Digital Divides of Age, Immigration and Language in One Urban and Two Rural Texas Communities IAMCR 2008 By Joseph Straubh...
Theoretical and policy issues <ul><li>Increasing focus on language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linguistic capital (Bourdieu) as ...
Urban Austin studies <ul><li>Observation of library access centers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Showed lack of use by minority te...
Family and trajectory <ul><li>Families as sites of resources, reproduction of status, or change of status </li></ul><ul><u...
Family and trajectory, 2 <ul><li>Families as sites of resources, reproduction of status, or change of status </li></ul><ul...
Migration, both transnational and rural-urban <ul><li>Generation of migration to U.S. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First generati...
Migration, transnational and rural-urban, cont. <ul><li>Secondary migration: rural to urban </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces...
Second study examines early impact of rural broadband <ul><li>Study took place in two communities where new wireless broad...
Similarities between two rural Latino communities <ul><li>Economic bases  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurial grantsmans...
Differences between the two Latino communities <ul><li>Economic and social bases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cristal - semi-coll...
Internet by Hispanics vs. non- Hispanics not significant Hisp. 2005 Hisp. 2008 Non-H 2005 Non-H 2008 Ever heard of Interne...
Internet among Hispanics 2005, by age Among Hispanics 2005 18-29 30-59 60+ Ever heard of Internet? 93% 84% 38%* Ever used ...
Internet among Hispanics 2008, by age Among Hispanics 2008 18-29 30-59 60+ Ever heard of Internet? 93% 84% 59%* Ever used ...
Spanish vs. English speaker differences significant <ul><li>Language more significant difference than ethnicity </li></ul>...
Spanish vs. English speaker differences tend to increase Eng. 2005 Span. 2005 Eng. 2008 Span. 2008 Ever heard of Internet?...
Internet by language, Zapata vs. Cristal, 2005  In 2005 Eng. Zapa Span. Zapa Eng. Crist Span. Crist Ever heard of Internet...
Internet by language, Zapata vs. Cristal, 2008  In 2008 Eng. Zapa Span. Zapa Eng. Crist Span. Crist Ever heard of Internet...
Internet among immigrants  <ul><li>Immigration impact magnified by age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Older immigrants much less aw...
Internet among Immigrants Born outside USA Born in USA Ever heard of Internet? 60% 90%*** Ever used the INTERNET? 34 74***...
Internet among immigrants, Zapata vs. Cristal  In 2008 Imig. Zapa Nativ. Zapa Imig. Crist Nativ. Crist Ever heard of Inter...
Internet among immigrants by age 18-29 Immg 18-29 Nativ 30-59 Immg 30-59 Nativ 60+ Immg 60+ Nativ Heard of 75% 98% 64% 92%...
Conclusions <ul><li>Linguistic capital most crucial different in Internet, broadband awareness, use </li></ul><ul><li>Immi...
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Joe Staubhaar - Annenberg Research Park Colloquium - Sep 30 2008

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"Migrants and New Media: Comparing Generations, Language Communities and Technology Uses in the U.S. and Portugal"

This talk will examine several years of research in East and South Austin,
which focused on how migrants from Mexico and elsewhere in Latin America,
are using media, particularly new media (Internet, cell phones) to adapt to
life in the USA, make new local communities, maintain community with people
back "home" and adjust to the emerging central role of these technologies in
American life. The talk will discuss comparable research about immigrants
from Eastern Europe, North Africa and Brazil in Portugal, as well as a new
project comparing the U.S. and Portugal.

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Joe Staubhaar - Annenberg Research Park Colloquium - Sep 30 2008

  1. 1. Digital Divides of Age, Immigration and Language in One Urban and Two Rural Texas Communities IAMCR 2008 By Joseph Straubhaar, Sharon Strover, Nobuya Inagaki, Jeremiah Spence, Robert Larose
  2. 2. Theoretical and policy issues <ul><li>Increasing focus on language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linguistic capital (Bourdieu) as key for interest, awareness, use of ICTs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Language more important than ethnicity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Previous focus on ethnicity challenged by recent studies (Spence & Straubhaar, 2007) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Immigration generation key </li></ul><ul><li>Age cohort important </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Youth begin to act more like native residents </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Urban Austin studies <ul><li>Observation of library access centers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Showed lack of use by minority teenage boys </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Life history with technology interviews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With minority youth and parents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impact of computer skills training </li></ul><ul><li>Life history with technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews with three generations over 3 years </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Family and trajectory <ul><li>Families as sites of resources, reproduction of status, or change of status </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bertaux and Thompson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trajectory of family social mobility across generations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bourdieu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Capital, habitus and dispositions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Linguistic </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Educational, cultural </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Familial </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Choices within structural limits, family trajectories </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For immigrants, language capital, social capital, cultural capital all present barriers to ICT use </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Family and trajectory, 2 <ul><li>Families as sites of resources, reproduction of status, or change of status </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gonzalez’ theory of information resource availability and disposition to use over generations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gonzalez’ methods for trajectory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In-depth life histories with two-three generations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>12 three generation families interviewed 2004-2006 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Genograms back three generations from informant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>56 genograms providing information on 904 people, back to grandparents or great grandparents </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 2004-06, in-depth interviews by undergrad and grad students about general life histories and life histories with media and ICTs </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Migration, both transnational and rural-urban <ul><li>Generation of migration to U.S. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First generation, those who migrated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often have language, cultural capital issues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second generation, their children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to learn English, gain economic capital, aspects of cultural capital </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very dependent on urban vs. rural </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Third generation, migrants’ grandchildren </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to learn ICTs more easily, pass knowledge to parents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple generations in USA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some return to earlier patterns via marriage with immigrants </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Migration, transnational and rural-urban, cont. <ul><li>Secondary migration: rural to urban </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces more educational, occupational opportunity than migration to U.S. per se </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Importance of language vs. ethnicity for migrants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From 904 genogram records on individuals within families, language has more impact on education, occupation, ICT use than ethnicity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Studied in 2004-06 interviews, genograms </li></ul>
  8. 8. Second study examines early impact of rural broadband <ul><li>Study took place in two communities where new wireless broadband grants were being implemented </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2005 survey in first year of broadband </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2008 survey after 2-3 years of broadband </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impacts, use, awareness varied </li></ul><ul><ul><li>by ethnicity, age, language, immigration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structural barriers, education, location </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural, linguistic capital barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Generational divides of both age cohort and immigration </li></ul>
  9. 9. Similarities between two rural Latino communities <ul><li>Economic bases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurial grantsmanship for state, federal $ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Government education, health, community development programs economically crucial </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can lead to localized corruption, as in Cristal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emigration out to larger cities for education, jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preference for staying in community if possible due to strong family networks </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Differences between the two Latino communities <ul><li>Economic and social bases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cristal - semi-collapsed agricultural economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Population stable - people have lived there 414 months on average (in 2008) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>13% born outside USA (2008) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>81% took survey in English (2008), 90% in 2005 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>97% Hispanic </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zapata - from ranching to tourism, oil & gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Population dynamic - moving in - people have lived there 277 months on average (2008) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Average was 314 in 2004 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>37% born outside USA (2008) -- many new migrants </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>66% took survey in English (2008), 78% in 2005 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>90% Hispanic </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Internet by Hispanics vs. non- Hispanics not significant Hisp. 2005 Hisp. 2008 Non-H 2005 Non-H 2008 Ever heard of Internet? 76% 82% 68% 83% Ever used the INTERNET? 57% 64% 50% 65% Currently use INTERNET? 45% 50% 41% 56% Currently use broadband? 23% 38% 20% 37%
  12. 12. Internet among Hispanics 2005, by age Among Hispanics 2005 18-29 30-59 60+ Ever heard of Internet? 93% 84% 38%* Ever used the INTERNET? 84 64 15** Currently use INTERNET? 62 52 9*** Currently use broadband? 31 27 5
  13. 13. Internet among Hispanics 2008, by age Among Hispanics 2008 18-29 30-59 60+ Ever heard of Internet? 93% 84% 59%* Ever used the INTERNET? 89 66 20*** Currently use INTERNET? 73 50 14*** Currently use broadband? 58 38* 9**
  14. 14. Spanish vs. English speaker differences significant <ul><li>Language more significant difference than ethnicity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Age does not matter within language groups, whereas age differences very significant within ethnic groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Young higher on most Internet measures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mid- and older Internet averages lowered by new migrants </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Spanish vs. English speaker differences tend to increase Eng. 2005 Span. 2005 Eng. 2008 Span. 2008 Ever heard of Internet? 82% 51%*** 91% 57%*** Ever used the INTERNET? 69 16*** 77 27*** Currently use INTERNET? 54 12*** 63 14*** Currently use broadband? 29 3*** 48 10***
  16. 16. Internet by language, Zapata vs. Cristal, 2005 In 2005 Eng. Zapa Span. Zapa Eng. Crist Span. Crist Ever heard of Internet? 83% 57%*** 87% 44%*** Ever used the INTERNET? 70 22*** 72 13*** Currently use INTERNET? 57 16*** 58 7*** Currently use broadband? 36 4*** 21 0***
  17. 17. Internet by language, Zapata vs. Cristal, 2008 In 2008 Eng. Zapa Span. Zapa Eng. Crist Span. Crist Ever heard of Internet? 91% 54%*** 91% 63%*** Ever used the INTERNET? 80 25*** 73 29*** Currently use INTERNET? 69 11*** 58 21*** Currently use broadband? 51 7*** 46 15***
  18. 18. Internet among immigrants <ul><li>Immigration impact magnified by age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Older immigrants much less aware or likely to use Internet </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Internet among Immigrants Born outside USA Born in USA Ever heard of Internet? 60% 90%*** Ever used the INTERNET? 34 74*** Currently use INTERNET? 23 59*** Currently use broadband? 18 45***
  20. 20. Internet among immigrants, Zapata vs. Cristal In 2008 Imig. Zapa Nativ. Zapa Imig. Crist Nativ. Crist Ever heard of Internet? 59% 90%*** 64% 89%*** Ever used the INTERNET? 34 78*** 33 70*** Currently use INTERNET? 22 66*** 28 54*** Currently use broadband? 16 48*** 24 43***
  21. 21. Internet among immigrants by age 18-29 Immg 18-29 Nativ 30-59 Immg 30-59 Nativ 60+ Immg 60+ Nativ Heard of 75% 98% 64% 92% 41% 72% Ever used 54 96 38 77 8 36 Current use 34 82 27 60 6 27 Use broadb 28 65 21 46 4 15
  22. 22. Conclusions <ul><li>Linguistic capital most crucial different in Internet, broadband awareness, use </li></ul><ul><li>Immigration generation and age cohort also important </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of recent immigrants changes overall ICT numbers of Hispanic population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Younger generation adopting ICT but needs resources, focus in policy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>U.S. federal support for broadband mixed success, specific projects failed but triggered others and forced SWB to offer service </li></ul>
  23. 23. Thank you

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