C Prog. - Decision & Loop Controls

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C Prog. - Decision & Loop Controls

  1. 1. C Programming - Decision & Loop Control Organized By: Vinay Arora Assistant Professor, CSED Thapar University, Patiala
  2. 2. Decision Control The if statement The if-else statement The conditional operators Vinay Arora CSED
  3. 3. Forms of if Vinay Arora CSED
  4. 4. Forms of if (contd.) Vinay Arora CSED
  5. 5. Relational Operator Vinay Arora CSED
  6. 6. Demonstrating - If Vinay Arora CSED
  7. 7. Flowchart Vinay Arora CSED
  8. 8. Demonstrating - If Vinay Arora CSED
  9. 9. Flowchart Vinay Arora CSED
  10. 10. Expression in Conditional Part Vinay Arora CSED
  11. 11. Multiple statements within if Vinay Arora CSED
  12. 12. Demonstrating If - Else Vinay Arora CSED
  13. 13. Flowchart If-Else Vinay Arora CSED
  14. 14. Logical Operators with If-Else Vinay Arora CSED
  15. 15. Logical Operators with If-Else Vinay Arora CSED
  16. 16. Else-if ladder Vinay Arora CSED
  17. 17. Logical Operators with If-Else Vinay Arora CSED
  18. 18. Smallest amongst 3 nos. Vinay Arora CSED
  19. 19. Smallest amongst 3 nos. Vinay Arora CSED
  20. 20. Program using Logical OR, elseif Vinay Arora CSED
  21. 21. Calculate Salary as per following table Vinay Arora CSED
  22. 22. && - Logical AND C allows usage of three logical operators, namely, &&, || and ! These are to be read as ‘AND’ ‘OR’ and ‘NOT’ respectively. Don’t use the single symbol | and &. These single symbols also have a meaning. The first two operators, && and ||, allow two or more conditions to be combined in an if statement. Vinay Arora CSED
  23. 23. && - Logical AND (C Program) Vinay Arora CSED
  24. 24. Vinay Arora CSED
  25. 25. Vinay Arora CSED
  26. 26. | | - Logical OR (C Program) Vinay Arora CSED
  27. 27. Vinay Arora CSED
  28. 28. Vinay Arora CSED
  29. 29. ! - Logical NOT This operator reverses the result of the expression it operates on. For example, if the expression evaluates to a non-zero value, then applying ! operator to it results into a 0. Vice versa, if the expression evaluates to zero then on applying ! operator to it makes it 1, a non-zero value. Vinay Arora CSED
  30. 30. ! - Logical NOT (C Program) Vinay Arora CSED
  31. 31. Vinay Arora CSED
  32. 32. Vinay Arora CSED
  33. 33. &&, ||, ! Operator Vinay Arora CSED
  34. 34. ? : - Conditional Operator The conditional operators ? and : are sometimes called Ternary Operators since they take three arguments. They form a kind of foreshortened if-then-else. Their general form is, expression 1 ? expression 2 : expression 3 If expression 1 is true (that is, if its value is non-zero), then the value returned will be expression 2, otherwise the value returned will be expression 3. Vinay Arora CSED
  35. 35. Conditional Operator (C Program) Vinay Arora CSED
  36. 36. Vinay Arora CSED
  37. 37. Vinay Arora CSED
  38. 38. goto Statement goto is used to switch the control flow. In a difficult programming situation it seems so easy to use a goto to take the control. In most of the scenarios use of goto is depreciated. goto can be replaced by if-else, switch, for. Vinay Arora CSED
  39. 39. goto Statement - Program Vinay Arora CSED
  40. 40. Vinay Arora CSED
  41. 41. Vinay Arora CSED
  42. 42. switch Statement The control statement that allows us to make a decision from the number of choices is called a switch. The integer expression following the keyword switch is any C expression that will yield an integer value. Vinay Arora CSED
  43. 43. switch Statement - Flowchart Vinay Arora CSED
  44. 44. switch Statement - Program Vinay Arora CSED
  45. 45. Vinay Arora CSED
  46. 46. Vinay Arora CSED
  47. 47. Loops Repetitive instructions is done through a Loop control instruction. This involves repeating some portion of the program either a specified number of times or until a particular condition is being satisfied. There are three methods by way of which we can repeat a part of a program. They are: (a) Using a while statement (b) Using a do-while statement (c) Using a for statement Vinay Arora CSED
  48. 48. while Loop - Flowchart Vinay Arora CSED
  49. 49. while Loop – general form Vinay Arora CSED
  50. 50. while Loop – forms of conditions Vinay Arora CSED
  51. 51. while Loop – C Program Vinay Arora CSED
  52. 52. Vinay Arora CSED
  53. 53. While Loop – Program 1 //Program to demonstrate simple while loop #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i=1; clrscr(); while (i<=10) { printf("%dn",i); i=i+1; } getch(); } Vinay Arora CSED
  54. 54. Output Vinay Arora CSED
  55. 55. While Loop – Program 2 //Program to demonstrate simple while loop with decrement operator #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i=5; clrscr(); while (i>=1) { printf("%dn",i); i=i-1; } getch(); } Vinay Arora CSED
  56. 56. Output Vinay Arora CSED
  57. 57. While Loop – Program 3 /* Program to demonstrate simple while loop taking incremental value as float */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { float i=10.0; clrscr(); while (i<=10.5) { printf("nCivil Engineering at Thapar"); i=i+.1; } getch(); } Vinay Arora CSED
  58. 58. Output Vinay Arora CSED
  59. 59. While Loop – Program 4 //Demonstrating simple while loop with integer value out of range #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i=1; clrscr(); while (i<=32767) { printf("%dn",i); i=i+1; } getch(); } Vinay Arora CSED
  60. 60. Output – Infinite Loop Vinay Arora CSED
  61. 61. While Loop – Program 5 //Program to demonstrate simple while loop #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i=1; clrscr(); while (i<=10); { printf("%dn",i); i=i+1; } getch(); } Vinay Arora CSED
  62. 62. Output Vinay Arora CSED
  63. 63. While Loop – Program 6 //Program to demonstrate post increment operator in while loop #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i=1; clrscr(); while (i<=10) { printf("%dn",i); i=i++; } getch(); } Vinay Arora CSED
  64. 64. Output Vinay Arora CSED
  65. 65. While Loop – Program 7 //Program to demonstrate compound assignment operator within while loop #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i=1; clrscr(); while (i<=5) { printf("%dn",i); i+=1; } getch(); } Vinay Arora CSED
  66. 66. Output Vinay Arora CSED
  67. 67. While Loop – Program 8 //Program to demonstrate post increment operator with while loop #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i=0; clrscr(); while (i++ < 5) { printf("%dn",i); } getch(); } Vinay Arora CSED
  68. 68. Output Vinay Arora CSED
  69. 69. While Loop – Program 9 //Program to find out even numbers between 1-10 #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i=1; clrscr(); while (i<=10) { if (i%2==0) printf("%dn",i); i=i+1; } getch(); } Vinay Arora CSED
  70. 70. Output Vinay Arora CSED
  71. 71. Do-while Loop While Do while Vinay Arora CSED
  72. 72. Do-while Loop – Program 10 //Program to demonstrate DO-WHILE loop #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i=1; clrscr(); /* while(i<1) { printf("hello i am at Thapar"); } */ do { printf("hello i am at Thapar"); } while(i<1); getch(); } Vinay Arora CSED
  73. 73. Output Vinay Arora CSED
  74. 74. Program Transformation Unary Post Increment Operator Vinay Arora CSED
  75. 75. Program Transformation Compound Assignment Operator Vinay Arora CSED
  76. 76. For Loop The for allows us to specify three things about a loop in a single line: Vinay Arora CSED
  77. 77. For Loop (Program-1) //Program to demonstrate simple For loop #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i; clrscr(); for (i=1; i<=10; i=i+1) printf("%dn",i); getch(); } Vinay Arora CSED
  78. 78. For Loop (Program-1 Output) Vinay Arora CSED
  79. 79. For Loop (Program-2) //Program to demonstrate simple For loop #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i; clrscr(); for (i=1; i<=10;) { printf("%dn",i); i=i+1; } getch(); } Vinay Arora CSED
  80. 80. For Loop (Program-2 Output) Vinay Arora CSED
  81. 81. For Loop (Program-3) //Program to demonstrate simple For loop //Print numbers from 1 to 5 #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i=1; clrscr(); for (;i<=5;i=i+1) { printf("%dn",i); } getch(); } Vinay Arora CSED
  82. 82. For Loop (Program-3 Output) Vinay Arora CSED
  83. 83. For Loop (Program-4) //Program to demonstrate simple For loop #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i=1; clrscr(); for (;i<=5;) { printf("%dn",i); i=i+1; } getch(); } Vinay Arora CSED
  84. 84. For Loop (Program-4 Output) Vinay Arora CSED
  85. 85. For Loop (Program-5) //Program to demonstrate simple For loop #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i; clrscr(); for (i=0;i++<5;) { printf("%dn",i); } getch(); } Vinay Arora CSED
  86. 86. For Loop (Program-5 Output) Vinay Arora CSED
  87. 87. For Loop (Program-6) //Program to demonstrate simple For loop #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i; clrscr(); for (i=0;++i<5;) { printf("%dn",i); } getch(); } Vinay Arora CSED
  88. 88. For Loop (Program-6 Output) Vinay Arora CSED
  89. 89. For Loop (Program-7) //Program to demonstrate NESTED For loop #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i,j; clrscr(); for (i=1;i<=5;i=i+1) { printf("n"); for (j=1;j<=i;j=j+1) { printf(" *"); } } getch(); } Vinay Arora CSED
  90. 90. For Loop (Program-7 Output) Vinay Arora CSED
  91. 91. Thnx… Vinay Arora CSED

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