Roy Antony Arnold G
Lecturer, Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering
Einstein College of Engineering
Sir C.V.Raman Nagar, Tirunelveli
• Burgeoning population growth influences
the nature and quality of government-to-citizen
• Stunning economic growth of the country
influences good quality Information and
Communication Technology (ICT).
• Migration for jobs from rural to urban areas
• Growth of mobile communications and
• Blurring of public and private roles and
State/Union Initiatives covering departmental automation, user charge collection,
Territory delivery of policy/programme information and delivery of entitlements
e-Seva, CARD, VOICE, MPHS, FAST, e-Cops, AP online—One-stop-shop on the
Internet, Saukaryam, Online Transaction processing
Bihar Sales Tax Administration Management Information
Chattisgarh Chhattisgarh Infotech Promotion Society, Treasury office, e-linking project
Automatic Vehicle Tracking System, Computerisation of website of RCS office,
Delhi Electronic Clearance System, Management Information System for Education
Goa Dharani Project
Mahiti Shakti, request for Government documents online, Form book online, G
R book online, census online, tender notice.
Haryana Nai Disha
Himachal Pradesh Lok Mitra
Karnataka Bhoomi, Khajane, Kaveri
e-Srinkhala, RDNet, Fast, Reliable, Instant, Efficient Network for the
Disbursement of Services (FRIENDS)
Gyandoot, Gram Sampark, Smart Card in Transport Department,
Computerization MP State Agricultural Marketing Board (Mandi Board) etc
Maharashtra SETU, Online Complaint Management System—Mumbai
Rajasthan Jan Mitra, RajSWIFT, Lokmitra, RajNIDHI
Rasi Maiyams–Kanchipuram; Application forms related to public utility,
tender notices and display
• The SMART stands for
to emerge as a wholesome knowledge based
learning society built on values of hard work,
honesty, discipline and a collective sense
• To ensure a single window for govt services at
district and village level.
• To provide a friendly, affordable, speedier and
efficient interface between the government and
• To activate responsive and transparent services to
the citizens of the state.
• To disseminate cost effective service and at the
same time improving the quality of service.
• e-Citizens and e-Services
RECIPIENT Citizens, Businesses, Public servants, NGOs, etc.
Mobile phones Digital TV Call centers Kiosks PCs Tele- conferencing Communication
Web (eINDIA Gateway) Data Communication
Intranet Extranet Email Applications
Management Support System Office Processing Applications
Basic Data System Automation
SOURCE Government data
• Establishment of nation-wide broad band
IP network, right up to the village level (by
taking care of all the requirements such as
power and bandwidth to form eIndia).
• A nation-wide unique citizen identification
mechanism (using the latest technology
such as MNIC smart cards)
• Step 1: Development and implementation of web services
(based on SOA – Service Oriented Architecture) for all the e-
governance applications (such as ePanchayat for Village
Panchayats, eMunicipality for Municipalities) at various tiers of
the government, as indicated.
• Step 2: Establishing web services repositories at four major
a) Village level
b) District level
c) State level
d) National level
Leadership & Feedback Mechanisms
plan & strategy
Services SMART eINDIA Action
1. Informational Plan
National SMART eINDIA Strategy
1) Department Offices
e-Readiness level 3) CSC
5) Call Centers
SMART eINDIA Objectives 7) Digital TV’s
a. Simplicity 8) PCs
b. Morality 9) Teleconference
e. Transparency Performance Measures
·Value to customer
·Value to dept.
States - 28
U.T. - 7
Districts - 604
544 districts have their own website mostly static sites (NIC)
Villages - 6,38,596
Uninhabited - 44,865
Population - 1,028 million
Urban Area - 28% [286 million]
Rural Area - 72% [742 million]
Literacy Rate – 64.84% – 296 million illiterates
The largest segment of the world’s illiterates is in India
Highest – Kerala – 90.86%
Lowest – Bihar – 47%
Computer Literacy – 20% to 30%
This is the most important deciding factor of successful e-
Macro Level (National)
Macro – Meso Level
Intra State Communication
Meso Level (State)
Inter State Communication
Micro Level (District or Block)
Inter District Communication
Nano Level (Taluk, Village)
Inter Village Communication
• Horizontal interactions are within the
same level whereas vertical interactions
happen between two different levels.
• Here the vertical interactions have a huge language barrier. There
are 22 official languages in INDIA.
Language Speak %
State Language 85% to 90%
• So, localization of Languages is a MUST for EFFECTIVE
implementation of eINDIA.
District Wide State Wide National
Area Network Area Network Wide
Service District Level Repository
Centre Web Repository
Vertical Interaction · System Integration across
·Lower & Higher Level different functionality
systems with similar · Real single window services
functionality are for citizens
No. of Citizen Centric Services
a) Transparency and accountability
d) Internet Connectivity & Bandwidth
e) Security Measures
• Robert Klitggard of RAND has an interesting equation
to explain corruption:
C = M+D-T
Corruption = Monopoly + Discretion - Transparency
• In India, the state holds an absolute monopoly over
most of the delivery of basic services.
• This is where e-governance can bring in radical
• The NCAER survey identified
Tamil Nadu, Karnataka,
Andhra Pradesh, and
Maharashtra as the leading
States in terms of "e-readiness".
• At the end of March 2002, in India’s 6,38,596
villages, only 4,69,000 villages have the public
• Teledensity in the
– urban side is 15.2% inhabitants
– rural side only 1.5% inhabitants.
• At the end of the month July 2008, the teledensity
reaches the new peak 29.08%
India 1.5 Gbps
Singapore 2.6 Gbps
S. Korea 5.4 Gbps
China 7.6 Gbps
• We have come some way since then, but it’s a
long road ahead...
• To win the trust of the public, a national level
security mechanism has to be instituted to
combat cyber crime.
• A body of security professionals should be
setup to respond to threats and breaches.
• Also the need for a certification authority and
a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) encryption
• For successful SMART eINDIA; Think Big, Start Small
and Scale Fast.
• Central and State Governments should take proactive
steps in establishing Intelligent Knowledge Management
• Meanwhile the teledensity and the bandwidth should be
• It also requires establishment of various institutions under
the Ministry of Information Technology to increase the
awareness and computer literacy.
• Above all it requires e-readiness in the minds of citizens
and the Government employees.
• Benchmarking E-government: A Global Perspective, UN-DPEPA, New York, April 2001, p.56
• Speech ,of the Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh, Shri N.Chandra Babu Naidu, Bridging ihe Digiial
Divide, Govt. of Andhra Pradesh’s (GoAP) website, available at htlp://www.aponline.gov.in
• E-Readiness Moldova 2004. Kishinev, 2004
• Subhash Bhatnagar, “Egovernment: Lessons from Implementation in Developing Countries”, Indian
Institute of Management, Amedabad – 380015 , Published in Regional Development Dialogue, Vol. 24,
UNCRD, Autumn 2002 Issue.
• Government of Andbra Pradesh, White Paper on Governance and Public Munagemenf Sirategv, Govt.
of Andhra Pradesh’s (GoAP) wehsite, available at http://www. aponline.gov. in
• S. C. Bhatnagar, E Government: From vision to implementation: A Practical Guide with Case Studies,
Sage Publications, New Delhi, 2004.
• H.J. Scholl, (2003) “E-Government: A Special Case of ICT-enabled Business Process Change”,
Proceedings of the 36th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2003 (12 pages).
• Z. Irani et al, “Transaction Stage of e-Government Systems: Identification of its Location & Importance”,
Proceedings of the 39th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2006 (9 pages).
• Quirk, Barry, “From Managing Change to Leading Transformation”, Paper presented at the
EGovernment Summit, December, United Kingdom, 2000
• C. Lu and K. Lee. A Multilingual Database Management System for Ideographic Languages. Chinese
University of Hong Kong Technical Report, 1992.
• E-Governance Roadmap for Rajasthan
• eGov Project: http://www.egov-project.org/
• Martin B. and Byrne J. (2003), “Im-plementing e-Government: widening the lens”, Electronic Journal of
e-Gov-ernment, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 11–22.
• World Markets Research Centre (2001), “Global E-Government Survey”, World Markets Research
Centre, pp.1-16; www.worldmarketsanalysis.com.