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Research methodology and medical statistics book preview


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Present book covers the 100% syllabus of BAMS, 80% syllabus of MD (Ayu), 80% of MBBS, 80-90% for B.Pharma and M.Pharma for Research Methodology and Biostatistics...
Contact: Dr. Prashant Kumar Jha - 09742424407 (India)

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Research methodology and medical statistics book preview

  1. 1. Short Notes (Questions-Answers) On Research Methodology & Medical Statistics (For BAMS, MD, MBBS, B.Pharma, M.Pharma) Dr. Prashant Kumar Jha GCIP,DIM,PGDEE,M.Sc.Ph.D. Dr. Sanjaya K.S. MD(Ayu) Principal, ALNRMAMC Reader,ALNRMAMC
  2. 2. FirstEdition:2017 ©ARMARCPublications, AroorEducationalTrust, ALNRaoMemorialAyurvedicMedicalCollege, Koppa-577126 Dist.:Chikmagalur,Karnataka,India Patron: Aroor Ramesh Rao All rights are reserved. No Parts of this book can be reproduced or stored in information systemwithoutpriorwrittenpermissionofAuthor.
  3. 3. Preface 1. Research inAyurveda 1 - 16 DefinitionandetymologyofAnveshana,Gaves- hana,Prayeshana,Anusandhan,Shodha Pramanas as tools of reaseach inAyurveda HistoricalbackgroundofresearchinAyurveda Scopes of research inAyurveda Reasons of need of research inAyurveda ImportancesandutilitiesofresearchinAyurveda 2. Research and Types of Research 18-31 Definition,objectivityandgoalofresearch Types of research Differencesbetweenqualitativeandquantitative research; merits and demerits of mixed research Meaningofobservationinresearch;typesofob- servations and their link with potential issues in research Observationandinterventionalstudydesignsand theirtypes Research Methodology i-ii CONTENTS 1-2 2-8 8-11 11-12 13-15 15-16 18-20 20-23 24-25 25-26 26-30
  4. 4. Preclinicalandclinicalresearchdesigns 3. Research Processes 33-48 Research problem, selection of topic and its im- portances Reviewofliteratureanditsimportances Hypothesis,itscharacteristics,waysofitstesting anditsimportances Aimsandobjectives,theircharacteristics,points towritethemandtheirimportances Materials and methods, steps to write them and theirimportances Result/observation,itsfeatures,stepstowritere- sult/observationanditsimportances Discussion, steps to write discussion and its im- portances Conclusion,stepstowriteconclusionanditsim- portances Communicationofresearchandmethodsofcom- munication 30-31 33-35 35-37 37-39 39-40 40-42 42-44 45-46 44-45 46-48
  5. 5. 4. Concept of Ethics in Research and Importances of Ethics in Research 50-51 5. Concept of Evidence Based Medicine (EBM), Steps of EBM, Advantages and Disadvantages of EBM 53-54 6. Scientific Writing, Its Purpose and Basic Structure 56-57 7. Importances of IT(InformationTechnology) in Data Mining and Research Portals in Ayurveda 59-63 ImportancesofITinDatamining Research data portal concerned withAyurveda andcontemporarymedicine,stepstosearchdata usingsuchportals DHARA, Pubmed, Ayush ResearchPortal, BioinformaticsCenter Research Management InformaticsSystem 59-60 61-63
  6. 6. Medical Statistics 1. Introduction of Statistics 67-72 Statisticsanditscharacteristics 67-68 Medical statistics, its importances and scopes 68-70 Functionsandlimitationsofstatistics 70 Statisticalenquiryanditsstages 69-72 2. SampleandPopulation 74-75 Differencebetweensampleandpopulation 74 Sample,useofsample,mainobjectives and theoryofsampling 74-75 3. Data and Variable 77-100 Data, types of data 77-79 Methods of data collection 79-81 Variablesandtypesofvariables 81 Datapresentationanditsimportances 82 Tabulation and parts of table 82-84 Requisite of good table, types of table 84-85 Advantagesofdiagrammaticandgraphical presentation,differencesbetweendiagramsand graphs. 85-86 Rulesforconstructingdiagrams,typesofdiagrams 86-87 Linediagramorlinechart 88
  7. 7. Bar diagram, important points to draw a bar dia- gram, types of bar diagram. 88-93 Two-dimensionaldiagramsandtheirtypes, contructionofpiediagram/chart 94-96 Histogram,differencebetweenhistogramandbar diagram 96-97 Frequencypolygon,frequencycurve,pictogram, cartogram 98-100 4. CentralTendency 102-110 Measures of location and measures of disper- sion, measures of central tendency and mea- sures of spread 102 Statistical average, its uses and desirable properties 102-103 Mean,median,mode,geometricmean, harmonicmean,rangeandinterquartilerange, percentile,varianceandstandarddeviation 103-110 5. Probability 112-121 Conceptofprobabilitywithmathematicalor priori approach and relative frequency or empiricalapproach. 112-113 Definition of experiment and random experiment, trial and event, exhaustive cases,
  8. 8. favourablecasestoevents,mutuallyexclusive events or cases, equally likely cases, indepen- dentevents,set,nullset,sub-set,universalset, outcome,additiontheoryofpoints. 113-114 Axiomaticprobability,conditionalprobability, additiontheoryofprobability,multiplication theoryofprobability,Bayes’theorem 114-117 Normaldistributionanditsprobabilitydensity functionandimportantproperties 117-1119 Testofsignificance 119 Significancelevel,P-valuesmeaninhypothesis test,statisticalsignificance 119-120 Type ‘I’error, Type ‘II’error 120-121 6. Statistical Tests 123-145 Nonparametrictests,advantagesanddisadvan- tagesofnonparametrictests,differences between nonparametric and parametric tests 123-124 Correspondingnonparametrictestsrelevantto parametrictests. 124-125 Skewness, different types of skewness, kurtosis. 125-126 Correlation, types of correlation, causes of correlation 126-127
  9. 9. Methodsofstudyingcorrelation,Karl Pearson’scoefficientofcorrelation 128-129 Wilcoxonrank-sumtest,Wilcoxonsigned-rank test, Kruskal-wallis test, Spearman’s rank correlationcoefficient,McNemar’stest, Chisquare 129-134 Student’st-test,itsprobabilitydensityfunction, itschiefproperties 134-135 T-testandapplicationoft-distribution 135-136 Types of t-test 136-137 Z-test, its properties and application 137-139 F-statistic, its properties and application 140 ANOVA 140-142 AssumptionsofANOVA,applicationand properties ofANOVA 142 PrinciplesofANOVA 142-144 Post hoc tests and their uses 144-145 7. Statistical Software 147-149 Statisticalsoftware,importancesofstatistical software,commonlyusedstatisticalsoftware 147-149
  10. 10. Any of scientists, businessmen, students, politicians etc. comes across research in his/her daily life by means of gathering information,analyzingthemandprocessingforbetterresultwithor withoutknowingaboutthemethodologyordesign.Noneofthem cannegatetheimportanceandutilityofresearchandstatistics.For better performance and yield, we need to understand the methodology or design of research with cognition of statistical aspects.Studentsfeelprobleminapprehensionwithcomplexities of subjects, so it becomes necessary to remind the students that theoriginalideaissimpleandgraspable. Present book is directed at undergraduate and postgraduatestudentsfrommedicalscience(BAMS,MBBS)and pharmaceutical science. It may also be helpful to researchers to designtheirprojects.Theeffortmadeinthisbookistosimplifythe subject for understanding and use at basic level. For the purpose, topics are explained in terms of probable raising questions and their answers. The book is segmented in research methodology andmedicalstatisticspartswithappreciationofeasyperceiving.7 chapters are included in each of Research Methodology and Medical Statistics section. Research is not new to Indian medicine, so the chapter startswithcitationsofresearchindifferentancienttexts.Relevance ofthosecitationswithpresentresearchmethodologyistime-tested. Preface i
  11. 11. Illustrations are inserted at appropriate place for understanding. Researchdesignsareclassifiedwithbasicconsiderationofaimof research.Instructionsaboutimportantpointstowritetheresearch processesarementioned.Ideaaboutmedicalethics,evidencebased medicine,scientificwritingetc.arepresented.Toolsandtechniques toutilizetheinformationtechnologyforresearchareadded. In Medical Statistics portion, other than the introduction of statistics and medical statistics, basic information of data and use of proper data collection methods are given. It is observed thatmanyofresearcherslacktheinformationabouttheappropriate technique of data presentation, so it is made easy to understand andoptwithsuitableone.Importantparametricandnonparametric testsareshowntobeselectedaccordingtotakenresearchproblems andresearchdesign.Someofcommonlyusedstatisticalsoftwares are quoted with idea to use for the purpose of statistical analysis. I am grateful to all of them who enabled me to shape this work as book. Story starts with my god, Lord Hanuman, who shows the path for creation. A great inspiration came from the president of Aroor Educational Trust, Honourable Aroor Ramesh Rao sir, his wife Smt. Shantha Rao and his son Shri ArvindRaosir.Anythankfulnessinwordsislessforthem.Right from beginning of my study in research since last 17 years, my fatherShriBimalChandraJhataughtmetosharetheknowledge to world in very simplified way what maximum of persons can easily get. I have tried my best to make the subject as well as ii
  12. 12. Koppa: 2nd January 2017 Dr. Prashant KumarJha iii language used with this book easier. I am thankful to you. Other thanmywife,mymotherandotherfamilymembers,lotsofpeople encouraged at a time or many times for creative works related with my research projects. My gratitudes are always there with youall.Iappreciateandextendmythankfulnesstoallmystudents whoinsistedtobringmyteachingsoftheirclassesinbookform.