Arnold Bakker Games

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Impact of gaming on next day's work experiences

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Arnold Bakker Games

  1. 1. Computer games, Recovery, and Work: A Diary Study Prof.dr. Arnold B. Bakker Erasmus University Rotterdam, NL www.arnoldbakker.com
  2. 2. Computer Games <ul><li>Prevalence </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Every day, millions of users interact, collaborate, and form </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> relationships with each other through avatars in online </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> environments (Yee, 2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MMOPRGs </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Massively Multi-User Online Role-Playing Games </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Computer Games <ul><li>Games enable fictional roles </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities for recovery from </li></ul><ul><li>work-related effort? </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Psychological detachment </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxation </li></ul><ul><li>Mastery </li></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul>Recovery Fritz & Sonnentag (2007)
  5. 5. <ul><li>Basic need satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Escape from reality </li></ul>Recovery
  6. 6. <ul><li>Physiological arousal </li></ul><ul><li>Use of same energetic resources </li></ul>Or Effortfull? May depend on type of game
  7. 7. <ul><li>Competitive, “Killers” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Franken & Brown (1995): Motivated to put forth effort, which </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>costs energy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cooperative, “Socializers” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cole & Griffiths (2007): MMORPGs as highly socially interactive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>environments providing opportunity to create strong friendships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glomb et al. (2011): Feeling good by doing good </li></ul></ul>Game Types
  8. 8. Game length has a negative impact on (a) recovery, (b) vitality, (c) cognitive liveliness, and (d) flow when the game is competitive (vs. cooperative) Hypotheses
  9. 9. Energy in the morning Flow during the day Gaming in the evening Game Type
  10. 10. <ul><li>Diary study </li></ul><ul><li>41 employees / gamers </li></ul><ul><li>5 days, 3 times per day </li></ul><ul><li>Mean age: 27 years (SD = 5) </li></ul><ul><li>Various occupations </li></ul><ul><li>Most participants were male </li></ul>Method
  11. 11. <ul><li>Game length and type </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery (Sonnentag) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Because of the activities I have done </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>yesterday in my leisure time, I feel recovered” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Vitality (Shirom) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I feel I have physical strength” </li></ul></ul>Measures
  12. 12. <ul><li>Cognitive liveliness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I feel I can think rapidly” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flow (Bakker, 2008) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Today, I was totally immersed in my work” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Today, I felt cheerful when I was working ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Today, I got my motivation from the work itself, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and not from the reward for it” </li></ul></ul>Measures
  13. 17. + + - Energy in the morning Flow during the day Gaming in the evening Game Type
  14. 18. Conclusions <ul><li>Competitive games cost energy; </li></ul><ul><li>CGs have negative impact on </li></ul><ul><li>work-related flow </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative games  flow </li></ul><ul><li>Games can offer opportunities for </li></ul><ul><li>recovery; competitive games do not. </li></ul>
  15. 19. Thanks! www.arnoldbakker.com

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