ARPITA SHARMA Ph.D. RESEARCH STUDENTARGICULTURAL COMMUNICATION DEPT OF GBPUA&T, PANTNAGAR EMAIL. IDemail@example.com
Management Management in business and humanorganization activity is simply the act ofgetting people together to accomplish desiredgoals. Management comprises planning,organizing, staffing, leading or directing, andcontrolling, an organization a group of one ormore people or entities or effort for thepurpose of accomplishing a goal.
MASLOWS NEED HEIRARCHY• The most basic need emerging first and The most sophisticated need at last• People move up the hierarchy one level at a time• As basic or lower-level needs are satisfied, higher-level needs become operativeSaturday, October 13, 2012 5
Level I - Physiological Needs• The most basic human needs include food, water, clothing, shelter.• The organization helps to satisfy employees physiological needsSaturday, October 13, 2012 6
Level II - Safety Needs• The desires for security and stability, to feel safe from harm• The organization helps to satisfy employees safety needs by benefitsSaturday, October 13, 2012 7
Level III - Social Needs• The desires for affiliation include friendship and belongingness• The organization helps to satisfy employees social needs through sports teams, parties, and celebrations.Saturday, October 13, 2012 8
Level IV - Esteem Needs• The desires for self-respect and respect or recognition from others.• The organization helps to satisfy employees esteem needs by matching the skills and abilities of the employee to the job.Saturday, October 13, 2012 9
Level V - Self-Actualisation Needs• The desires for self-fulfillment and the realization of the individuals full potential• The supervisor can help fulfill self- actualization needs by assigning tasks that challenge employees mindsSaturday, October 13, 2012 10
Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory• Motivator Factors• Achievement• Recognition• Work Itself• Responsibility• Promotion• Growth• Hygiene Factors• Pay and Benefits• Company Policy and Administration• Relationships with co-workers• Physical Environment• Job Security• Salary
BEING A MOTIVATING MANAGER• Treat staff well• Think like a winner• Recognize the differences• Set realistic goals• Prevent Demotivation• Non-financial rewards
Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor Philosophical view of humankind with his Theory X and Theory Y in 1960.
Theory X• People have an inherent dislike for work and will avoid it whenever possible.• People must be coerced, controlled, directed, or threatened with punishment in order to get them to achieve the organizational objectives.• People prefer to be directed, do not want responsibility, and have little or no ambition.• People seek security above all else.
Theory Y• Work is as natural as play and rest.• People will exercise self-direction if they are committed to the objectives (they are NOT lazy).• Commitment to objectives is a function of the rewards associated with their achievement.• People learn to accept and seek responsibility.• Creativity, ingenuity, and imagination are widely distributed among the population. People are capable of using these abilities to solve an organizational problem.• People have potential.
McClellands work is- Achievement motivation (n-ach) Affiliation motivation (n-affil) Power motivation (n-pow)October 13, 2012 Theories of Diffusion 16
Need for Achievement• Achievement motivated people thrive on pursuing and attaining goals• They take moderate risks• They like to get immediate feedback on how they have doneSaturday, October 13, 2012 17
Need for Power• Power motivated individuals see almost every situation as an opportunity to seize control or dominate others• They love to influence others• They like to change situations whether or not it is needed• They are willing to assert themselves when a decision needs to be madeSaturday, October 13, 2012 18
Need for Affiliation• Affiliation motivated people are usually friendly and like to socialize with others• They will usually respond to an appeal for cooperationSaturday, October 13, 2012 19
Existence Needs• These are the desires for material and physical well being• These needs are satisfied with food, water, air, shelter, working conditions, pay, and fringe benefitsSaturday, October 13, 2012 21
Relatedness Needs• These are the desires to establish and maintain interpersonal relationships• These needs are satisfied with relationships with family, friends, supervisors, subordinates, and co-workersSaturday, October 13, 2012 22
Growth Needs These are the desires: To be creative To make useful and productive contributions To have opportunities for personal developmentSaturday, October 13, 2012 23
Porter and Lowler Model Perceived Perceived Value of Value of Equitable Rewards Equitable Rewards Reward Reward Intrinsic Intrinsic Ability & Traits Ability & Traits Rewards Rewards Performance Performance Satisfactio Satisfactio Efforts Efforts Accomplishme Accomplishme nn nt nt Role Role Perception Perception Extrinsic Extrinsic Rewards RewardsPerceived Effort – Perceived Effort –Reward ProbabilityReward Probability Saturday, October 13, 2012 24
Cognitive Evaluation Theory• External reward – Internal reward• Instead of treating external factors like pay, incentives, promotion and internal factors like interest, drives, cognition is to be such that even when external motivators are not there the internal motivation continue.