Hungary, soon 10 years in the European Union!

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During these three months in Budapest to demonstrate the interest that you wear to the country and the city where we live, we'll focus on the results that is Hungary ago its integration into the European Union.

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Hungary, soon 10 years in the European Union!

  1. 1. B u d a p e s t U n i v e r s i t y o f T e c h n o l o g y a n d E c o n o m i c s F e b r u a r y - J u n e 2 0 1 3 Arnold Stéllio BOUNGOUNGOU Cultural Project Hungary, soon 10 years in the European Union!
  2. 2. Sommaire Sommaire...............................................................................................................................................2 I-The objectives of the study..................................................................................................................3 II-Methodology.......................................................................................................................................3 III-Overview of Hungary..........................................................................................................................4 1-Identity card of Hungary..................................................................................................................4 IV-Why Hungary wants to join the European Union?.............................................................................5 1-The situation before accession........................................................................................................5 2-The process of accession to the European Union............................................................................5 V-After its accession...............................................................................................................................6 1-Place of Hungary in the European Union, his vision........................................................................6 2-The major changes..........................................................................................................................7 2.1-The EU provides five advantages Hungarian agriculture..........................................................7 2.2-Significant investments in infrastructure..................................................................................7 2-3Modernization of health care services in Budapest...................................................................8 3-Hungary violates the values of the European Union ......................................................................8 VI-The Results.......................................................................................................................................10 1-Positive impacts.............................................................................................................................10 2- Negative impacts..........................................................................................................................11 VII-My point of view.............................................................................................................................12 VIII-Conclusion......................................................................................................................................13 IX-References and Bibliography............................................................................................................14 2 |
  3. 3. I-The objectives of the study During these three months in Budapest to demonstrate the interest that you wear to the country and the city where we live, we'll focus on the results that is Hungary ago its integration into the European Union. Nearly ten years in the European Union, what is the result for Hungary? In answering this question, we could understand the Hungarian operation mode, the vision of the Hungarian government, expectations of the population to the European Union. The strengths and weaknesses of the entry of Hungary into the European Union. II-Methodology Our work will be based on research documentation, news facts, interrogation of several local people but also on political, economic and social analysis, events taking place during our stay in Hungary. This is a real investigative work. The work will be done as follows: The first phase consist to give overview of Hungary, Why Hungary wants to join the European Union we will talk about state of country before accession, the process of accession to the European Union. The second phase it ‘is the after accession, Hungary in the European Union we will talk about the main changes, place of Hungary in the European Union, his vision, positive effects and negative effects. For resume I will give my point of view about Hungary. 3 |
  4. 4. III-Overview of Hungary 1-Identity card of Hungary Hungary is a country in central Europe. Hungary is bordered by Slovakia to the north; Ukraine and Romania to the east; Serbia, Croatia and Slovenia to the south and Austria to the east. It has the capital Budapest, Hungarian is the official language. Although in the European Union, Hungary has its own currency. This is the forint. Population of about 10 million, Hungary is an average power at the European level. It has a capitalist economy with a large public sector yet. Like many former communist countries, the production model has long been dominated by industry. Now the Hungary is turned to the development of tertiary industry which are services and tourism. Hungary Capital Budapest Total surface 93 029 km2 Language Hungarian Currency Forint (HUF) Population 9 937 628 Administration Form of State Parliamentary Republic President János Áder Assembly President László Kövér Minister President Viktor Orbán 4 |
  5. 5. IV-Why Hungary wants to join the European Union? 1-The situation before accession Before its accession to the European Union, Hungary is a medium country, its economy is not strong, and the standard of living is among the lowest in Europe. Hungary still has problems with human rights and freedom in social reflection is not the brighter. The level of road transport market access, rules and social security and access rights in the rail sector is also very low. Although the education system is present, there is a relatively low level; the level of university does not compete with those of France or Germany, to mention only these two. However, Hungary knows its location could be an asset for the European Union; it will make an application for membership, because she knows that the support of the European Union would be beneficial to its development. 2-The process of accession to the European Union March 31, 1994, Peter Boross addressed the candidature of Hungary to the European Union. We can summarize the background processes entry of Hungary into the European Union in five reports; it reports were reporting the progress of work in Hungary. Report 1, the commission gave an opinion on the application for Hungarian membership in July 1997. In this opinion the Commission presented its views on various points. Hungary's participation in the euro area from its entry into the Union was premature. It nevertheless calls on this point, Hungary to bring the legislation of the National Bank conform. For resume the others reports we can say: the Commission published reports in which she spoke of the progress made by Hungary. Reports specified achieving some progress, particularly in terms of developing the competitiveness of the Hungarian industry through investment, free movement of goods, education and training, media, research and technological development and society information Negotiations finally closed definitively in December 2002, Hungary has raised all its challenge, it is in order to access the European Union The last step was the referendum. A referendum is organized in Hungary April 12, 2003. The referendum asked the following question: “That Hungary became a member of the European Union do you accept?” Membership is approved by 83.76% of "yes" with a participation rate of 45.6%. Hungary is now in the European Union in the next section, we'll see how Hungary plays its role in the European Union and what its vision is. 5 |
  6. 6. V-After its accession 1-Place of Hungary in the European Union, his vision Despite the difficulties, the discourse of the Hungarian leaders remains positive. Political and financial supports from the EU are not negligible. Hungary is the sixth recipient of the funds of EU regional policy 2007-2013, amounting to 30 billion Euros. Through these credits it is able to build national production capacity and infrastructures continued structural reforms to increase employment and to reduce poverty. Attached to the common agricultural policy and cohesion policy, Hungary supports the definition of future policies on issues related to energy, environment, migration and research and development. Budapest has also received the award in 2008, the headquarters of the European Institute of Technology. With its twelve votes in the Council and its twenty two Members of the European, Hungary took the presidency in January 2011 for six months. It essentially wishes to develop a "post- Lisbon" program with special emphasis on institutional issues and operation. Budapest is also working to promote the project "Danube Strategy" on the model of the Baltic and Black Sea synergy. It involves more in questions of security and defense, operations in Bosnia and Kosovo. Finally, Hungary has invested heavily in the perspective of future enlargements. It particularly supports for identity and security reasons, the future integration of the Balkan countries, foremost of which Croatia and Ukraine. In conclusion, Hungary continues with determining the strategic priorities of foreign policy adopted by the government in February 2008: competitiveness in the EU, regional power and global responsibility. This last point is confirmed by the Hungarian bid for 2012-2013 to a non-permanent member of the Security Council of the United Nations, but unfortunately failed. After this Analyze and different information collected during our research we can say that Hungary plays a role, they are the means to become a power and make his voice heard in Europe and beyond In the following, we discussed the main change, see what has changed since Hungary's accession to the European Union, how the economy has changed, and the standard of living too. 6 |
  7. 7. 2-The major changes Since the change of regime, Hungary has benefited from more complete modernization efforts of various governments programs. 2.1-The EU provides five advantages Hungarian agriculture Strengthening the rural development policy will give the Hungarian agricultural sector a perfectly targeted pulse. For the period 2004-2006, the EU will total € 850 million available for Hungary. From the first day of accession rural areas have access to a wide range of investment aid for environmental measures or aid up to Community standards programs. The second argument is particularly important for a country with a long tradition of exporting. With accession to the EU, the Hungarian farmers and agro-industry will have access to the largest single market in the world with nearly half a billion creditworthy consumers. The introduction of the common agricultural policy stabilize the incomes of Hungarian farmers because by acting on the markets, including public interventions in crisis, the EU stabilize producer prices. Hungary will have for this type of measurement of about € 150 million per year. The gradual increase of direct payments will also help in times of restructuring and modernization to ensure that Hungarian farmers a stable income. All scientific studies show that Hungarian agriculture would be better off being inside the EU if it remained outside. The latest scientific analysis of the European Commission show that in all candidate countries, farmers benefit from significant revenue increases. Compared to 2002, we expect an increase in farm income by over 40% in the new Member States. The new measures for rural development have been useful for the introduction of food safety standards and quality standards. 2.2-Significant investments in infrastructure Hungary has spoken about the use of the funds available by the EU, mainly in the "New Széchenyi Plan" to boost the Hungarian economy. This money was allocated in priority development areas of health, environment, housing, transport and tourism as well as the general improvement of business and investment conditions. 7 |
  8. 8. During the presentation of the "New Széchenyi Plan," the first concrete projects were discussed and have seen the day, including: • The construction of a bridge over the Danube in Komárom, on the border with Slovakia. • Work on public transport with the creation of bus stops, redevelopment node communication "Moszkva Ter" Budapest, GSM-R (Global System for Mobile Communications / Railway) to the national rail network). • Various tourism projects at Lake Balaton and the Tisza; protection program for the alluvial habitat of the Drava. • Modernization stage Debrecen and Puskas Ferenc Stadium in Budapest. 2-3Modernization of health care services in Budapest Action Plan of the City of Budapest in favor of health care, which has covered the major reform of the hospital system of the city in a regional context, the structural reorganization of the system of health care and the creation of a structure optimal institutional enabling delivery of more efficient and economical services. It is part of the development of a broader director of the hospital sector level, the EIB has engaged with the World Bank in the central region of Hungary. Restructuring of the three hospitals Szent Imre, Bajcsy-Zsilinszky and Uzsoki, which are expected to become an important component of the network of professional health care centers in the region of Budapest which provides services to a population of nearly 1.8 million people. The funding has been awarded part of the loan for infrastructure sectors and services in Budapest, in the amount of 370 million Euros 3-Hungary violates the values of the European Union In terms of democracy, Hungary seems to drift, although a member of the European Union (it since 2004). On the one hand, it has recently supplied to ethnic Hungarians outside border passports, with voting rights in Hungary. On the other hand, which is unimaginable and unacceptable, mayors gave street names to historical fascist leaders, allies of Nazi Germany. Finally, on Monday, March 11, parliament passed a constitutional amendment that departs completely the rule of law, one of the necessary political conditions (among others) to join the European Union ("Copenhagen criteria" 1993). The separation of powers is no longer 8 |
  9. 9. guaranteed, the judiciary becoming a tool in the hands of the executive. The Constitutional Court is muzzled. In addition, provisions amend an impermissibly the retirement age of judges, the status of the church, the law of marriage. Two-thirds in parliament, the conservative Fidesz party, led by Prime Minister Viktor Orban, have enacted laws placing the public media, justice officials and the National Bank under government control. Defendants and debates have proliferated in the European Parliament as the Commission launched infringement procedures against Budapest. With an amendment enacted in March to deny the essential powers of the Constitutional Court. Together, the European Commission and the Council of Europe protested late and softly. 9 |
  10. 10. VI-The Results 1-Positive impacts The previous section show that Hungary has made efforts and its entry into the European Union has accelerated the process of development. The voice of Hungary is important; it feels like when making decisions in the world. Previous table shows the share of funds that each member of the European Union receives. In this classification it should be noted that Hungary is well placed and receives a large share. The standard of living in both social as economic approximates gradually from one of the founders of the European Union. In this regard Hungary has done a great job. This is also reflected in its education system, the university has nothing to envy to those of France, for example. Today, there 10 |
  11. 11. are many investors who come from all countries, strengthen this sector and made Hungary a hub of Union. One goods made of all this work it is tourism, tourism has an important part in the economy. After agriculture, the tourism that comes second. This creates jobs and contribution to better living conditions for people. With its membership in the Schengen area it is millions of people who converge to Budapest and its surroundings 2- Negative impacts Rare are those who take into account the benefits of belonging to the European Union. Despite the progress Hungary has already achieved in terms of economic convergence, the financial assistance of the European Union still remains daunting. The current budget, in which are recorded the expenses of the Union for the period 2007 to 2013, for example, provides € 24.7 billion subsidy. Nevertheless, access to funds has unfortunately not led to the disappearance of large regional inequalities, quite the contrary. Looking at the differences in the level of development of the regions, it is clear that some have made real progress while others continue to face the same problems as before. For example: the standard of living in the region center-Hungary (including the capital) now exceeds the European average, but the development of the most disadvantaged (northeast) region is only 42% of this same medium. According to the Eurobarometer survey, conducted in January, Hungarians are now one of the most Eurosceptic nations. Whereas in 2010 the majority of the population was in favor of the country's accession to the European Union in early 2013 only 32% judge positively. Hungarian pessimism is probably influenced by the current economic environment. Nothing better illustrates this recent survey indicating that they have placed economic growth and the fight against unemployment and inflation at the top of areas where the EU should make more efforts. Other issues such as energy security and the fight against climate change much less interest. Only a small circle of SMEs benefited from the funds subsidies, the poorest farmers or small family businesses that have yet to be helped, have very little chance to benefit from these subsidies. Since 1 May 2004, the Hungarian results are mixed with regard to the EU. The economic and financial crisis has highlighted the structural fragility of Hungary whose public finances have continued to deteriorate in recent years. 11 |
  12. 12. Foreign investors that affect the Hungarian economy are now rare; exports are falling, livelihoods collapse. The Hungarian government has a policy of austerity since September 2006 to reduce the deficit to 3% of GDP and debt to 60% by the Maastricht criteria. The program is based on the reduction of government spending, social spending, mainly family allowances, social security and pension system, as well as the VAT increase. But in the short term, such a policy has a negative impact on GDP and employment. On the verge of bankruptcy in 2008, the country seems to be the head in 2012 after a combined intervention of the IMF, the EU and the European Central Bank to the tune of 20 billion Euros. The currency is relatively stable and the confidence of foreign investors back. Unemployment remains a concern (over 10% in 2012) and the abysmal public debt (97% of GDP). VII-My point of view For my part, and my experience as an Erasmus student for five months in Budapest, I can say that: the impact of the European Union is very visible. Already on school or university level, for example at the university where I was, there were several students from the European Union, about exchange it is fine. Partnerships between several universities in the European Union are woven. This was not the case before. Today, Hungary is open to the world. They take pride with the idea that their countries interested many people. Efforts have been made in this direction by the government, so that Hungary is a country of tourism. What surprised me the most in Hungary is the standard of living and infrastructure that is similar to that of France or Germany, with modern way of transportation we can say that Hungary is on the right way. Although part of the European Union, Hungary has kept its specificity; this is one of its main strengths. As perfection is not of this world, there are some Hungarians who do not agree with the fact that Hungary is in European Union. I was also touched by all these inequalities, but also the level of wages is among the lowest in Europe. In this regard, there is still some way to go, this is what the state. To summarize this part, and for that I have demonstrated, I think the fact of having enter the European Union is very beneficial for the development of Hungary. 12 |
  13. 13. VIII-Conclusion We are at the end of our work; there was question of treating a subject during the Erasmus stay in Hungary. We are back on the nine years of Hungary in the European Union. The process of joining the Union was not easy, but the work is feel today, it is true that the growth path is still long but Hungary is on the right way. Due to close and background of the European Union, Hungary launched major development projects in the field of agriculture, transport; she also reformed its health system. Hungary now attracts more people thanks to its tourism potential. The young people we met are proud of belonging to the European Union and believe in it. It is with great pleasure that I take this project; I met interesting people who answered my questions. Analyze this allowed me to better understand the operating mode of Hungary. After this work I spring with more knowledge, but also experience in the investigation and analysis of records. It is true that it was not easy to find the right information, but the patience and tenacity ended up to pay. 13 |
  14. 14. IX-References and Bibliography https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hongrie http://www.hu-lala.org/ http://europa.eu/about-eu/countries/member-countries/hungary/index_fr.htm http://www.lalibre.be/actu/international/la-hongrie-viole-t-elle-les-valeurs-de-l-union-europeenne- 51b8fb96e4b0de6db9ca3d51 « Dossier sur la Hongrie », by Márta Konrád, János Vándor « VICTOR ORBAN VA-T-IL VERS LA RUPTURE ? », by PIERRE VERLUISE, 2012, December. « COUNCIL RECOMMENDATION », EUROPEAN COMMISSION, Brussels, 29.5.2013. Report in 3181 Words 14 |

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