Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Intel i3 processor


Published on

This term paper is about the history, architecture,features and application of intel i3 processor

Published in: Engineering
  • Be the first to comment

Intel i3 processor

  1. 1. i Intel I3 Processor Arpit Section- E2E43, roll no.-A34, Reg. no.-11106840 Schoolof Electronics and communication Lovely professional university, phagwara, Punjab Abstract-This term paper on Intel i3 processor is to define the role played by the Intel processor in the field of data manipulation and graphic display. This term paper present report on the architecture of i3 processor made by Intel and improvement in it from predecessor. 1-Introduction The Intel i3 processor with Intel HD Graphics offers an unparalleled computing Experience. This revolutionary new architecture allows for new levels of intelligent performance and advanced media and graphics features—all while being energy efficient. The processor include an Integrated Memory Controller (IMC) making them monolithic processors. The IMC and the multiple processor cores are connected by the new Quick Path Interconnect (QPI). 2-History Intel is the world’s biggest company which is famous for manufacturing the best processors ever created in processor history. Every time they have introduced something interesting and new in their processors and devices. They introduced the series of processors in 1940s and till now the advanced version of their processors are still considered the best. Some of the famous processor are from the latest group of the family ‘core’. Intel core is the processors i3 family which is famous for its latest revolutionary structure and integrated architecture which also provide the advantage of the parallel computing. It’s also wonderful in providing the users with the excellent graphical user interfaces. Intel was founded in 1968 and its first product was Intel 3101 produced in 1969, Intel first product was world’s first solid state memory device with 16 x 4-bit SRAM. Intel 1103 came in 1970 was world first DRAM product with 1K-bit PMOS and it was used in HP 9800 series computers. By 1972, it became world bestselling memory chip, defeating Magnetic memory Intel MCS Family MCS Family Intel CPU MCS-4 4004 MCS-40 4040 MCS-8 8008 MCS-80 8080 MCS-85 8085 MCS-86 8086, 8088, 80186, 80188, 80286, 80386, 80486, Pentiums Intel 4004 produced in 1971 was world first “general purpose” micro-processor and its Lead
  2. 2. ii designers were– Ted Hoff, Federico Faggin, Stan Mazor, and Masatoshi Shim. Intel 4004 have Word width: 4-bit, 2300 transistors, Clock frequency: 108KHz/500/740.It have 46 instructions, Registers: 16 x 4-bit, Stack: 12 x 4- bit with Address space of 1Kb for program and 4Kb for data. In1972 came the Intel 8008 - world first 8-bit microprocessor whose designers were– Ted Hoff, Stan Mazor, Hal Feeney, and Federico Faggin. Intel 8008 have word width: 8-bit, Clock frequency: 800 KHz with 3500 transistors, 48 instructions, Registers: 6 x 8-bit, Stack: 17 x 7-bit and Address space: 16KB. In 1974 came the Intel 8080 whose Lead designers were – Feder1ico Faggin, Masatoshi Shima and Stan Mazor. "The 8080 really created the microprocessor market”. It was used in MITS Altair 8800 in 1975 and termed as “Microcomputer”. It have Word width: 8-bit with 4500 transistors, Clock frequency: 2M- 3MHz and Address space: 64KB, Registers: 6 x 8- bit, IO ports and Stack pointer. Intel 16-bit Microprocessors came in 1978 when Intel launched Intel 8086, first x86 family microprocessor with Source compatibility with 80xx lines and its Followers were: 8088 (1979), 80186 (1982). It have 16-bit: all registers, internal and external buses with 29,000 transistors, 5MHz of clock frequency, 20-bit address bus, 4MB address space and 16-bit register - segmentation programming. IBM PC in 1981 used 8088 processor. Then came the Intel 80286 in 1982 with 134,000 transistors with clock frequency of 6M-8MHz and 1.5 MIPS it was used by IBM PC/AT in 1984 it was Designed for multi-tasking with MMU “protection mode”. Intel i432, Intel first 32-bit microprocessor design it was “intel Advanced Processor architecture”. Started in 1975 as the 8800, follow-on to the existing 8008 and 8080 CPUs, intended purely 32-bit, to be Intel backbone in the 1980s, to support Ada, LISP, advanced computations, the HW supports to all the good terms with Object Oriented programming and capability-based addressing, multi-tasking and IPC, Multiprocessing, Fault tolerance. But the Problems with it was two-chip implementation, lack of cache, bit-aligned variable length instructions. It Failed: ¼ performance of 286 as of 1982. Then in 1980 Intel 8087 came into picture with First floating-point coprocessor for 8086 lines, its Performance was: +20% ~ 5x; it have Floating registers form 8-level stack: st0~st7 work in two mode: 8-bit/16-bit follow IEEE 754 standard. Then follows: Intel 80287 – 16-bit and Intel 80387, 80487 – 32-bit. Starting from Intel 80486DX, Pentium and later model has on chip floating point unit and “DX” was used for on-chip FP capability. Intel introduced 80386 processor in 1985 it was Intel first X86 32-bit flat memory model with 4GB space. 80386 instruction set, programming model, and binary encodings were the common denominator for all IA-32, i386, x86 series. It has Paging to support VM, hardware debugging, first use of pipeline it wasn’t necessarily a big performance improvement over 80286,it contain 275,000 transistors with clock frequency of 12MHz initially, later 33MHz and 11.4MIPS. Compaq: first PC using 80386, legitimize PC “clone” industry. In 1985 Intel produced i960. Intel 80960, Intel was first RISC (Reduced instruction set computing) microprocessor it was the Best-selling embedded microcontroller at the time. It was intended to replace 80286/i386, and for UNIX systems, it used Berkeley RISC, flat memory model, superscalar structure but Dropped after acquiring Strong ARM in late 90’s when its Price/performance/power remain no longer competitive and team went to design another i386 processor. Intel 80486 was another processor introduced by Intel in 1989 with Improvements in Atomic instructions, On-die 8KB SRAM cache, tightly coupled pipelining: 1 IPC with clock frequency of 50MHz and 40MIPS on average and 50MIPS at peak it has Integrated FPU (no longer need x87). It was first chip which exceeds 1M transistors. Now the competitor were more manufacturers, AMD Am5x86, Cyrix Cx5x86, and Motorola 68040 in Macintosh Quadra.
  3. 3. iii In 1989 Intel presented new masterpiece Intel i860 with entirely new RISC microprocessor, high- performance FP operations it have 32-bit ALU core, and 64-bit FPU (adder, multiplier, GPU) along with Register sets: 32 x 32-bit integer, 16 x 64-bit FP. It GPU uses FP registers as 8 x 128-bit, with iSIMD (Influenced MMX), 64/128-bit buses, fetch 2 x 32-bit instructions. It was dropped in mid-90 because Compiler support was mission impossible and Context switch took 62 - 2000 cycles which was Unacceptable for GP CPU, it was Incompatible with X86, Confusing the market with Intel 486 CISC. It was being used in some parallel computers and graphic workstations. Intel introduced Pentium in 1993. Pentium means “5”, because court disallowed number based trademark, later Pentium was used in many Intel processors. P5 micro-architecture first used X86 superscalar micro-architecture with dual integer pipelines, separate D/I caches, 64-bit external data-bus and 60M-300MHz (at 75 MHz -126.5 MIPS) .It’s Competitors were X86: AMD K5/K6, Cyrix 6x86, etc. from Pentium processor Intel started to use a cooler. In 1996 Intel launched MMX which has SIMD instruction set, introduced with P5 it has “Matrix Math Extensions”, mainly for graphics and 8 x 64- bit integer registers MM0 ~ MM7, alias of FPU ST0 ~ ST7. Integer was not enough soon due to gfx cards. Intel introduced SSE in 1999 and started with Pentium-III it have new XMM register set with 70 new instructions. It has "Intel Wireless MMX Technology" and then Intel Pentium Pro in 1995, P6 (or i686) was completely new apart from Pentium (P5) it had no. of transistors: Pentium 3.1M, Pentium MMX 4.5M, Pentium Pro 5.5M with Speculative execution, RISC-like micro-ops and three pipelines, 2 integer, 1 for floating point. Innovative on- package level-2 cache but manufacturing did allow on-die L2 cache it had Same CPU clock rate, non-blocking, SMP advantage. Dies had to be bonded early, it had Low yield rate and high price it had36-bit address bus (PAE), low 16-bit performance but Performance was better than best RISC with SPECint95. Pentium II by Intel in 1997 had 7.5M transistors and Slot replaced Socket with a daughterboard, solved the issues of off-package L2 cache in Pentium Pro with half CPU clock. It implemented MMX, improved 16-bit performance. Celeron and Xeon was launched in 1998, Celeron: no on-die L2-cache. And Pentium II Xeon: L2-cache, 100MT/s, SMP. Intel launched Pentium III in 1999 it introduced SSE for FP and vector processing it had on-die L2 cache with .18um Coppermine. Intel then Streaming SIMD Extensions in 1999 in which MMX uses FP registers for SIMD data, and has only integer SIMD, SSE introduces separate XMM registers. Intel Xscale came in light in 1997 when Intel acquired Strong ARM from DEC, 1997 to replace the RISC processors i860 and i960. It had Strong ARM implemented ARMv4 ISA. It’s Successor, Xscale implemented ARMv5 with Seven-stage integer and an eight-stage memory super pipelined microarchitecture, 32KB data cache and 32KB instruction cache.• Xscale processor family had Application Processors (with the prefix PXA), I/O Processors (with the prefix IOP), Network Processors (with the prefix IXP), Control Plane Processors (with the prefix IXC).• Intel sold Xscale PXA business to Marvell in 2006. Intel Itanium was in limelight in 2001 which was originated from HP, EPIC: explicitly parallel instruction computing. All believed EPIC would supplant RISC and CISC. Compaq and SGI gave up Alpha and MIPS, Microsoft and SUN etc. developed Operating system for it and in 1999, Intel named it Itanium it had Speculation, prediction, predication, and renaming with 128 integer registers, 128 FP registers, 64 one-bit predicates, and eight branch registers 128-bit instruction word has 3 instruction, dual-issue, max
  4. 4. iv 6 IPC, X86 support in HW initially and then purely in SW. Intel introduced Pentium 4 in 2000 with Net Burst microarchitecture (P68, successor to P6), it Pursue higher frequency, smaller IPC with Hyper Pipelined: 20-stage Willamette. It had Rapid Execution Engine: Two ALUs in the core are double-pumped and execution Trace Cache, SSE2, L3-cache (Extreme Edition). It was confined with Hyper-Threading Technology. But its performance worse than Northwood with similar clock as designed to be 10GHz, but achieved 3.8GHz. Core-based: 27W, Pentium4:115W, Pentium4M:88W. Then comes Pentium D – Dual-core which was abandoned due to High power consumption and heat intensity and Inability to increase clock speed, and inefficient pipeline. Intel introduced Pentium M in 2003 derived From Pentium III, based on P6 microarchitecture. FSB interface of Pentium 4, SSE2, much larger cache, improved decoding/issuing FE, L2 cache only switches on the portion being accessed. It has dynamically variable clock frequency and core voltage it has 1.6 GHz Pentium M performance > 2.4 GHz Pentium 4-M. Next generation of it released as Intel Core brand on Jan 2006. Core 2: Intel-64 Core microarchitecture came in light in July 2006. It has larger cache in size. Then comes the Intel Tick-Tock Model which was introduced since 2007 to describe progress cadence where “Tick“: shrinking of process technology – same microarchitecture. And “Tock“: new microarchitecture – same process. Tick-Tock is expected alternating every year. Intel Nehalem came in 2008 it was successor of Core micro-architecture and was planned as Net burst evolution, but then a completely different design of microarchitecture with size of 45nm. It was Multi-core with on-package GPU and integrated memory controller, Integrated PCI-E and DMI replacing Northbridge. It had level branch predictor and 20% gain performance/clock, 30% cut power/performance and on this architecture Intel introduced Core i3, i5, i7, Celeron, Pentium, Xeon. Intel introduced Atom Processors in 2008 which was based on Bonnell microarchitecture, 45nm in size with dual-issue in order, 16-stage pipeline and only around 4% of instructions produce multiple micro-operations. It can contain both a load and a store with an ALU operation with Partial revival of old principle in P5 and 486 for performance/watt. Intel Sandy Bridge came into light in 2011, it was new microarchitecture after Nehalem, 32nm in size and it shared L3 cache for cores, including GPU, it has two load/store ops/cycle for memory this there is Ring bus interconnect between Cores, Graphics, Cache and System Agent Domain. As compared to Nehalem, 17% gain in performance/clock over Lynnfield, 2x graphics over Clarkdale and then in 2012 came the Ivy Bridge architecture with, size of 22nm and 3D gates. 3-Architecture Intel i3 is a 64 bit microprocessor and is available in different versions depending on different architecture, and there are three main architecture on which Intel i3 processor is designed. a) Nehalem Computer Architecture The predecessor to Nehalem, Intel’s Core architecture, made use of multiple cores on a single die to improve performance over traditional single-core architectures. But as more cores and processors were added to a high-performance system, some serious weaknesses and bandwidth bottlenecks began to appear. After the initial generation of dual-core Core processors, Intel began a Core 2 series processor which was not much more than using two or more pairs of dual-
  5. 5. v core dies. The cores communicated via system memory which caused large delays due to limited bandwidth on the processor bus. Adding more cores increased the burden on the processor and memory buses, which diminished the performance gains that could be possible with more cores. The new Nehalem architecture sought to improve core-to-core communication by establishing a point-to-point topology in which microprocessor cores can communicate directly with one another and have more direct access to system memory. The approach to the Nehalem architecture is more modular than the Core architecture which makes it much more flexible and customizable to the application. The architecture really only consists of a few basic building blocks. The main blocks are a microprocessor core (with its own L2 cache), a shared L3 cache, a Quick Path Interconnect (QPI) bus controller, an integrated memory controller (IMC), and graphics core. With this flexible architecture, the blocks can be configured to meet what the market demands. For example, the Bloomfield model, which is intended for a performance desktop application, has four cores, an L3 cache, one memory controller, and one QPI bus controller. Server microprocessors like the Beckton model can have eight cores, and four QPI bus controllers. The architecture allows the cores to communicate very effectively in either case. In Nehalem architecture I3 has 32 nm process technology with following specifications: 2 physical cores/4 threads, 64 Kb L1 cache, 512 Kb L2 cache, 4 MB L3 cache, Introduced January, 2012, Socket 1156 LGA, 2-channel DDR3, Integrated HD GPU with different variants. b) Sandy bridge/ Ivy bridge architecture Sandy Bridge is the codename for a microarchitecture developed by Intel beginning in 2005 for central processing units in computers to replace the Nehalem microarchitecture. Intel demonstrated a Sandy Bridge processor in 2009, and released first products based on the architecture in January 2011 under the Core brand. Sandy Bridge implementations targeted a 32 nanometer manufacturing process based on planar double-gate transistors. Intel's subsequent product, codenamed Ivy Bridge, uses a 22 nanometer process. The Ivy Bridge die shrink, known in the Intel Tick-Tock model as the "tick", is based on Fin FET (non-planar, "3D") tri-gate transistors. Intel demonstrated the Ivy Bridge processors in 2011. Developed primarily by the Israel branch of Intel,
  6. 6. vi the codename was originally "Gesher" (meaning "bridge” in Hebrew). The name was changed to avoid being associated with the defunct Gesher political party; the decision was led by Ron Friedman, vice president of Intel managing the group at the time. Intel demonstrated a Sandy Bridge processor with A1 stepping at 2 GHz during the Intel Developer Forum in September 2009. Upgraded features from Nehalem include:  32 KB data + 32 KB instruction L1 cache (4 clocks) and 256 KB L2 cache (11 clocks) per core.  Shared L3 cache includes the processor graphics (LGA 1155).  64-byte cache line size.  Two load/store operations per CPU cycle for each memory channel.  Decoded micro-operation cache and enlarged, optimized branch predictor.  Improved performance for transcendental mathematics. With 256-bit/cycle ring bus interconnect between cores, graphics, cache and System Agent Domain.  Intel Quick Sync Video, hardware support for video encoding and decoding. And it have up to 8 physical cores or 16 logical cores through Hyper-threading.  Integration of the GMCH (integrated graphics and memory controller) and processor into a single die inside the processor package. In contrast, Sandy Bridge's predecessor, Clarkdale, has two separate dies (one for GMCH, one for processor) within the processor package. This tighter integration reduces memory latency even more.  A 14- to 19-stage instruction pipeline, depending on the micro-operation cache hit or miss. Intel continues to drive platform enhancements that increase the overall user experience. Some of these enhancements include areas such as connectivity, manageability, security, and reliability, as well as compute capability. One of the means of significantly increasing compute capability is with Intel multi-core processors delivering greater levels of performance and performance-per-watt capabilities. The move to multi-core processing has also opened the door to many other micro-architectural innovations to continue to even further improve performance. Intel Core microarchitecture is one such state-of- the-art micro architectural update that was designed to deliver increased performance combined with superior power efficiency. As such, Intel Core microarchitecture is focused on enhancing existing and emerging application and usage models across each platform segment, including desktop, server, and mobile. 4-Feature Intel i3 is based on Hyper-Threading Technology and the improvements to Intel Smart Cache combine to create dynamic and adaptive performance. Add the integration of the memory controller and the graphics to the processor and the Intel Core i3 processor gets things done faster and more efficiently. Intel Hyper-Threading Technology offers more computer muscle while reducing wait time. Intel Smart Cache improves responsiveness by providing faster access to data. Intel HD Graphics is the ideal graphics solution for your everyday visual computing needs.
  7. 7. vii Performance has an immediate, impact on what you do on your PC. Accelerate your productivity, inspire your digital creations, and enjoy video smoothness and music quality on a system with the Intel Core i3 processor—the smart choice for home and office. The basic feature of the i3 are highly improved as compared to the previous version of the processor by Intel,i3 offers the perfect accuracy and high performance and response rate which in result provide the users with the high throughput rates, also reduced time in executing the programs by the processor. The Intel i3 processor is fully equipped by the latest HD graphics with powerful and video engine that provide smooth high quality display along with 3d graphics capabilities. On the whole i3 processor can be considered as the high graphical and multimedia display processors for daily computing. Intel i3 processor also provide hyper threading technology to its users which enable the multitasking capability of both user and system. The systems with i3 processor can perform execution and compilation of two tasks simultaneously without causing the executing delays and debuggers errors. They are also so responsive that output of the program can be generated at the same time too. We can easily say that Intel i3 are the best choice for homes and offices. More than seven applications can run simultaneously on the system with i3 processor built on the motherboards. I3 processor are the smarter, faster and more adaptive in all kinds of networking scheme. They can be used with any of the hard disk configurations. They are also famous in the market with the name of desktop processor because of the great quality resolution they have. Integrated components on the motherboards also makes i3 processors unique in their architecture and circuit installations. I3 processors have 3.06 GHz and 2.93 GHz core speed which is very high as compared to the previous configurations of the Intel processors. They have 4 processing threads that enables multithreading and multitasking. 4 megabyte additional cache memory is also provided inside the processor. Double channeled DDR with 1333 MHz memory sequence. 5-Advantage I3 processors have remarkable advantages that are of great use in the field of computers and technology. Some of them are: dual processor have the capability to run two independent program with one hardware. I3 processor have improved Pentium base, they have totally new architecture with more integrations and high speed performance structure. Hyper threading technology also enables the user to enjoy the high speed and better performance with more reliable outputs. It has 4 tasking threads that allows user to easily execute 3-4 programs at a time. Smart memory and cache sequence allows user to enjoy the optimized and efficient data access both direct and sequentially. Effective shortcuts have reduced the access time of the file and system. HD graphical features also make these processors distinguished from the others because they are considered as best in their resolution. I3 have advantage because it have different power management and thermal management unit. Intel Core processors include an Integrated Graphics Device (IGD) providing excellent graphical capabilities. For the Intel Core processor models that do not have an IGD, a PCI Express (PCIe) interconnect is integrated into all processors to support up to PCIe x16 video cards. 6) Difference from predecessor Ivy Bridge CPUs (3rd gen) are basically on average 6% more processing power than Sandy Bridge CPUs (2nd gen). They also use a little less power. The main difference is the new Intel HD 4000 which is on average around 35% - 40% more powerful than the older Intel HD 3000. Sounds impressive, but it is still relatively weak compared to desktop graphic cards. The Intel HD 4000 is a bit slower than AMD's most powerful graphic core found in the older Llano A8 APUs. Compared to desktop graphic cards, the mobile version of the Intel HD 3000 is a little slower than the Radeon HD 5450, while the Intel HD 4000 would be a little slower than the Radeon HD 5550.
  8. 8. viii I3 processor is different from the predecessor because it have: Integrated Memory Controller (IMC) where, IMC offers high bandwidth and low latency for memory I/O leading to faster memory read and write cycle’s along with Hyper- Threading Technology (HT); Hyper-Threading technology allows one physical processor core to be seen as two logical processors by firmware and software. Each logical processor can execute a thread allowing for two concurrent threads to be executed. And Turbo Boost Technology - A feature that automatically allows processor cores to run faster than its base operating frequency when other cores are not being utilized. Automatic performance boost. It also provide service of Quick Path Interconnect (QPI) which provide a new high bandwidth, low latency bus that connects processor cores and memory. 7) List of 64 bit i3 processor  Sandy Bridge – 32 nm process technology  2 physical cores/4 threads  32+32 Kb (per core) L1 cache  256 Kb (per core) L2 cache  3 MB L3 cache  624 million transistors  Introduced January, 2012  Socket 1155 LGA  2-channel DDR3-1333  Variants ending in 'T' have a peak TDP of 35 W, others 65 W  Integrated GPU  All variants have peak GPU turbo frequencies of 1.1 GHz  Variants ending in 'T' have GPUs running at a base frequency of 650 MHz; others at 850 MHz  Variants ending in '5' have Intel HD Graphics 3000 (12 execution units); others have Intel HD Graphics 2000 (6 execution units)  Variants  i3-2100T – 2.5 GHz  i3-2120T – 2.6 GHz  i3-2100 – 3.1 GHz  i3-2102 – 3.1 GHz  i3-2105 – 3.1 GHz  i3-2120 – 3.3 GHz  i3-2125 – 3.3 GHz  i3-2130 – 3.4 GHz  Ivy Bridge – 22 nm Tri-gate transistor process technology  2 physical cores/4 threads  32+32 Kb (per core) L1 cache  256 Kb (per core) L2 cache  3 MB L3 cache  Introduced September, 2012  Socket 1155 LGA  2-channel DDR3-1600  Variants ending in '5' have Intel HD Graphics 4000; others have Intel HD Graphics 2500  All variants have GPU base frequencies of 650 MHz and peak GPU turbo frequencies of 1.05 GHz  TDP 55 W  Variants  i3-3220T – 2.8 GHz  i3-3240T – 2.9 GHz  i3-3220 – 3.3 GHz  i3-3225 – 3.3 GHz  i3-3240 – 3.4 GHz References 1-A Brief History of Intel CPU Microarchitectures by Xiao-Feng Li-2/10/13. 2- White paper on inside Intel Core Microarchitecture by Intel. 3-Intel Nehalem Computer Architecture by Trent Rolf/University of Utah Computer Engineering/CS 6810 /Final Project/December 2009 4-Intel processor 4th generation/datasheet by Intel 5- components/I3-intel-processors.html 6- rocessors#Core_i3