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Open Standards
             Open Source
              Open Data
                           Arnulf Christl
                OSGeo Emeritus President




AGI South West 2013
A fuzzy question:
                           What is Openness?
                                     Lots of FUD
                                  (fear, uncertainty
                                       & doubt)

                                  Let's put some
                                 Order into Chaos
AGI South West 2013   OSGeo - Professional Open Source   2/53
A Geospatial perspective on:
                                        Open Standards
                                        Open Source
                                        Open Data
AGI South West 2013    OSGeo - Professional Open Source   3/53
Arnulf Christl
      Geospatial Systems Architect at metaspatial
       ●   Co-founder and Emeritus President of OSGeo
       ●   OGC Architecture Board Member
       ●   OpenStreetMap Advocate
      Founder of several companies and initiatives,
      provides consulting for SDI and travels a lot.
      http://www.metaspatial.net/
This presentation is available for download at http://arnulf.us/Publications

AGI South West 20132013
    AGI South West               OSGeo - Professional Open Source
                                 OSGeo ­ Professional Open Source              4 / 48
                                                                               4 / 42
Part I

                What are Open Standards?




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The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC)

• The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) is an international
  industry consortium
• 481 members (as of March 2013), companies, government
  agencies and universities
• Operates under a consensus process to develop publicly
  available interface standards.
• OGC Standards support interoperable solutions that "geo-
  enable" the Web, wireless & location-based services and
  mainstream IT.
• The standards empower producers to make complex spatial
  information and services accessible

                                                        Slide by courtesy
OGC    ®
                  (c) 2012 Open Geospatial Consortium    of Athina Trakas
Reasons for Open Standards

●
    Prevents a single, self-interested party from
    controlling a standard
                                                         „What OGC brings to the
• Lower systems and life                                table is…everyone has
  cycle costs                                           confidence we won’t take
                                                        advantage of the format or
• Encourage market competition                          change it in a way that will
                                                        harm anyone”
   – Choose based on functionality
     desired                               Michael Weiss-Malik,
   – Avoid “lock in” to a proprietary      Google KML product
                                                      manager
     architecture
• Stimulates innovation beyond the standard by
  companies that seek to differentiate themselves.
                 Source: Open Standards, Open Source, and Open Innovation: Harnessing the Benefits of
                                                                                              7
                            Openness, April 2006. Committee For Economic Development. www.ced.org
                                                                            © 2012 Open Geospatial Consortium – 7
The OGC Definition of Open

•   Freely and publicly available
•   Unencumbered by patents and other intellectual property
•   Non discriminatory
•   No license fees
•   Vendor neutral
•   Data neutral
•   Agreed to in a Consensus Process (by the members)
•   No single entity controls the standard

• Open standards are not restricted to Open Source!
http://wiki.osgeo.org/wiki/Open_Source_and_Open_Standards

OGC       ®
                     (c) 2012 Open Geospatial Consortium
                                                           Slide by courtesy
                                                            of Athina Trakas
OGC WMS (Web Map Server)

●
        Provide an HTTP interface to access maps
    ●
        GetCapabilities (document with list of maps)
    ●
        GetMap
    ●
        GetFeatureInfo
    ●
        GetLegend
●
        Return images in the requested size and
        format

        http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards/wms



                    (c) 2012 Open Geospatial Consortium
OGC WFS (Web Feature Service)

●
        Provide an HTTP interface to access data
    ●
        GetCapabilities (document with list of feature types)
    ●
        DescribeFeatureType
    ●
        GetFeature
●
        Reads and writes geometry in the standard
        format GML (Geography Markup
        Language)

        http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards/wfs




                     (c) 2012 Open Geospatial Consortium
Standards are
                                                           like parachutes:
                                                           they work best
                                                           when they're
                                                           open. Mary Mc Rae, OASIS*

Slide by courtesy of      * “Minds, like parachutes, function better when open, but, like fists,
                                                                                              11
Athina Trakas          they strike harder when closed.”— L.E. Modesitt, Jr., American Author (1943 -- )
                                               Source picture: http://www.all-hd-wallpapers.com/wallpapers/sports/425236.jpg
                                                                                     © 2012 Open Geospatial Consortium – 11
Part II

            What is Open Source Software?




AGI South West 2013   OSGeo - Professional Open Source   12/53
Software Development

           Problem is identified



        Software development team
            Solves the problem




                               Publish Software (or Code)


                                                        Software users have new
                                                         requirements, find bugs


                                                            Code is improved


                                                        new version is released




AGI South West 2013                OSGeo - Professional Open Source                13/53
Proprietary Vendors
         Proprietary motivation: Make Money


                    Market analysis

                Development team
                develops software
              beta version release
                 for beta tester
           beta tester reports errors to
               development team

      development team reproduces the error

         development team reports to the
              product management
      development team solves problem after
                  OK from pm

        Goal: Sell licenses      Product launch




AGI South West 2013               OSGeo - Professional Open Source   14/53
Proprietary Vendors
         Proprietary motivation: Make Money
                                                              Ask questions:
                    Market analysis                           When is the software
                Development team                              released?
                develops software
              beta version release
                                                              When is new
                 for beta tester                              functionality

       Black Box
           beta tester reports errors to
               development team

      development team reproduces the error
                                                              implemented?
                                                              Who cares if
                                                              something breaks?
         development team reports to the
              product management                              How many people
      development team solves problem after                   develop software?
                  OK from pm
                                                              What do the other
        Goal: Sell licenses      Product launch               employees do?


AGI South West 2013               OSGeo - Professional Open Source                15/53
Overall Revenue in IT


        Less than 7% of revenue in IT is
       generated through selling software
                usage licenses.


              (i.e. by restricting copying)

      Read http://arnulf.us/Cadastre for more details


AGI South West 2013   OSGeo - Professional Open Source   16/53
Open Source Business
Primary motivation: Solve Problem
    Publish results


Interaction with Users
    Improve Software
Release often (iterate)



AGI South West 2013   OSGeo - Professional Open Source   17/53
Open Source Business
Primary motivation: Solve Problem
                                             Consulting
    Publish results
                                       Maintain specific distribution
      Support            Training
                                                            Implementation
Interaction with Users
    Improve Software                          bug fixing

Release often (iterate)
                                                             Service Level
           Maintenance                                        Agreement



AGI South West 2013      OSGeo - Professional Open Source                    18/53
Open Source Business
Primary motivation: Solve Problem
                                             Consulting
    Publish results
                                       Maintain specific distribution
      Support            Training
                                                            Implementation
Interaction with Users
    Improve Software                          bug fixing

Release often (iterate)
                                                             Service Level
           Maintenance                                        Agreement

No Monopolies & Highly Competitive!
AGI South West 2013      OSGeo - Professional Open Source                    19/53
Copying is not Theft
There is a big difference between material theft
and digital copying.
   We have difficulties understanding this because
                                   we are material.
But our Mind is not entirely material, therefore we
can understand.


             A great 60 second cartoon by Nina Paley:
                                 Copying is not Theft.


  AGI South West 2013   OSGeo - Professional Open Source   20/53
Why does it Work?

    Because there is a need for
     software
    Because there is a community
    Because we are all connected
     (through the Internet)



AGI South West 2013   OSGeo - Professional Open Source   21/53
Part III

                      What is OSGeo?




AGI South West 2013    OSGeo - Professional Open Source   22/53
Using Open Source?

Yes, …but... anybody can call anything "Open
Source". And Open Source is not magically
better software!
     How do we know the software is good?
               How do we know the software will
                          be around tomorrow?
                                               Who will help?


 AGI South West 2013   OSGeo - Professional Open Source    23/53
Open Source Geospatial Foundation

                 http://www.osgeo.org

                      Your Open Source Compass
                            ...organizes spatial IT




AGI South West 2013     OSGeo - Professional Open Source   24/53
The OSGeo Foundation

   OSGeo is a global not-for-profit
    organization founded in February 2006
   Leading voice for Geospatial Open Source
   Structure similar to the Apache
    Foundation
   Volunteer based
   Funded by sponsorship
   Does not provide direct end user services!

    AGI South West 2013   OSGeo - Professional Open Source   25/53
OSGeo's Mission


               Support and promote
                the highest quality
                  Open Source
               Geospatial Software


AGI South West 2013   OSGeo - Professional Open Source   26/53
OSGeo's Goals
   Provide resources for Open Source projects:
        Infrastructure
        Legal                      http://www.osgeo.org
        Financial
   Quality Assurance for Open Source projects
   Promote free and open geospatial data
   Create and maintain a quality brand
   Support Local Chapters: http://www.osgeo.org/uk


    AGI South West 2013   OSGeo - Professional Open Source   27/53
OSGeo's Structure
            Charter Members vote
              Board of 9 Directors
                and President                  Officers
                                                Officers
                                               25 Officers

                                                     represent

                          Committees
                           Committees
                            Committees
                             Committees
                              Committees
                                Committees                     Local
                                                                 Local
                                                              Chapters
             Local                                              Foundation
                                                               Chapters
               Local
            Chapters                                             Projects
                Local
             Chapters
              Chapters


145 Charter Members   elected by   Membership                    Sponsors



AGI South West 2013        OSGeo - Professional Open Source                  28/53
Part IV

                        Licensing




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Free Software Licensing
Free Software Licensing
   Not as in "free beer"
    but as in free speech
   You are free to:
      use it anywhere for any purpose
      understand and improve it
      adjust it to suit your needs
      collaborate with anybody else



    AGI South West 2013    OSGeo - Professional Open Source   30/53
Free Software Licensing
Free Software is a legal
licensing model (a vaccine) to
protect the user's interest.
Proprietary licenses only
protects the vendor's interest.
Nota bene:
"Commercial Software" is a
misnomer because Open
Source is used commercially
everywhere.

  AGI South West 2013    OSGeo - Professional Open Source   31/53
FOSS Licenses
   Clear BSD License
   GNU General Public License (GPL), Version 3
   GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL), Version 3
   Apache License, Version 2.0
   Modified BSD license
   FreeBSD license
   Mozilla Public License (MPL) version 2.0
   XFree86 1.1 License
   etc.
http://www.gnu.org/licenses/license-list.html#SoftwareLicenses

    AGI South West 2013      OSGeo - Professional Open Source   32/53
Free Software Licensing
Free Software Licensing
   Not as in "free beer"

                                     !
    but as in free speech
   You are free to:
                                  d
         use it anywhere for ee purpose
     

                           n t it
                              any

                       rayour needs
        understand and improve
     
                 u  awith anybody else
         adjust it to suit
     
              G
         collaborate


    AGI South West 2013    OSGeo - Professional Open Source   33/53
Proprietary Licenses
 You                   are not allowed to copy
 You                are not allowed to modify
   You are not allowed to give away
   You are not allowed to improve
   You are not allowed to install
   You are not allowed to share

   You are not allowed to...




...another cartoon by Nina Paley: Terms                 of Services!

    AGI South West 2013            OSGeo - Professional Open Source    34/53
Data Licensing


A) If exclusive data ownership is a commercial
      advantage then licenses will be
      proprietary
B) If the broadest possible usage of the data
      maximises the RoI then licenses will be
      Open.



AGI South West 2013   OSGeo - Professional Open Source   35/53
Part V

                      What is Open Data?




AGI South West 2013      OSGeo - Professional Open Source   36/53
Example 1


                 OpenStreetMap is
               a community project to
                create a free editable
                     map of the
                        world
                      http://OpenStreetMap.org


AGI South West 2013       OSGeo - Professional Open Source      37/53
How does it Work?

Maps are created using data from
 portable satellite navigation devices
  (aka GPS)
 aerial photography
 other free sources
 local knowledge

AGI South West 2013   OSGeo - Professional Open Source   38/53
Why does it Work?

   Because there is a need for
    free map data
   Because there is a community
   Because we are all connected
    (through the Internet)

    (a lot of experience comes from the Open Source movement)

AGI South West 2013    OSGeo - Professional Open Source         39/53
Example 2

Ordnance Survey is the National Mapping
    Agency and has the mission to
         comprehensively and
           accurately map
            Great Britain

         1791                                          1 April 2010
The French threaten to invade                          Open Data arrives at OS



  AGI South West 2013           OSGeo - Professional Open Source                 40/53
How does it Work?

Map data is created by surveyors
 using devices (aka GPS)
 aerial photography
 other sources
 local knowledge



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Why does it Work?

   Because there is a need for
    authoritative map data
   Because the government funds it




AGI South West 2013   OSGeo - Professional Open Source   42/53
Who owns the Data?




AGI South West 2013   OSGeo - Professional Open Source   43/53
Part V

           How to License Geospatial Data?




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How is OSM licensed?
Since the beginning of the project
   Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0
Then over three years a major change was initiated which
lead to a completely new license:
Since April 1st 2012:
   Open Database License (OBbL)
                                                         st
The data which was committed until 2012 March 31 is still,
and will forever be available under the CC license.
http://opendatacommons.org/licenses/odbl/1.0/


AGI South West 2013   OSGeo - Professional Open Source        45/53
ODbL




AGI South West 2013   OSGeo - Professional Open Source     46/53
OBbL – Rights (human readable version)




             http://opendatacommons.org/licenses/odbl/summary/


AGI South West 2013       OSGeo - Professional Open Source       47/53
OBbL – Duties (human readable version)




AGI South West 2013    OSGeo - Professional Open Source   48/53
Ordnance Survey

… since 1999 Ordnance Survey has been required
to act as a Trading Fund or commercial entity. This
means that it is supposed to be totally self-funding
from the commercial sale of its data and derived
products - whilst at the same time it is supposed to
be the public supplier of geographical information.


              Wow, this ain't not gonna work now, will it?
See also: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_Data_in_the_United_Kingdom

  AGI South West 2013     OSGeo - Professional Open Source          49/53
OS OpenData License
The OS OpenData license allows you to:
   copy, distribute and transmit the data;
   adapt the data; and
   exploit the data commercially, whether by sub-
    licensing it, combining it with other data, or
    including it in your own product or application.


Incorporates the UK Open Government License.
http://www.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/oswebsite/opendata/licensing.html



AGI South West 2013       OSGeo - Professional Open Source          50/53
The Geospatial Data
                 Schizophrenia
                                          Private businesses
                                               Value (Return
                                              on Investment)
    Effort & Cost
    (Investment)
   Public Authority



AGI South West 2013   OSGeo - Professional Open Source         51/53
Who reaps the profits?




AGI South West 2013   OSGeo - Professional Open Source   52/53
Summary
   Standards must be open
   Software can be open
       With high protection (GNU GPL)
       With less protection (Clear BSD)
   Proprietary licenses are designed to protect the
    interest of the vendor (only)
   Data should be open, if it is for the public good

And there will always by reasons to keep things proprietary...

 AGI South West 2013   OSGeo - Professional Open Source          53/53
Thank you for
      your Attention!

                                            The annual Conference on
                                          Free and Open Source Software
                                                  for Geospatial

With friendly support by:

                                        Copyright: Arnulf Christl, metaspatial. This
http://www.metaspatial.net              slide set is copyrighted to the commons


  AGI South West 2013        OSGeo - Professional Open Source                      54/53
INSPIRE (and PSI)
   How is the data released through INSPIRE
    licensed?
Open questions:
   What is the meaning of
    Public Sector Information (PSI)?
   How can geospatial PSI be used?
   What license can the public administration use?
   What does "Commercial Use" mean?
   What is the way forward for INSPIRE?

AGI South West 2013   OSGeo - Professional Open Source   55/53
References
   OSGeo Foundation website: http://www.osgeo.org
   Wiki: http://wiki.osgeo.org
   Open Source: http://producingoss.org by Karl Fogel
   OpenStreetMap: http://www.openstreetmap.org/
   A note on Copyright: http://arnulf.us/Seven:Copyrights
   The ODbL http://opendatacommons.org/licenses/odbl/1.0/
   OSM Dispute: http://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Open_Data_License/Why_You_Should_Decline
   Lawyer talk: http://www.ifross.org/ifross_html/home2_2009.html



     This presentation is available for download at http://arnulf.us/Publications

    AGI South West 2013            OSGeo - Professional Open Source                        56/53

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Introducing Open - Keynote at AGI South West

  • 1. Open Standards Open Source Open Data Arnulf Christl OSGeo Emeritus President AGI South West 2013
  • 2. A fuzzy question: What is Openness? Lots of FUD (fear, uncertainty & doubt) Let's put some Order into Chaos AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 2/53
  • 3. A Geospatial perspective on: Open Standards Open Source Open Data AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 3/53
  • 4. Arnulf Christl Geospatial Systems Architect at metaspatial ● Co-founder and Emeritus President of OSGeo ● OGC Architecture Board Member ● OpenStreetMap Advocate Founder of several companies and initiatives, provides consulting for SDI and travels a lot. http://www.metaspatial.net/ This presentation is available for download at http://arnulf.us/Publications AGI South West 20132013 AGI South West OSGeo - Professional Open Source OSGeo ­ Professional Open Source 4 / 48 4 / 42
  • 5. Part I What are Open Standards? AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 5/53
  • 6. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) • The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) is an international industry consortium • 481 members (as of March 2013), companies, government agencies and universities • Operates under a consensus process to develop publicly available interface standards. • OGC Standards support interoperable solutions that "geo- enable" the Web, wireless & location-based services and mainstream IT. • The standards empower producers to make complex spatial information and services accessible Slide by courtesy OGC ® (c) 2012 Open Geospatial Consortium of Athina Trakas
  • 7. Reasons for Open Standards ● Prevents a single, self-interested party from controlling a standard „What OGC brings to the • Lower systems and life table is…everyone has cycle costs confidence we won’t take advantage of the format or • Encourage market competition change it in a way that will harm anyone” – Choose based on functionality desired Michael Weiss-Malik, – Avoid “lock in” to a proprietary Google KML product manager architecture • Stimulates innovation beyond the standard by companies that seek to differentiate themselves. Source: Open Standards, Open Source, and Open Innovation: Harnessing the Benefits of 7 Openness, April 2006. Committee For Economic Development. www.ced.org © 2012 Open Geospatial Consortium – 7
  • 8. The OGC Definition of Open • Freely and publicly available • Unencumbered by patents and other intellectual property • Non discriminatory • No license fees • Vendor neutral • Data neutral • Agreed to in a Consensus Process (by the members) • No single entity controls the standard • Open standards are not restricted to Open Source! http://wiki.osgeo.org/wiki/Open_Source_and_Open_Standards OGC ® (c) 2012 Open Geospatial Consortium Slide by courtesy of Athina Trakas
  • 9. OGC WMS (Web Map Server) ● Provide an HTTP interface to access maps ● GetCapabilities (document with list of maps) ● GetMap ● GetFeatureInfo ● GetLegend ● Return images in the requested size and format http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards/wms (c) 2012 Open Geospatial Consortium
  • 10. OGC WFS (Web Feature Service) ● Provide an HTTP interface to access data ● GetCapabilities (document with list of feature types) ● DescribeFeatureType ● GetFeature ● Reads and writes geometry in the standard format GML (Geography Markup Language) http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards/wfs (c) 2012 Open Geospatial Consortium
  • 11. Standards are like parachutes: they work best when they're open. Mary Mc Rae, OASIS* Slide by courtesy of * “Minds, like parachutes, function better when open, but, like fists, 11 Athina Trakas they strike harder when closed.”— L.E. Modesitt, Jr., American Author (1943 -- ) Source picture: http://www.all-hd-wallpapers.com/wallpapers/sports/425236.jpg © 2012 Open Geospatial Consortium – 11
  • 12. Part II What is Open Source Software? AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 12/53
  • 13. Software Development Problem is identified Software development team Solves the problem Publish Software (or Code) Software users have new requirements, find bugs Code is improved new version is released AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 13/53
  • 14. Proprietary Vendors Proprietary motivation: Make Money Market analysis Development team develops software beta version release for beta tester beta tester reports errors to development team development team reproduces the error development team reports to the product management development team solves problem after OK from pm Goal: Sell licenses Product launch AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 14/53
  • 15. Proprietary Vendors Proprietary motivation: Make Money Ask questions: Market analysis When is the software Development team released? develops software beta version release When is new for beta tester functionality Black Box beta tester reports errors to development team development team reproduces the error implemented? Who cares if something breaks? development team reports to the product management How many people development team solves problem after develop software? OK from pm What do the other Goal: Sell licenses Product launch employees do? AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 15/53
  • 16. Overall Revenue in IT Less than 7% of revenue in IT is generated through selling software usage licenses. (i.e. by restricting copying) Read http://arnulf.us/Cadastre for more details AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 16/53
  • 17. Open Source Business Primary motivation: Solve Problem  Publish results Interaction with Users  Improve Software Release often (iterate) AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 17/53
  • 18. Open Source Business Primary motivation: Solve Problem Consulting  Publish results Maintain specific distribution Support Training Implementation Interaction with Users  Improve Software bug fixing Release often (iterate) Service Level Maintenance Agreement AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 18/53
  • 19. Open Source Business Primary motivation: Solve Problem Consulting  Publish results Maintain specific distribution Support Training Implementation Interaction with Users  Improve Software bug fixing Release often (iterate) Service Level Maintenance Agreement No Monopolies & Highly Competitive! AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 19/53
  • 20. Copying is not Theft There is a big difference between material theft and digital copying. We have difficulties understanding this because we are material. But our Mind is not entirely material, therefore we can understand. A great 60 second cartoon by Nina Paley: Copying is not Theft. AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 20/53
  • 21. Why does it Work?  Because there is a need for software  Because there is a community  Because we are all connected (through the Internet) AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 21/53
  • 22. Part III What is OSGeo? AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 22/53
  • 23. Using Open Source? Yes, …but... anybody can call anything "Open Source". And Open Source is not magically better software! How do we know the software is good? How do we know the software will be around tomorrow? Who will help? AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 23/53
  • 24. Open Source Geospatial Foundation http://www.osgeo.org Your Open Source Compass ...organizes spatial IT AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 24/53
  • 25. The OSGeo Foundation  OSGeo is a global not-for-profit organization founded in February 2006  Leading voice for Geospatial Open Source  Structure similar to the Apache Foundation  Volunteer based  Funded by sponsorship  Does not provide direct end user services! AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 25/53
  • 26. OSGeo's Mission Support and promote the highest quality Open Source Geospatial Software AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 26/53
  • 27. OSGeo's Goals  Provide resources for Open Source projects:  Infrastructure  Legal http://www.osgeo.org  Financial  Quality Assurance for Open Source projects  Promote free and open geospatial data  Create and maintain a quality brand  Support Local Chapters: http://www.osgeo.org/uk AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 27/53
  • 28. OSGeo's Structure Charter Members vote Board of 9 Directors and President Officers Officers 25 Officers represent Committees Committees Committees Committees Committees Committees Local Local Chapters Local Foundation Chapters Local Chapters Projects Local Chapters Chapters 145 Charter Members elected by Membership Sponsors AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 28/53
  • 29. Part IV Licensing AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 29/53
  • 30. Free Software Licensing Free Software Licensing  Not as in "free beer" but as in free speech  You are free to:  use it anywhere for any purpose  understand and improve it  adjust it to suit your needs  collaborate with anybody else AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 30/53
  • 31. Free Software Licensing Free Software is a legal licensing model (a vaccine) to protect the user's interest. Proprietary licenses only protects the vendor's interest. Nota bene: "Commercial Software" is a misnomer because Open Source is used commercially everywhere. AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 31/53
  • 32. FOSS Licenses  Clear BSD License  GNU General Public License (GPL), Version 3  GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL), Version 3  Apache License, Version 2.0  Modified BSD license  FreeBSD license  Mozilla Public License (MPL) version 2.0  XFree86 1.1 License  etc. http://www.gnu.org/licenses/license-list.html#SoftwareLicenses AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 32/53
  • 33. Free Software Licensing Free Software Licensing  Not as in "free beer" ! but as in free speech  You are free to: d use it anywhere for ee purpose  n t it any rayour needs  understand and improve  u awith anybody else adjust it to suit  G collaborate AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 33/53
  • 34. Proprietary Licenses  You are not allowed to copy  You are not allowed to modify  You are not allowed to give away  You are not allowed to improve  You are not allowed to install  You are not allowed to share  You are not allowed to... ...another cartoon by Nina Paley: Terms of Services! AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 34/53
  • 35. Data Licensing A) If exclusive data ownership is a commercial advantage then licenses will be proprietary B) If the broadest possible usage of the data maximises the RoI then licenses will be Open. AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 35/53
  • 36. Part V What is Open Data? AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 36/53
  • 37. Example 1 OpenStreetMap is a community project to create a free editable map of the world http://OpenStreetMap.org AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 37/53
  • 38. How does it Work? Maps are created using data from  portable satellite navigation devices (aka GPS)  aerial photography  other free sources  local knowledge AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 38/53
  • 39. Why does it Work?  Because there is a need for free map data  Because there is a community  Because we are all connected (through the Internet) (a lot of experience comes from the Open Source movement) AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 39/53
  • 40. Example 2 Ordnance Survey is the National Mapping Agency and has the mission to comprehensively and accurately map Great Britain 1791 1 April 2010 The French threaten to invade Open Data arrives at OS AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 40/53
  • 41. How does it Work? Map data is created by surveyors  using devices (aka GPS)  aerial photography  other sources  local knowledge AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 41/53
  • 42. Why does it Work?  Because there is a need for authoritative map data  Because the government funds it AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 42/53
  • 43. Who owns the Data? AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 43/53
  • 44. Part V How to License Geospatial Data? AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 44/53
  • 45. How is OSM licensed? Since the beginning of the project  Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Then over three years a major change was initiated which lead to a completely new license: Since April 1st 2012:  Open Database License (OBbL) st The data which was committed until 2012 March 31 is still, and will forever be available under the CC license. http://opendatacommons.org/licenses/odbl/1.0/ AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 45/53
  • 46. ODbL AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 46/53
  • 47. OBbL – Rights (human readable version) http://opendatacommons.org/licenses/odbl/summary/ AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 47/53
  • 48. OBbL – Duties (human readable version) AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 48/53
  • 49. Ordnance Survey … since 1999 Ordnance Survey has been required to act as a Trading Fund or commercial entity. This means that it is supposed to be totally self-funding from the commercial sale of its data and derived products - whilst at the same time it is supposed to be the public supplier of geographical information. Wow, this ain't not gonna work now, will it? See also: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_Data_in_the_United_Kingdom AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 49/53
  • 50. OS OpenData License The OS OpenData license allows you to:  copy, distribute and transmit the data;  adapt the data; and  exploit the data commercially, whether by sub- licensing it, combining it with other data, or including it in your own product or application. Incorporates the UK Open Government License. http://www.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/oswebsite/opendata/licensing.html AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 50/53
  • 51. The Geospatial Data Schizophrenia Private businesses Value (Return on Investment) Effort & Cost (Investment) Public Authority AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 51/53
  • 52. Who reaps the profits? AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 52/53
  • 53. Summary  Standards must be open  Software can be open  With high protection (GNU GPL)  With less protection (Clear BSD)  Proprietary licenses are designed to protect the interest of the vendor (only)  Data should be open, if it is for the public good And there will always by reasons to keep things proprietary... AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 53/53
  • 54. Thank you for your Attention! The annual Conference on Free and Open Source Software for Geospatial With friendly support by: Copyright: Arnulf Christl, metaspatial. This http://www.metaspatial.net slide set is copyrighted to the commons AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 54/53
  • 55. INSPIRE (and PSI)  How is the data released through INSPIRE licensed? Open questions:  What is the meaning of Public Sector Information (PSI)?  How can geospatial PSI be used?  What license can the public administration use?  What does "Commercial Use" mean?  What is the way forward for INSPIRE? AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 55/53
  • 56. References  OSGeo Foundation website: http://www.osgeo.org  Wiki: http://wiki.osgeo.org  Open Source: http://producingoss.org by Karl Fogel  OpenStreetMap: http://www.openstreetmap.org/  A note on Copyright: http://arnulf.us/Seven:Copyrights  The ODbL http://opendatacommons.org/licenses/odbl/1.0/  OSM Dispute: http://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Open_Data_License/Why_You_Should_Decline  Lawyer talk: http://www.ifross.org/ifross_html/home2_2009.html This presentation is available for download at http://arnulf.us/Publications AGI South West 2013 OSGeo - Professional Open Source 56/53