Fuel for Performance

Dr Andrew
Middlebrooke

 www.exercisescienceconsulting.co.uk
Content






Why do we eat and drink?
What happens if we don't?
What should we eat?
What should we drink?
How do we ...
Aim


To increase your knowledge and
understanding of nutrition in a sporting
context:
–
–

‘365’ nutrition
Event/trainin...
Why do we eat and drink?

ENERGY
Why do we use energy for?



Development & growth
Body function
–




65-70% of total energy expenditure

Supply of nu...
How do we convert food to energy?



Food and drink is digested and absorbed
Can be used immediately or stored
Carbohydr...
The problem with ATP






Body can only store small amounts
Stores are used up quickly (<10 secs)
Needs to be consta...
The problem of energy depletion
600

Muscle Glycogen

500
n
e
g 400
o
c
y
l
G 300
e
l
c
s 200
u
M
100
0

0

2

12

24

26
...
‘Loss of fluid and reduction in the body’s
carbohydrate stores are the two major
causes of fatigue in prolonged exercise’
...
How much energy do we need?


Depends of the duration/type/intensity of exercise



Non-athletes 1800-2500kcals per day
...
What do we need to eat?






Carbohydrates
Proteins
Fat
Vitamins
Minerals
Food Pyramid
Recap!







Why do we eat / drink?
What do we use energy for?
How do we use energy?
What are major causes of fatig...
Carbohydrate


2 main types
–

Complex ‘starchy’


–

Simple ‘sugary’




Bread, pasta, rice

Chocolate, sweets

Balan...
How important are carbohydrates?
• Hawley et al. ‘97: Increasing your carbohydrate stores means:
- you can run ~20% furthe...
Food
Large portion of pasta
Large portion of rice
Large portion jacket potato
Large tin of baked beans
2 large thin slices...
Food

Carbohydrate
level (g)

Energy (kcal)

Large portion of pasta

90

360

Large portion of rice

60

240

Large portio...
Proteins



Essential for growth & repair
Requirement higher for athletes
–



Rough guide:
–
–



15% of total energy...
Fat



Concentrated energy source
Provides
–
–



Fat soluable vitamins
Essential fatty acids

Relatively low
–
–

25-3...
Vitamins & Minerals


Essential for:
–
–



converting food sources into energy
Maintaining good health

Obtained from n...
What about hydration?



Approx. 65% of your body is water
Important role in many body functions
–
–
–



1.5-2 L per d...
How does this affect performance?





A fluid loss of just 2% has
been proven to impair
performance
Not just water!
Sw...
Just how important is hydration?

)
%
(
y
t
i
c
a
p
a
C
e
s
i
c
r
e
x
E

100

90

80

70

60
0

1

2

3

4

Body Weight Lo...
Recap!





How much carbohydrate?
How much protein?
How much fat?
How much fluid?
How do I maximise my performance?



High carbohydrate (60-70%) diet
Nutrition routine before, during and after
–

Varie...
Pre-competition/training:


Eat a high carbohydrate, low fat, low to moderate protein meal 3-4
hours before exercise



...
During training/competition


Sip water or a carbohydrate and electrolyte
based sports drink during training / race.



...
Post-competition / training:


Eat a carbohydrate/protein snack or recovery drink within
30 minutes of finishing the race...
Summary


Why do we eat and drink?




What happens if we don't?




High carb / moderate protein/ low fat diet

What...
Question Time!
Contact Details

Dr Andrew Middlebrooke
Tel: 07906 502180
Email: andrew@exercisescienceconsulting.co.uk
Web: www.exercises...
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Fuel for performance

  1. 1. Fuel for Performance Dr Andrew Middlebrooke  www.exercisescienceconsulting.co.uk
  2. 2. Content      Why do we eat and drink? What happens if we don't? What should we eat? What should we drink? How do we maximise performance?
  3. 3. Aim  To increase your knowledge and understanding of nutrition in a sporting context: – – ‘365’ nutrition Event/training preparation
  4. 4. Why do we eat and drink? ENERGY
  5. 5. Why do we use energy for?   Development & growth Body function –   65-70% of total energy expenditure Supply of nutrients (e.g. oxygen) Physical activity/exercise – 15-30% of total energy expenditure
  6. 6. How do we convert food to energy?   Food and drink is digested and absorbed Can be used immediately or stored Carbohydrate Glucose Glycogen Food Blood Muscle/ liver ATP
  7. 7. The problem with ATP      Body can only store small amounts Stores are used up quickly (<10 secs) Needs to be constantly produced ↑Rate of ATP production from carbohydrate Need to start with glycogen stores full
  8. 8. The problem of energy depletion 600 Muscle Glycogen 500 n e g 400 o c y l G 300 e l c s 200 u M 100 0 0 2 12 24 26 36 48 Hours High Carbohydrate Diet Low Car bohydrate Diet =endurance training 50 60 72
  9. 9. ‘Loss of fluid and reduction in the body’s carbohydrate stores are the two major causes of fatigue in prolonged exercise’ Consensus statement – Maughan et al. Br J Sports Med 1993; 27:34-5
  10. 10. How much energy do we need?  Depends of the duration/type/intensity of exercise  Non-athletes 1800-2500kcals per day Athletes 2200-6000kcals per day! 
  11. 11. What do we need to eat?      Carbohydrates Proteins Fat Vitamins Minerals
  12. 12. Food Pyramid
  13. 13. Recap!       Why do we eat / drink? What do we use energy for? How do we use energy? What are major causes of fatigue? How much energy do we need? Where should we get energy from?
  14. 14. Carbohydrate  2 main types – Complex ‘starchy’  – Simple ‘sugary’   Bread, pasta, rice Chocolate, sweets Balanced diet; 50-70%from carbohydrate – – 6-10g per kg body weight per day 420-700g per day for 70kg male
  15. 15. How important are carbohydrates? • Hawley et al. ‘97: Increasing your carbohydrate stores means: - you can run ~20% further (endurance capacity) - complete a distance 2-3% quicker (endurance performance) “9/10 times the reason an athlete doesn't reach their personal best is because they're not getting enough carbohydrates and that's what your muscles need for food." (Barbara Lewin 2008)
  16. 16. Food Large portion of pasta Large portion of rice Large portion jacket potato Large tin of baked beans 2 large thin slices of bread Lucozade Sport 500ml bottle 1 pint of milk Medium banana Apple Carbohydrate level (g) Energy (kcal)
  17. 17. Food Carbohydrate level (g) Energy (kcal) Large portion of pasta 90 360 Large portion of rice 60 240 Large portion jacket potato 45 180 Large tin of baked beans 45 180 2 large thin slices of bread 30 120 Lucozade Sport 500ml bottle 32 128 1 pint of milk 30 120 Medium banana 20 80 Apple 10 40
  18. 18. Proteins   Essential for growth & repair Requirement higher for athletes –  Rough guide: – –  15% of total energy intake Endurance =1.2-1.4g per kg body weight Strength = 1.6-1.7g per kg body weight Can be met through diet!
  19. 19. Fat   Concentrated energy source Provides – –  Fat soluable vitamins Essential fatty acids Relatively low – – 25-30% of total energy intake <10% from saturated fat
  20. 20. Vitamins & Minerals  Essential for: – –  converting food sources into energy Maintaining good health Obtained from natural food sources – Fruit, vegetables, red meat and dairy 5 portions of fruit/veg!
  21. 21. What about hydration?   Approx. 65% of your body is water Important role in many body functions – – –  1.5-2 L per day to keep fully hydrated Sport places extra demands Body temperature increases/sweating Need to replace fluid loss otherwise……?
  22. 22. How does this affect performance?    A fluid loss of just 2% has been proven to impair performance Not just water! Sweat contains various salts (electrolytes) which also need to be replaced
  23. 23. Just how important is hydration? ) % ( y t i c a p a C e s i c r e x E 100 90 80 70 60 0 1 2 3 4 Body Weight Loss (%) 5 6
  24. 24. Recap!     How much carbohydrate? How much protein? How much fat? How much fluid?
  25. 25. How do I maximise my performance?   High carbohydrate (60-70%) diet Nutrition routine before, during and after – Varies dependent upon    Time of training/competition Type of event Personal preferences
  26. 26. Pre-competition/training:  Eat a high carbohydrate, low fat, low to moderate protein meal 3-4 hours before exercise  Drink 250-500 mL of water ~2 hours before  Eat a carbohydrate based snack 30-60 minutes before  If you are training early in the morning or in the evening - adjust your diet to make sure you are well hydrated and you have adequate levels of fuel.  For example: – – – make sure you are adequately hydrated before going to bed eat a carbohydrate rich snack at least 1-2 hours before bed drink approximately 250-500 mL of water 30-60 minutes before training.
  27. 27. During training/competition  Sip water or a carbohydrate and electrolyte based sports drink during training / race.  75-150 mL every 20 minutes
  28. 28. Post-competition / training:  Eat a carbohydrate/protein snack or recovery drink within 30 minutes of finishing the race/training session.  Continue with regular meals to help recovery asap.  Replace lost fluid within 2 hours by drinking fluid equal to 150% of your body weight loss from the exercise – loss of 1 kg is replaced by 1.5 L of fluid).
  29. 29. Summary  Why do we eat and drink?   What happens if we don't?   High carb / moderate protein/ low fat diet What should we drink?   Fatigue / reduction in performance What should we eat?   Energy – replenish ATP / maintain fluid balance 2L per day + training loss How do we maximise performance?  Maintain carbohydrate stores
  30. 30. Question Time!
  31. 31. Contact Details Dr Andrew Middlebrooke Tel: 07906 502180 Email: andrew@exercisescienceconsulting.co.uk Web: www.exercisescienceconsulting.co.uk

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