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Female Criminality

1. Causes of Female Criminality 2. Comparisons between different theories of Female Criminality

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Causes of Female Criminality
There is given a chart below which shows causes of female criminality:
Female Criminality
Social Cause Economic Cause
Broken Family
Relation within and
outside family
Social Environment
Negative attitude with
society towards female
Police Connection
Dower
Poverty
Unemployment
Dependency
on male
Comparisons between different theories of Female Criminality
Theory Major
Proponents
and Works
Major Premise Strengths Weakness
Masculinization
theory
Freda Adler:
Sister in
Crime: The
Rise of the
New Female
Criminals
(1975)
Criminalities of
women are mainly
depended on the
masculinity behavior
of female. The
empowered women
are involved in more
serious violent crime
than non-empowered
women due to the
masculinity.
Can explain the
pattern and trends of
female crime in first
world nations.
Able to explain the
involvement of
women in property
crime.
This theory is
criticized by feminist
scholars because of
the male centeredness
ideology.
Cannot able to explain
the criminality of
women in third world
societies.
Opportunity
theory
Rita J.
Simon:
Women and
Society (1976)
The involvement of
criminal activities is
increased when
women have different
opportunities.
Increasing
opportunities of
women reduced the
rates of violent female
offending, but
increased the rates of
property crimes.
Able to explain
multiple nature of
female criminality.
Data do not support
the hypothesis of
opportunities theories
in relations to region,
class and
employment.
Marginalization
Theory
Meda-
Chesney
Lind: Women
and Crime:
The Female
Offender
(1986)
Marginality (low
salary; inadequate
job; lower class
position; family
victimization) of a
woman penetrates
criminality in
contemporary
societies.
Victimization of
women instigates
themselves to commit
crime.
Basically,
Marginality theory is
based on facts and
huge data. It is more
reliable and valid
than others.
Cannot able to explain
the nature of white
collar and corporate
criminality by upper
class women.
Chivalry or
Paternalism
theory
Thomas: Sex
and Society
(1907)
Otto Pollack:
The
Criminality of
Women (1950)
Lower rates of female
criminality exist
because of the more
lenient treatment of
female offenders by
criminal justice
personnel. Men
commits certain crime
with the instigation of
women.
Can explain the role
of criminal justice
system in explaining
female criminality.
Chivalry is myth and
hidden discourse.
© International Journal of Criminology and Sociological Theory, Vol. 7, No. 1, December 2014, 1-8

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Female Criminality

  • 1. Causes of Female Criminality There is given a chart below which shows causes of female criminality: Female Criminality Social Cause Economic Cause Broken Family Relation within and outside family Social Environment Negative attitude with society towards female Police Connection Dower Poverty Unemployment Dependency on male
  • 2. Comparisons between different theories of Female Criminality Theory Major Proponents and Works Major Premise Strengths Weakness Masculinization theory Freda Adler: Sister in Crime: The Rise of the New Female Criminals (1975) Criminalities of women are mainly depended on the masculinity behavior of female. The empowered women are involved in more serious violent crime than non-empowered women due to the masculinity. Can explain the pattern and trends of female crime in first world nations. Able to explain the involvement of women in property crime. This theory is criticized by feminist scholars because of the male centeredness ideology. Cannot able to explain the criminality of women in third world societies. Opportunity theory Rita J. Simon: Women and Society (1976) The involvement of criminal activities is increased when women have different opportunities. Increasing opportunities of women reduced the rates of violent female offending, but increased the rates of property crimes. Able to explain multiple nature of female criminality. Data do not support the hypothesis of opportunities theories in relations to region, class and employment. Marginalization Theory Meda- Chesney Lind: Women and Crime: The Female Offender (1986) Marginality (low salary; inadequate job; lower class position; family victimization) of a woman penetrates criminality in contemporary societies. Victimization of women instigates themselves to commit crime. Basically, Marginality theory is based on facts and huge data. It is more reliable and valid than others. Cannot able to explain the nature of white collar and corporate criminality by upper class women. Chivalry or Paternalism theory Thomas: Sex and Society (1907) Otto Pollack: The Criminality of Women (1950) Lower rates of female criminality exist because of the more lenient treatment of female offenders by criminal justice personnel. Men commits certain crime with the instigation of women. Can explain the role of criminal justice system in explaining female criminality. Chivalry is myth and hidden discourse. © International Journal of Criminology and Sociological Theory, Vol. 7, No. 1, December 2014, 1-8