Open Standards             Open Source              Open Data                           Arnulf Christl                OSGe...
A fuzzy question:                           What is Openness?                                     Lots of FUD             ...
A Geospatial perspective on:                                        Open Standards                                        ...
Arnulf Christl      Geospatial Systems Architect at metaspatial       ●   Co-founder and Emeritus President of OSGeo      ...
Part I                What are Open Standards?AGI South West 2013   OSGeo - Professional Open Source   5/53
The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC)• The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) is an international  industry consortium• 481 m...
Reasons for Open Standards●    Prevents a single, self-interested party from    controlling a standard                    ...
The OGC Definition of Open•   Freely and publicly available•   Unencumbered by patents and other intellectual property•   ...
OGC WMS (Web Map Server)●        Provide an HTTP interface to access maps    ●        GetCapabilities (document with list ...
OGC WFS (Web Feature Service)●        Provide an HTTP interface to access data    ●        GetCapabilities (document with ...
Standards are                                                           like parachutes:                                  ...
Part II            What is Open Source Software?AGI South West 2013   OSGeo - Professional Open Source   12/53
Software Development           Problem is identified        Software development team            Solves the problem       ...
Proprietary Vendors         Proprietary motivation: Make Money                    Market analysis                Developme...
Proprietary Vendors         Proprietary motivation: Make Money                                                            ...
Overall Revenue in IT        Less than 7% of revenue in IT is       generated through selling software                usag...
Open Source BusinessPrimary motivation: Solve Problem    Publish resultsInteraction with Users    Improve SoftwareReleas...
Open Source BusinessPrimary motivation: Solve Problem                                             Consulting    Publish r...
Open Source BusinessPrimary motivation: Solve Problem                                             Consulting    Publish r...
Copying is not TheftThere is a big difference between material theftand digital copying.   We have difficulties understand...
Why does it Work?    Because there is a need for     software    Because there is a community    Because we are all con...
Part III                      What is OSGeo?AGI South West 2013    OSGeo - Professional Open Source   22/53
Using Open Source?Yes, …but... anybody can call anything "OpenSource". And Open Source is not magicallybetter software!   ...
Open Source Geospatial Foundation                 http://www.osgeo.org                      Your Open Source Compass      ...
The OSGeo Foundation   OSGeo is a global not-for-profit    organization founded in February 2006   Leading voice for Geo...
OSGeos Mission               Support and promote                the highest quality                  Open Source          ...
OSGeos Goals   Provide resources for Open Source projects:        Infrastructure        Legal                      http...
OSGeos Structure            Charter Members vote              Board of 9 Directors                and President           ...
Part IV                        LicensingAGI South West 2013   OSGeo - Professional Open Source   29/53
Free Software LicensingFree Software Licensing   Not as in "free beer"    but as in free speech   You are free to:     ...
Free Software LicensingFree Software is a legallicensing model (a vaccine) toprotect the users interest.Proprietary licens...
FOSS Licenses   Clear BSD License   GNU General Public License (GPL), Version 3   GNU Lesser General Public License (LG...
Free Software LicensingFree Software Licensing   Not as in "free beer"                                     !    but as in...
Proprietary Licenses You                   are not allowed to copy You                are not allowed to modify   You a...
Data LicensingA) If exclusive data ownership is a commercial      advantage then licenses will be      proprietaryB) If th...
Part V                      What is Open Data?AGI South West 2013      OSGeo - Professional Open Source   36/53
Example 1                 OpenStreetMap is               a community project to                create a free editable     ...
How does it Work?Maps are created using data from portable satellite navigation devices  (aka GPS) aerial photography o...
Why does it Work?   Because there is a need for    free map data   Because there is a community   Because we are all co...
Example 2Ordnance Survey is the National Mapping    Agency and has the mission to         comprehensively and           ac...
How does it Work?Map data is created by surveyors using devices (aka GPS) aerial photography other sources local knowl...
Why does it Work?   Because there is a need for    authoritative map data   Because the government funds itAGI South Wes...
Who owns the Data?AGI South West 2013   OSGeo - Professional Open Source   43/53
Part V           How to License Geospatial Data?AGI South West 2013   OSGeo - Professional Open Source   44/53
How is OSM licensed?Since the beginning of the project   Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0Then over three year...
ODbLAGI South West 2013   OSGeo - Professional Open Source     46/53
OBbL – Rights (human readable version)             http://opendatacommons.org/licenses/odbl/summary/AGI South West 2013   ...
OBbL – Duties (human readable version)AGI South West 2013    OSGeo - Professional Open Source   48/53
Ordnance Survey… since 1999 Ordnance Survey has been requiredto act as a Trading Fund or commercial entity. Thismeans that...
OS OpenData LicenseThe OS OpenData license allows you to:   copy, distribute and transmit the data;   adapt the data; an...
The Geospatial Data                 Schizophrenia                                          Private businesses             ...
Who reaps the profits?AGI South West 2013   OSGeo - Professional Open Source   52/53
Summary   Standards must be open   Software can be open       With high protection (GNU GPL)       With less protectio...
Thank you for      your Attention!                                            The annual Conference on                    ...
INSPIRE (and PSI)   How is the data released through INSPIRE    licensed?Open questions:   What is the meaning of    Pub...
References   OSGeo Foundation website: http://www.osgeo.org   Wiki: http://wiki.osgeo.org   Open Source: http://produci...
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Introducing Open - Keynote at AGI South West

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A brief overview of Open starting from standards, going through source and ending with data. Been there, done that. Now what?

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Introducing Open - Keynote at AGI South West

  1. 1. Open Standards Open Source Open Data Arnulf Christl OSGeo Emeritus PresidentAGI South West 2013
  2. 2. A fuzzy question: What is Openness? Lots of FUD (fear, uncertainty & doubt) Lets put some Order into ChaosAGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 2/53
  3. 3. A Geospatial perspective on: Open Standards Open Source Open DataAGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 3/53
  4. 4. Arnulf Christl Geospatial Systems Architect at metaspatial ● Co-founder and Emeritus President of OSGeo ● OGC Architecture Board Member ● OpenStreetMap Advocate Founder of several companies and initiatives, provides consulting for SDI and travels a lot. http://www.metaspatial.net/This presentation is available for download at http://arnulf.us/PublicationsAGI South West 20132013 AGI South West OSGeo - Professional Open Source OSGeo ­ Professional Open Source 4 / 48 4 / 42
  5. 5. Part I What are Open Standards?AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 5/53
  6. 6. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC)• The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) is an international industry consortium• 481 members (as of March 2013), companies, government agencies and universities• Operates under a consensus process to develop publicly available interface standards.• OGC Standards support interoperable solutions that "geo- enable" the Web, wireless & location-based services and mainstream IT.• The standards empower producers to make complex spatial information and services accessible Slide by courtesyOGC ® (c) 2012 Open Geospatial Consortium of Athina Trakas
  7. 7. Reasons for Open Standards● Prevents a single, self-interested party from controlling a standard „What OGC brings to the• Lower systems and life table is…everyone has cycle costs confidence we won’t take advantage of the format or• Encourage market competition change it in a way that will harm anyone” – Choose based on functionality desired Michael Weiss-Malik, – Avoid “lock in” to a proprietary Google KML product manager architecture• Stimulates innovation beyond the standard by companies that seek to differentiate themselves. Source: Open Standards, Open Source, and Open Innovation: Harnessing the Benefits of 7 Openness, April 2006. Committee For Economic Development. www.ced.org © 2012 Open Geospatial Consortium – 7
  8. 8. The OGC Definition of Open• Freely and publicly available• Unencumbered by patents and other intellectual property• Non discriminatory• No license fees• Vendor neutral• Data neutral• Agreed to in a Consensus Process (by the members)• No single entity controls the standard• Open standards are not restricted to Open Source!http://wiki.osgeo.org/wiki/Open_Source_and_Open_StandardsOGC ® (c) 2012 Open Geospatial Consortium Slide by courtesy of Athina Trakas
  9. 9. OGC WMS (Web Map Server)● Provide an HTTP interface to access maps ● GetCapabilities (document with list of maps) ● GetMap ● GetFeatureInfo ● GetLegend● Return images in the requested size and format http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards/wms (c) 2012 Open Geospatial Consortium
  10. 10. OGC WFS (Web Feature Service)● Provide an HTTP interface to access data ● GetCapabilities (document with list of feature types) ● DescribeFeatureType ● GetFeature● Reads and writes geometry in the standard format GML (Geography Markup Language) http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards/wfs (c) 2012 Open Geospatial Consortium
  11. 11. Standards are like parachutes: they work best when theyre open. Mary Mc Rae, OASIS*Slide by courtesy of * “Minds, like parachutes, function better when open, but, like fists, 11Athina Trakas they strike harder when closed.”— L.E. Modesitt, Jr., American Author (1943 -- ) Source picture: http://www.all-hd-wallpapers.com/wallpapers/sports/425236.jpg © 2012 Open Geospatial Consortium – 11
  12. 12. Part II What is Open Source Software?AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 12/53
  13. 13. Software Development Problem is identified Software development team Solves the problem Publish Software (or Code) Software users have new requirements, find bugs Code is improved new version is releasedAGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 13/53
  14. 14. Proprietary Vendors Proprietary motivation: Make Money Market analysis Development team develops software beta version release for beta tester beta tester reports errors to development team development team reproduces the error development team reports to the product management development team solves problem after OK from pm Goal: Sell licenses Product launchAGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 14/53
  15. 15. Proprietary Vendors Proprietary motivation: Make Money Ask questions: Market analysis When is the software Development team released? develops software beta version release When is new for beta tester functionality Black Box beta tester reports errors to development team development team reproduces the error implemented? Who cares if something breaks? development team reports to the product management How many people development team solves problem after develop software? OK from pm What do the other Goal: Sell licenses Product launch employees do?AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 15/53
  16. 16. Overall Revenue in IT Less than 7% of revenue in IT is generated through selling software usage licenses. (i.e. by restricting copying) Read http://arnulf.us/Cadastre for more detailsAGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 16/53
  17. 17. Open Source BusinessPrimary motivation: Solve Problem  Publish resultsInteraction with Users  Improve SoftwareRelease often (iterate)AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 17/53
  18. 18. Open Source BusinessPrimary motivation: Solve Problem Consulting  Publish results Maintain specific distribution Support Training ImplementationInteraction with Users  Improve Software bug fixingRelease often (iterate) Service Level Maintenance AgreementAGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 18/53
  19. 19. Open Source BusinessPrimary motivation: Solve Problem Consulting  Publish results Maintain specific distribution Support Training ImplementationInteraction with Users  Improve Software bug fixingRelease often (iterate) Service Level Maintenance AgreementNo Monopolies & Highly Competitive!AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 19/53
  20. 20. Copying is not TheftThere is a big difference between material theftand digital copying. We have difficulties understanding this because we are material.But our Mind is not entirely material, therefore wecan understand. A great 60 second cartoon by Nina Paley: Copying is not Theft. AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 20/53
  21. 21. Why does it Work? Because there is a need for software Because there is a community Because we are all connected (through the Internet)AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 21/53
  22. 22. Part III What is OSGeo?AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 22/53
  23. 23. Using Open Source?Yes, …but... anybody can call anything "OpenSource". And Open Source is not magicallybetter software! How do we know the software is good? How do we know the software will be around tomorrow? Who will help? AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 23/53
  24. 24. Open Source Geospatial Foundation http://www.osgeo.org Your Open Source Compass ...organizes spatial ITAGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 24/53
  25. 25. The OSGeo Foundation OSGeo is a global not-for-profit organization founded in February 2006 Leading voice for Geospatial Open Source Structure similar to the Apache Foundation Volunteer based Funded by sponsorship Does not provide direct end user services! AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 25/53
  26. 26. OSGeos Mission Support and promote the highest quality Open Source Geospatial SoftwareAGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 26/53
  27. 27. OSGeos Goals Provide resources for Open Source projects:  Infrastructure  Legal http://www.osgeo.org  Financial Quality Assurance for Open Source projects Promote free and open geospatial data Create and maintain a quality brand Support Local Chapters: http://www.osgeo.org/uk AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 27/53
  28. 28. OSGeos Structure Charter Members vote Board of 9 Directors and President Officers Officers 25 Officers represent Committees Committees Committees Committees Committees Committees Local Local Chapters Local Foundation Chapters Local Chapters Projects Local Chapters Chapters145 Charter Members elected by Membership SponsorsAGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 28/53
  29. 29. Part IV LicensingAGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 29/53
  30. 30. Free Software LicensingFree Software Licensing Not as in "free beer" but as in free speech You are free to:  use it anywhere for any purpose  understand and improve it  adjust it to suit your needs  collaborate with anybody else AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 30/53
  31. 31. Free Software LicensingFree Software is a legallicensing model (a vaccine) toprotect the users interest.Proprietary licenses onlyprotects the vendors interest.Nota bene:"Commercial Software" is amisnomer because OpenSource is used commerciallyeverywhere. AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 31/53
  32. 32. FOSS Licenses Clear BSD License GNU General Public License (GPL), Version 3 GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL), Version 3 Apache License, Version 2.0 Modified BSD license FreeBSD license Mozilla Public License (MPL) version 2.0 XFree86 1.1 License etc.http://www.gnu.org/licenses/license-list.html#SoftwareLicenses AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 32/53
  33. 33. Free Software LicensingFree Software Licensing Not as in "free beer" ! but as in free speech You are free to: d use it anywhere for ee purpose  n t it any rayour needs  understand and improve  u awith anybody else adjust it to suit  G collaborate AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 33/53
  34. 34. Proprietary Licenses You are not allowed to copy You are not allowed to modify You are not allowed to give away You are not allowed to improve You are not allowed to install You are not allowed to share You are not allowed to......another cartoon by Nina Paley: Terms of Services! AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 34/53
  35. 35. Data LicensingA) If exclusive data ownership is a commercial advantage then licenses will be proprietaryB) If the broadest possible usage of the data maximises the RoI then licenses will be Open.AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 35/53
  36. 36. Part V What is Open Data?AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 36/53
  37. 37. Example 1 OpenStreetMap is a community project to create a free editable map of the world http://OpenStreetMap.orgAGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 37/53
  38. 38. How does it Work?Maps are created using data from portable satellite navigation devices (aka GPS) aerial photography other free sources local knowledgeAGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 38/53
  39. 39. Why does it Work? Because there is a need for free map data Because there is a community Because we are all connected (through the Internet) (a lot of experience comes from the Open Source movement)AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 39/53
  40. 40. Example 2Ordnance Survey is the National Mapping Agency and has the mission to comprehensively and accurately map Great Britain 1791 1 April 2010The French threaten to invade Open Data arrives at OS AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 40/53
  41. 41. How does it Work?Map data is created by surveyors using devices (aka GPS) aerial photography other sources local knowledgeAGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 41/53
  42. 42. Why does it Work? Because there is a need for authoritative map data Because the government funds itAGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 42/53
  43. 43. Who owns the Data?AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 43/53
  44. 44. Part V How to License Geospatial Data?AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 44/53
  45. 45. How is OSM licensed?Since the beginning of the project Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0Then over three years a major change was initiated whichlead to a completely new license:Since April 1st 2012: Open Database License (OBbL) stThe data which was committed until 2012 March 31 is still,and will forever be available under the CC license.http://opendatacommons.org/licenses/odbl/1.0/AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 45/53
  46. 46. ODbLAGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 46/53
  47. 47. OBbL – Rights (human readable version) http://opendatacommons.org/licenses/odbl/summary/AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 47/53
  48. 48. OBbL – Duties (human readable version)AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 48/53
  49. 49. Ordnance Survey… since 1999 Ordnance Survey has been requiredto act as a Trading Fund or commercial entity. Thismeans that it is supposed to be totally self-fundingfrom the commercial sale of its data and derivedproducts - whilst at the same time it is supposed tobe the public supplier of geographical information. Wow, this aint not gonna work now, will it?See also: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_Data_in_the_United_Kingdom AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 49/53
  50. 50. OS OpenData LicenseThe OS OpenData license allows you to: copy, distribute and transmit the data; adapt the data; and exploit the data commercially, whether by sub- licensing it, combining it with other data, or including it in your own product or application.Incorporates the UK Open Government License.http://www.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/oswebsite/opendata/licensing.htmlAGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 50/53
  51. 51. The Geospatial Data Schizophrenia Private businesses Value (Return on Investment) Effort & Cost (Investment) Public AuthorityAGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 51/53
  52. 52. Who reaps the profits?AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 52/53
  53. 53. Summary Standards must be open Software can be open  With high protection (GNU GPL)  With less protection (Clear BSD) Proprietary licenses are designed to protect the interest of the vendor (only) Data should be open, if it is for the public goodAnd there will always by reasons to keep things proprietary... AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 53/53
  54. 54. Thank you for your Attention! The annual Conference on Free and Open Source Software for GeospatialWith friendly support by: Copyright: Arnulf Christl, metaspatial. Thishttp://www.metaspatial.net slide set is copyrighted to the commons AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 54/53
  55. 55. INSPIRE (and PSI) How is the data released through INSPIRE licensed?Open questions: What is the meaning of Public Sector Information (PSI)? How can geospatial PSI be used? What license can the public administration use? What does "Commercial Use" mean? What is the way forward for INSPIRE?AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 55/53
  56. 56. References OSGeo Foundation website: http://www.osgeo.org Wiki: http://wiki.osgeo.org Open Source: http://producingoss.org by Karl Fogel OpenStreetMap: http://www.openstreetmap.org/ A note on Copyright: http://arnulf.us/Seven:Copyrights The ODbL http://opendatacommons.org/licenses/odbl/1.0/ OSM Dispute: http://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Open_Data_License/Why_You_Should_Decline Lawyer talk: http://www.ifross.org/ifross_html/home2_2009.html This presentation is available for download at http://arnulf.us/Publications AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 56/53

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