JDR model Bakker & Demerouti

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The Job Demands - Resources model of burnout and engagement. Basic propositions. This model of employee well-being integrates various job stress and motivation models, including the job demands - control model, the job characteristics model, the effort-reward imbalance model, and conservation of resources theory.

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JDR model Bakker & Demerouti

  1. 1. Job Demands-Resources Model Prof. Arnold B. Bakker Erasmus University & Prof. Evangelia Demerouti Eindhoven University of Technology
  2. 2. JD-R model integrates various previous models, including: - Demands-control model (Karasek, 1979) - Job characteristics model (Hackman & Oldham, 1980) - Conservation of resources model (Hobfoll, 1989) - Effort-reward imbalance model (Siegrist, 1996) Bakker, A.B., & Demerouti, E. (2007). The Job Demands-Resources model: State of the art. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22, 309-328.
  3. 3. JD-R model propositions: 1. Every organization has its own unique work environment 2. Work environments can be characterized by job demands and job resources 3. Two simultaneous processes: a health impairment process and a motivational process Bakker, A.B., & Demerouti, E. (2007). The Job Demands-Resources model: State of the art. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22, 309-328.
  4. 4. JD-R model propositions: 4. Job resources can buffer the impact of job demands on strain 5. Job resources become salient and have more motivating potential when job demands are high Bakker, A.B., & Demerouti, E. (2007). The Job Demands-Resources model: State of the art. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22, 309-328.
  5. 5. JD-R model propositions: 6. Well-being (low burnout, high engagement) predicts organizational performance 7. Engaged employees optimize their own work environment (job crafting) Bakker, A.B. (2011). An evidence-based model of work engagement. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20, 265–269 .
  6. 6. Workload Emoti onal Demands Role Conflict Mental Demands Autonomy Social Support Coaching Feedback Employees face many different job demands and job resources Etcetera Etcetera
  7. 7. Job Demands “…those physical, psychological, social, or organizational aspects of the job that require sustained physical and/or psychological (cognitive and emotional) effort or skills and are therefore associated with certain physiological and/or psychological costs” Bakker, A.B., & Demerouti, E. (2007). The Job Demands-Resources model: State of the art. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22, 309-328.
  8. 8. Job Resources “…those physical, psychological, social, or organizational aspects of the job that are either/or: (a) functional in achieving work goals; (b) reduce job demands and the associated physiological and psychological costs; and (c) stimulate personal growth, learning, and development” Bakker, A.B., & Demerouti, E. (2007). The Job Demands-Resources model: State of the art. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22, 309-328.
  9. 9. Two processes T1 Engagement T1 Burnout T2 Engagement T2 Burnout .68 -.79 Δ Job Demands Δ Job Resources .23 -.27 .45 .74 -.72 -.58 Schaufeli, W.B., Bakker, A.B., & Van Rhenen, W. (2009). How changes in job demands and resources predict burnout, work engagement, and sickness absenteeism. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30, 893-917.
  10. 10. Interactions in JD-R model BURNOUT WORK ENGAGEMENT APATHY BOREDOM LOW HIGH LOW HIGH JOB RESOURCES JOB DEMANDS
  11. 11. Resources work when needed Finnish Teachers, N =805 Bakker, A.B., Hakanen, J.J., Demerouti, E., & Xanthopoulou, D. (2007). Job resources boost work engagement, particularly when job demands are high. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99 , 274-284.
  12. 12. Resources work when needed Dutch Employees, N =12,000 Bakker, A., Van Veldhoven, M.J.P.M., & Xanthopoulou, D. (2010). Beyond the demand-control model: Thriving on high job demands and resources. Journal of Personnel Psychology , 9 , 3-16.
  13. 13. JD-R Model + + Personal Resources Performance Work Engagement Job Resources Job Demands + + Job crafting Bakker, A.B. (2011). An evidence-based model of work engagement. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20, 265–269 .
  14. 14. More on the JD-R model: www.arnoldbakker.com

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