure/Total no. of extension personnel2) Expenditure on training per Trainees=Total expenditure on training/Total no. of extension trainees
Other extension cost Indicators3)Training cost per training day= Total training cost/Total no. of training day4)Training cost per extension trainees=Total training cost/Total no. of extension trainees5)Training cost per extension personnel=Total no. of extension trainees/ total no. of extension personnel
Benefits of Evaluation• Improved quality of training activities• Improved ability of the trainers to relate inputs to outputs• Better discrimination of training activities between those that are worthy of support and those that should be dropped• Better integration of training offered and on-the job development• Better co-operation between trainers and line-managers in the development of staff• Evidence of the contribution that training and development are making to the organizationS.M.Israr
Limitations of Evaluations• It requires time resources and continuous efforts.• It demands organized commitment.• It creates threat among workers.
A study on effectiveness of trainings organized by SAMETI- U.K.• To measure the effectiveness of training programme.• Measurement of effectiveness1- Learning2-Reaction
Contii----Their pre and post training knowledge scoreindicates that during pre training most of thetrainees had low level of knowledge. In posttraining session a high majority (70.58%) of therespondents had medium knowledge levelwhereas (8.83%) had gain high level ofknowledge.
Review of LiteraturePablico et al. (1984) found that after posttraining written tests, in general the criticalknowledge, practical skills and extensioncommunication techniques of traineesincreased as a result of attending training.
Contii---Anupriya (1987) reported that proper selectionof trainees and trainers with regards totraining course, better use ofcommunication materials, easy availabilityof physical facilities and more applicationoriented lecture adhered properly to thetheme of course were lead to more effectivetraining programmes.
Contii---Choudhary (2000) reported thatknowledge was increased after trainingsession in all age group, but lower agegroup showed higher percentage ofincrease knowledge.
Contii--- Sharma et al. (2003) found that beforeacquiring the training 93.88 % extensionofficer had low to medium level ofknowledge about plant protection measure.Only 6.12% respondents had high levelknowledge. However, after completion oftraining programme 57.14 % respondents hadhigh knowledge and only 12.24% respondentshad low level of knowledge.
Contii---Sharma (2003) reported that all the trainees werefully satisfied with course contents, messagedelivery and human relation aspect of training.More than 80% trainees were fully satisfied with theorganization of course while 12.5% trainees werepartially satisfied. 80% trainees were fully satisfiedwith the physical facilities available, while 50%trainees were dissatisfied. All the trainees weredissatisfied with the boarding and lodging facilitiesavailable at training centre
“Use evaluation to improvesituations but not simply to prove performance”