Sustainable Urban Design Report

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Sustainable Urban Design Report

  1. 1. FINAL REPORT / KKKA64142013 Sustainable Urban Design KKKA6414 Prof. Dr. Ir: Riza Atiq Student: HOOMAN PISHVA (P60906) ALIREZA SARVGHADRAZAVI (P51947) MUHAMMAD BIN RAMLAN(P57600)
  2. 2. FINAL REPORT / KKKA64141.1-------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------introductions1.2----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- kajang today1.2.1----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Landmarks1.2.2-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Demographic1.2.3---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Food and tourism1.2.4-------------------------------------------------------------------------------FACILITIES AND AMENITIES2. URBAN DESIGN2.1 ------------------------------------------------------The compact city2.2------------------------ The Compact City and the Quality of Life2.2.1--------------------------------Provisional steps to a liveable city2.3-----------------------Sustainable Transport in a Compact City2.3.1-------------------------- Sustainability and the collectivization of transport2.3.2 -----------------------------------------------------------Transport and urban form2.3.3------------------------------------- Other factors influencing urban transport2.3.3.1 --------------------------------------------------------------Economic and institutional factors2.3.3.2 ------------------------------------------------------------------------Socio-psychological factors2.3.2 ----------------------------------------------------------Transport and urban form2.3.3 -------------------------------------Other factors influencing urban transport2.3.3.1 ---------------------------------------------------------------Economic and institutional factors2.3.3.2 -------------------------------------------------------------------------Socio-psychological factors2.4 Environmental Stress and Urban Policy2.4.1 ----------------------------------------- -------Water consumption and drainage2.4.2 --------------------------------------- Gardening practices and food production
  3. 3. FINAL REPORT / KKKA64142.4.3 ---------------------------------------------------------------------Waste management2.4.4 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------Noise pollution2.4.5 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Air pollution2.4.6 -------------------------------------------------------------------------Energy consumption3. Transportation and infrastructure3.1 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------INTRODUCTION3.2-------------------------------------------------------------------------- EXISTING SITUATION3.2.1 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------EXISTING SITUATION3.3 -----------------------------------------------------------------FUTURE TRANSPORTATION4 .FUTURE ENERGY4.1--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SOLAR ENERGY4.2------------------------------------------- Biomass Basics and Environmental Impact5. CULTURE, LEISURE AND TOURISM5.1------------------------------------------------------- CULTURE, LEISURE AND TOURISM5.2------------------------------------------------------------------- Location of Development5.3 ------------------------------------------------------------------------Community Buildings5.4 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------OPEN SPACE5.5 ------------------------------------------------------------------Protection of Open Spaces5.6 ---------------------------------------Open Space in New Residential Developments5.7 -------------------------------------------------------Provision of Children’s Play Areas5-8---------------------------------------------------- Provision of New Public Open Space
  4. 4. FINAL REPORT / KKKA64141.1 introductions  Kajang is located in Hulu Langat District, in Selangor. The first settlement in Kajang was established in 1709. In 1807, Kajang was founded after the Klang War.  The current locational gravity of growth in Kajang would be Sungai Chua. The total population of Kajang has grown rapidly in the past few years, with estimated population growth of 9% per annum.  As of 2004, a few townships have been developed in Kajang, such as Taman Prima Saujana (straight from Jalan Cheras), Sungai Chua, Taman Kajang Perdana (Kajang Highlands).  Areas surrounding these new townships are easily accessible via the SILK Expressway.1.2 kajang today1.2.1 LandmarksOne of the Kajangs landmarks is stadium Kajang which is situated in the heart of the town. It is apopular hangout place among the locals, which is also home to the famous satay Kajang. People comefrom all over Malaysia to taste the satay here. The stadium can accommodate up to 5,000 people and isused throughout the year for the community soccer competitions. Another landmark is the kajangMosque ( Masjid kajang ), which is easily recognizable with its bright yellow faced the Mosque waspainted and decorated by a local wealthy man, Datuk Ujang Bin Bagong, for the benefit of localMuslims. The Mosque is lively at night with Islamic activities.1.2.2 DemographicKajangs population of 539,561 consisted of Malays 51.3%, Chinese 38%, Indians 9% and other ethnicgroups 1.7%.Kajangs main population centres are Bandar Mahkota, Cheras, Bandar Sungai Long,Bandar Tun Hussein Onn, Cheras Perdana,Taman Prima Saujana (straight from Jalan Cheras), TamanKajang Perdana (Kajang Highlands) and Taman Sepakat Indah I & II (Sungai Chua)
  5. 5. FINAL REPORT / KKKA64141.2.3 FOOD AND TOURISMKajang is famous for its sate Kajang (alternate spelling satay), a form of skewered barbecued meat.Informally, Kajang is known as the "Satay Town", and is famous among tourists and locals alike. Themost famous place to eat Satay is Haji Samuri which has a huge restaurant next to the local stadium aswell as Restrain Malaysia which is located near Plaza Metro Kajang.Though Kajang is a well-known tourist destination for stay, tourists rarely stay overnight. Hence,accommodation is not readily available. Of the available accommodation, the most notable is MetroInn which is located approximately 2km from the heart of Kajang town. However, many prefer to stayI Kuala lumpur or even Putrajaya.Other hotels in Kajang are New City Hotel and Crystal Oriental Hotel which are locatedapproximately 2km from the heart of Kajang town. Uptown Hotel is located opposite Metro Point1.2.4 FACILITIES AND AMENITIESPublic hospitals found within and around Kajang town are Hospital Kajang, Hospital Serdang andHospital Putrajaya. There are also medical centers functioning 24 hours and other 24 hour clinics suchas Kline Mediviron Prima Saujana, Kajang Plaza Medical Centre (KPMC) and KPJ Kajang SpecialistHospital. Medical specialties like ophthalmology are represented by private specialist medical centerslike ACS Eye Specialists off the new SILK Highway. Even dental clinics are located within reach ofits residents like in places such as Sungai Chua and toen area.
  6. 6. FINAL REPORT / KKKA6414The Hulu Langat District Police Headquarters are also located in the town centre, near the stadium andMPKJ main office. Other facilities include the post office, government clinics, a stadium, a wet marketand several government departments.2. Urban design2.1 The compact city:What is this „compact city‟? Initial impressions evoke an intense medieval city, whose limits areclearly visible, and where the hubbub of daily activity is confined within the city‟s walls (Fig. 1). It isthe product of a certain form, scale, and mix of activities.Few of the supporters of the compact city describe it in ways which are explicit. McLaren (1992) inCompact or dispersed? dilution is no solution discusses the benefits of high population densities incompact cities . Elkin et al. (1991) promote the „intensification of the use of space in the city‟ (p. 16)with higher residential densities and centralization, and they write that „planners should aim forcompactness and integration of land uses, for some degree of “self-containment”‟ (p. 43). Newmanand Kenworthy (1989) also demand more intensive land use, centralised activity and higher densities.Breheny (in Blowers, 1993) provides an aptsummary of the „compact city‟ as a high density, mixed use city, where growth is encouraged withinthe boundaries of existing urban areas, but with no development beyond its periphery.Several authors describe the „compact city‟ in contrast to other competing settlement patterns. Owensand Rickaby (in Breheny, 1992a) describe two key patterns: centralization and decentralizedconcentration. Breheny (1992a) distinguishes between centralists, laissez-faire town crammers, anddecentralists. Brehenyet al. (DoE, 1993a) describe five scenarios for accommodating growth: urbaninfill, urban extensions, key villages, multiple village extensions, and new settlements. With „urbaninfill‟ there is the further distinction between urban intensification (higher density land use), and thereclamation of brownfield sites (Aldous,1992; Llewelyn-Davies, 1994). The illustration in Fig. 2gives an indication of the form of each of these patterns.
  7. 7. FINAL REPORT / KKKA64142.2 The Compact City and the Quality of Life:Urban regeneration and the compact city are right in line with the policy of most Westerngovernments. They are, however, a long way adrift from the record and reality of the postwar West. Ifidea and reality are to be reconciled, it is vital that our towns and cities can offer a quality of life—a„vision‟ of the loveable city which can compete with the rural dream in many people‟s minds. Thisvision is not an ideal form. It is made up of practical elements which need money, attention and time,to produce better-managed and cared-for urban places.2.2.1 Provisional steps to a liveable cityHow should we think about liveability, attractiveness and urban quality, whilst trying to fit them intoa policy framework which stresses sustainability and compactness? The thinking needs to coverseveral interrelatedaspects of the— urban planning context:  • housing density: not wasting space, not cramming either  • transport: playing to the city‟s strengths  • parks, schools, leisure: quality services and facilities  • urban management and safety  • the housing market: offering range and choiceHousing densityHousing density is contentious. Previous research by the authors for the Joseph Rowntree Foundationshowed that for three case study urban areas (Newcastle, Cheltenham, and Lewisham in GreaterLondon), housing densities could be increased by as much as 25% before resulting in significantchanges in urban form, such as traditional street patterns giving way to house forms, and this couldincrease housing capacity by about 19%. With less demanding parking standards this increasedcapacity could be achieved without any serious impacts at all (Llewelyn-Davies. 1994a). Subsequentwork for the London Planning Advisory Committee (LPAC) explored this potential further, andconcluded that maximum density standards and car-parking requirements (notably one off-street spaceper new dwelling) could be relaxed quite markedly; even in the London Boroughs. Much housingpotential could be released, without damaging environmental quality, if planners switched from rigiddensity limits to careful control of design, pragmatic use of on-street spaces to meet parking demand,and retention of street trees, planting and public open space (Llewelyn-Davies, 1994b). Critics arguethat dropping the parking requirement is unrealistic and a recipe for impossible congestion, and thatthe maximum density controls should be kept because they avoid the risk that developers will cramevery site with ultimately sub-standard and undersized dwellings. The authors‟ view is that the second
  8. 8. FINAL REPORT / KKKA6414Danger can be avoided by local planning control officers doing their job properly in terms of sitebriefing and urban design guidance. On the first point, it seems that parking requirements are simply awaste of time, effort and living space, given the impossibility of keeping up with the rate of increase ofboth car ownership and use.TransportTransport is closely bound up with the arguments for achieving quality high densityenvironments. An important potential strength of towns and cities is their ability to provide for themovement needs of people with reasonably full lives, without the car being essential, which it is,realistically, in the outer suburbs and the countryside. The effect of this can be seen (though notoverwhelmingly) in the Census of Population car ownership patterns in London: whereas carownership rates elsewhere generally track household income and socio-economic groups very closely,this is less the case in the inner areas, where some households at least are clearly choosing not to havea car even where they can afford it. This is partly because of the difficulties in parking and garagingcars, no doubt. But it is also partly because public transport meets many more of the daily movementneeds (which will, in any case, be on average easier to meet because of the very density of jobs andother opportunities that the city provides). Tim Pharaoh (1991) makes the interesting point thatLondon‟s outer suburbs were built to work like this too. „Metroland‟ was focused round the station;cycle, bus and walk trips met almost all other needs. Can we edge more of the city back towards thisbalance? Well, it may be possible, but it is unlikely to be effected by making people feel guilty aboutowning and using their cars or by dire threats about the ozone layer (technology will surely produce anon-polluting car before much longer). Much more relevant is a strategy aimed at making theplaces themselves more compact, busy, convenient and attractive, and supporting and improving thepublic transport which serves them.
  9. 9. FINAL REPORT / KKKA6414Good quality services and facilities: parks, schools, leisure and funOne advantage of cities is that they can support the provision of high quality cultural and recreationalfacilities and services. In general the larger the population the better the range, choice andquality. Culture and entertainment are singled out by the UK Sustainable Development Strategy asthe distinguishing advantages of cities which „should encourage people to want to live and work‟ inthem (UK Government, 1994, p. 161). The down side is that leisure and fun uses have to compete withother urban uses and this tends to make leisure activities expensive. Pressure on municipal budgetsmeans that public provision has given way to private, and many municipal facilities are now operatedby the private sector, with a much more commercial ethos than was formerly the case. Worse still, asdemand tends to exceed supply —especially in the evenings and weekends—many people, andparticularly the less well-off, are squeezed out. But there are other issues too. As demands becomeincreasingly sophisticated and economies of provision greater, the pattern of provision becomescoarser. While facilities become more sophisticated they tend to become more expensive and lessconvenient to visit, involving journeys along congested streets, or multiple bus trips. All this actscontrary to the objectives of a compact city with convenient, high quality, local facilities.
  10. 10. FINAL REPORT / KKKA6414Urban management and safetyAs well as being exciting and fun. Cities are dangerous—or so the image goes. Certainly, a componentof the drift to the suburbs is the wish to trade insecurity for security, noise for tranquillity, and dirt anddisorder for cleanliness and order. Whatever the actual incidence of violence, if people feel unsafe inthe area, they will want to leave it if they can; if a street feels unsafe, fewer people will use it. and itwill become even less safe. Better policing practice can help, but it cannot solve the problem; as JaneJacobs (1961) observed 35 years ago, „The first thing to understand is that the public peace…of citiesis not kept primarily by the police, necessary as police are. It is kept primarily by an intricate, almostunconscious, network of voluntary controls and standards among people themselves, and enforced bythe people themselves‟. Jack Straw MP attracted much criticism for pointing out that one of the effectsof government policies on homelessness, benefits and unemployment had been to degrade the streetenvironment and the very people who (are forced to) use it.Our cities and towns, particularly the central and inner areas, often convey exactly the worryingmixture of neglect, danger and unreliability that reinforce the spiral of decay, and encourage anyonewho can leave to do so. Not all of this is the product of national government penny-pinching and shortsightedness— though a lot is. Some of it can be avoided by good urban management: Islington isbetter run than Hackney (both inner city, both Labor, similar histories); Sheffield is better run thanLiverpool; everywhere is better run than Lambent; the Scottish towns and cities are generallycleaner and more cared-for than their English counterparts. This is an issue of competence, and ofcommitment; and it extends beyond local government, to visible on-street services, reliable publictransport and to the cleanliness and state of repair of parks, playgrounds, schools and shoppingprecincts. Running urban local authorities well is difficult, but it is not impossible. A vision whichmends cracked paving-stones and keeps dog excrement out of children‟s playgrounds is moreimportant than one made up of Olympic bids, new concert halls, and shiny new communityworkspaces, because it relates more to people living there, enjoying the place, feeling safe and at ease.
  11. 11. FINAL REPORT / KKKA64142.3 Sustainable Transport in a Compact CityA general phenomenon experienced by almost all cities in the world has been the emergence of greenand diffuse suburbs around the city centers. As a result, the population density in cities has decreasedsignificantly. The private car has brought low density living within the reach of large groups of upperand lower middle- class families. In fact, suburbanization of living is a consequence of various broadchanges in society, such as income increase, smaller households, more leisure time, andchanging housing preferences. However, suburbanization is also usually associated withnegative socio-economic and environmental impacts, including longer working and shoppingtrips, increased energy consumption, pollution, accidents, and problematic public transportprovision.The development of decentralized cities, as well as other trends in the economy and society, hascaused an enormous increase in car use, even in urban areas. At the same time, the length ofcommuting trips has increased greatly. Consequently, the external costs of transport have risendrastically; according to recent calculations these may account for some 3% of Gross NationalProduct.Development in most large cities of the Western world seems to be following a more diffuse spatialpattern. In spatial planning however, a contrasting concept is gaining much popularity. This concept isembodied in the „compact city‟, where housing is provided in a relatively high density form,and where jobs are concentrated in the central city and in a limited number of sub-centers. Thecompact city has become a leading principle in Dutch physical planning in recent years, and iscurrently being adopted in Europe as an objective of urban planning.Such a compact urban spatial organization could have major impacts on the future of transport (levelof mobility, modal split). Current transport policies in many countries (especially north-westernEurope) focus on stimulating public transport, and on reducing car use and travel demand, so as toreduce environmental externalities and congestion. The compact city could be successful insupporting collective modes of transport and reducing urban travel demand. At the same timehowever, it should be noted that the compact city concept has some intrinsic limitations in terms ofquality of life, land use and prices, and congestion; and furthermore, many other factors (level ofwell-being, telecommunications) impinge on the future of transport and the introduction of newtransport technologies.
  12. 12. FINAL REPORT / KKKA64142.3.1 Sustainability and the collectivization of transportAs discussed above, transport policy in many countries is focusing on the reduction of the externalcosts of transport by stimulating a modal shift from the private car to public transport.It seems to be a legitimate question to ask how far collective modes are more sustainable. One of themain advantages of public modes is that they are more energy efficient than the private car, whichresults in lower emissions of harmful gases, like CO 2 , and also of gases which cause smog (seeTable ).Most collective transport modes are powered by electricity. For future emission reductions therefore,the way electricity is produced in the next decades is important. For example, when coal is used, CO2emissions may not be reduced significantly, but when solar or wind energy, biofuel, or nucleargeneration is used, the emissions may be reduced much further. But there are also other advantagesfrom a modal shift.  the use of space is more efficient (or the capacity of the infrastructure is larger), which may be especially  important in a compact city in which there is little space  collective modes produce a smaller amount of solid waste, partly because of the long lifetime of vehicles  collective modes are safer and have fewer social costs  there is less noise and air pollution because of the use of electricity instead of fossil fuels—this advantage  is especially important in urban areasIt may be concluded that the collectivization of transport could offer an important contributionto the achievement of sustainability goals. However, policies to encourage this are fraught witha variety of problems, which may emerge in several fields. Firstly, therefore, we will discuss therelationship between urban form and transport, and then we will investigate other factors whichare important in influencing transport sustainability.
  13. 13. FINAL REPORT / KKKA64142.3.2 Transport and urban formExisting locations (of residences, industries, public services, recreational areas and so on) determinetransport needs in the short term. Consequently, land use planning, territorial planning or physicalplanning are important policy intervention measures in coping with transportation issues. There aresome fundamental principles related to land use.First, the quantity of space and land is limited. The use of land can to some extent be intensified byusing the „third dimension‟—air and subterranean space; this option may be especially important forthe compact city concept.Second, various types of land use are not compatible with one another at short distances from eachother, either because of negative external effects, or possibly because the high market price for certainspecific categories of land excludes land uses with a low rate of return on investment.Third, land use is significantly influenced by institutional measures imposed by spatial planning.InThis respect European countries have different traditions. For example, the Netherlands andthe United Kingdom have a relatively well-developed planning system on various spatial scales,whereas, for example, Italy and Greece have systems that enable many „degrees of freedom‟.Regarding the objectives of spatial planning for the collectivization of transport and reduction oftransport needs, much research has focused on the relationship between urban form and passengertransport. Urban form in this context means size and density, i.e. Where the interdependentworkplaces and dwellings are located within the metropolitan area.One of the major conclusions so far is that several higher density cities are associated with a high useof public transport and with low gasoline consumption, but it should be noted that these findingscannot easily be generalized. The environmental and energy benefits of compact cities depend to alarge extent on the size and structure of incoming and outgoing commuting flows, as well as on thelocation of workplaces; also, from an economic perspective, changes in land prices ought to beconsidered: therefore an unambiguous answer is often impossible.A powerful barrier to the adoption of a new transport technology appears to be the spatial inertia of thebuilt environment and of infrastructure networks. Artifacts following from land use, such as housingblocks, industrial estates and transport infrastructure, have a long life-cycle in relation to thecapital investment involved. As a result, different types of land use are fixed for a number of decades.So, once the infrastructure is built, it will be there for a long period (especially in historical city areas).As a consequence, technologies which imply step by step (incremental) or small-scale change mayhave a better chance of adoption in the urban territory than technologies implying radical change ofinfrastructure and land use.
  14. 14. FINAL REPORT / KKKA64142.3.3 Other factors influencing urban transportAlthough the intricate relationship between transport and spatial organization is widely recognized,other driving factors that are critical for the future of the urban transport system may also bedistinguished. In this section we will briefly outline such factors.2.3.3.1 Economic and institutional factorsIn recent years a marked shift in emphasis towards economic principles can be observed forcombined transportation, environment and spatial policy. In spatial planning a trend in favor ofabolishing planning systems can be found, because government intervention is considered to be lesseffective and less acceptable in society .Due to the trends discussed earlier however, it is questionablewhether the compact city could come into existence without a strict governmental planning policy.In transport policy various user charge principles are increasingly being discussed and implemented;these include road pricing, toll principles, parking fees and perhaps, in the long term, even tradablepermits. These measures mainly affect car transport, and may stimulate the use of public transport.However, there is also a trend to abolish unjustified and unnecessary protectionist or privilegedregulations in order to increase the efficiency of transport operations. In this respect there is increasingfocus on the efficiency and profitability of, for example, public urban transport companies in manyUK cities the public bus companies have been privatized, which has had an enormous impact on theway the bus network is operated. In this way the profitability of links and of the total network—and asa result, spatial threshold factors—of public transport modes have become more important. Thesefactors are concerned with the minimum volume of passengers, between given points that arenecessary for a collective transport mode to be in operation and for it to be feasible from an economicperspective. In this respect, barriers to adoption arise when spatial threshold (minimum) levels ofdemand for collective modes are not reached, for example, due to a low population density. Spatialupper level factors are different, in that they are associated with a particular type of vehicle and themaximum distance it can bridge. Barriers may arise when the transport distance needed exceeds thecritical upper level of the spatial range of the transport mode in question.A major disadvantage of public transport in urban areas is the waiting time; because of the shortdistances involved, travelling time is largely dependent on waiting times. The poor competitiveposition of public transport vis-à-vis the private car may be shown for example by figures in theNetherlands: 40% of all car trips are for distances below 5km, while this figure is only 16% for allpublic transport trips (calculations based on Central Bureau of Statistics, 1994). Consequently, thefrequency (and reliability) of vehicles is very important to make the system competitive with the car,but for this again a high level of demand is necessary for profitability.Another way in which collective systems may be distinguished from individual ones concernstheir dependence on supplementary transport systems. Travelling by collective modes is inter-modalby nature, while individual modes offer door-to-door transport. This makes the functioning ofcollective modes dependent on the level of connectivity with other transport systems (includingwalking and cycling) that offer transport to and from the nodes. Co-ordination problems betweendifferent modes therefore may be an important factor in the failure of collective transport.
  15. 15. FINAL REPORT / KKKA6414The compact city, in which voluminous transport flows occur between the compact city centre and itssub-centres, could therefore be a vital precondition if public transport modes are to be successful.However, socio-psychological factors also play an important role.2.3.3.2 Socio-psychological factorsThe private car appears to be psychologically very important, because of the pleasure, privacy,personal control and representativeness it can offer . People may perceive the same benefits for diffuselife patterns; living conditions in compact urban areas may be considered to be worse than in morediffuse cities. Another problem for collectivization of transport is that the behavior of individuals ishard to change, particularly while the disbenefits of other transport options are difficult toperceive, and while there is community resistance to the construction of large-scale infrastructure incities with little space. Subterranean construction may be an (expensive) solution to the latterobstruction. Large-scale measures to reduce car . traffic in cities may not be socially acceptable. Onthis point it should be added that, in democratic countries, governments will not introduce measureswhich contrast greatly with public opinion .Therefore, a change in attitude would first have to occurbefore the policies discussed above could successfully be introduced.2.4 Environmental Stress and Urban PolicyModern cities are inherently ecologically unsustainable because they need to import food, energy andraw materials; they produce more waste than they can cope with within their boundaries; and theyradically change the ecology of their sites. The larger the concentration of population the lesssustainable it is. Even if we extend the boundary of the city to include its hinterland we cannotusefully describe it as potentially ecologically sustainable. The more the city becomes part of theinternational economic order the less it can be seen as „ecologically sustainable‟ in any operationalsense.The low density form of traditional Australian cities has recently come under attack as the antithesis ofthe sustainable urban form promoted by the compact city advocates. As a response to increasingenvironmental stress and concern about the profligate waste and consumption of urban sprawl,„consolidation policies‟ are being introduced. These policies are in effect the realisation of the compactcity concept.
  16. 16. FINAL REPORT / KKKA64142.4.1 Water consumption and drainageThe growth of the major cities and the increase in per capita consumption of water has reached thepoint where there is a crisis in the capacity to meet the demand. The high variability of rainfall inAustralia has led urban water authorities to build dams and water storages capable of holding enoughwater to sustain urban areas for long periods.The profligate attitude to water consumption has had the effect of creating a serious problem ofdrainage in urban areas. As areas become more built-up, the volume of water draining off can causeacute local flooding and can also cause massive pollution in the receiving waterways because of thematerial transported by the surface water. Sewage from residential areas is relatively benign but, whenmixed with water-borne wastes from industry and commerce, produces a waste stream which can bedifficult to process. The volume of sewage produced in large cities and discharged to the oceanthrough a small number of outfalls may also lead to high point sources of pollution which exceed thelocal capacity of the ocean to receive the wastes, leading to local destruction of the ecosystem. Thehigh volumes discharged may also lead to wastes being washed up on local beaches, destroying theiramenity and presenting local health hazards.The compact city concentrates the population in one area, which has the effect of concentratingdemand for water supply and drainage; local problems may therefore be more acute. With moreimpervious surfaces and hard standing, drainage is more difficult, and increased development beginsto preclude the operation of natural drainage.An important key to improving sustainability would be to reduce consumption througheducation and consequent moderation of the behaviour of present residential, industrial andcommercial water-users. This could be aided through pricing strategies, particularly for industrialusers. Education programmes have proved to be successful with residential users, but less so forindustrial and commercial users; for this group a combination of enforcement of regulations andpricing signals is more effective. Pricing water and sewerage appropriately has led to a dramaticreduction in water consumption for industry and commerce. In addition consumption could be reducedfurther through on-site recycling. Residents can be encouraged to install tanks to store rain fordomestic consumption. New housing can be constructed to harvest rain water for domestic uses and to
  17. 17. FINAL REPORT / KKKA6414make better use of recycled water for toilet flushing and so on. The gardens and dwellings are thendesigned to reduce water use. The sewerage system could be redeveloped to encourage the use of „dry‟sewage systems or local treatment plants using new technologies in such a way that most of the treatedeffluent could be recycled for use in the same area. Drainage demands can be minimized by adoptingthe principle of natural drainage. This new approach to design requires a new approach to paving andhard standing. Roads and footpaths would be designed to be less impervious so that they shed less ofthe water which falls on them, or shed it in such a way that it is directed into public and privategardens and ponds, and its run-off is slowed. The major benefit of the alternative approach wouldflow both from the reduced need for large scale investment in dams, trunk mains and pumpingsystems, and from a reduction in the load on the existing systems. Because of the concentrated demandand lack of impervious surfaces, higher densities hinder rather than help the sustainability of watersupply and drainage. Space is crucial in order to recycle and store water on-site and to install localtreatment systems. Green space in the city would be particularly important for the integration ofdrainage channels and ponds. The traditional low density form of Australian cities favors sustainabledrainage systems.2.4.2 Gardening practices and food productionGardening practices such as composting and mulching and home production of food could play a partin relieving environmental stress in cities. The potential of gardens has largely been ignored inarguments for consolidation. Food production should be encouraged in order to make cities moresustainable and to reduce pressure for monoculture developments in agriculture and slow the clearanceof more natural bush land. Incentives might include removing regulatory barriers and creating,encouraging or promoting local seed exchanges, and the local exchange, marketing or bartering ofsurplus production. Encouraging better husbandry and gardening practices, including the use on site ofmulch and composted household and garden wastes, would save water and reduce drainage.Tree and shrub planting, especially of „natives‟, would help cool the environment in summer, helpcope with air pollution and provide habitats for birds and other fauna. Urban plantations might also bedeveloped to provide fuel for space heating. Although this would increase air pollution in the shortrun, the fact that it is a renewable resource opens the possibility of a fuel demand and supplyequilibrium which is closer to neutral in its impact on the environment than the present reliance onfossil fuels. In any event, the use of new efficient combustion chambers for wood-burning spaceheaters rather than open fires will reduce air pollution.The application of natural drainage principles to the design of residential estates and the adoption ofgrouped housing development practices in which much of the private garden space is developed ascommunal garden space opens opportunities for new approaches to gardening and tree planting,including trees for fuel .Residential development can be designed to facilitate mulching, composting,recycling of water and reduced run-off while creating high quality space.Consolidation, or intensification, of urban areas would inevitably lead to a reduction in garden sizesand an increase in the number of dwellings without gardens. The potential benefits from both privateand communal gardening call into question the advisability of these new policies. Conversely, the
  18. 18. FINAL REPORT / KKKA6414traditional form of Australian cities is well suited to a renewed emphasis on the role of gardening andfood production.2.4.3 Waste managementLocal authorities have developed community collection and disposal systems based on the use oflandfill sites. The cost of coping with wastes using the traditional landfill processes willbecome increasingly expensive as sites become more difficult to find and higher standards are set tominimize the impact of waste disposal on the water table or on natural drainage catchments.Analysis of the stream of domestic wastes suggests that recycling and composting can reduce theamount going to landfill sites by as much as 70%, greatly prolonging the life of current sites. A majorbenefit of this approach is that aerobic composting of this waste results in less environmental stressthan disposal via landfill because the latter, after it is covered, occurs in anaerobic conditions resultingin the production of methane which is twenty-one times more damaging as a greenhouse gas thancarbon dioxide. The significance of this is that landfill generation of methane has a greenhouse effectequivalent to approximately 40% of the carbon dioxide production of all transport. As the majorportion of the source of methane from landfill sites is domestic and garden waste, the policy should beto encourage developments in which the private garden spaces are large enough to compost wastes onsite. This would enable reduction in methane with the equivalent of up to, say, 20% of the carbondioxide production of transport energy consumption which on current estimates exceeds the allegedenergy savings resulting from increasing urban density. It should be noted that the carbon dioxideequivalent of agricultural production of methane, mostly from cattle and sheep, actually exceeds thatfrom transport. Few proponents of consolidation consider a major change in our diet as a way ofreducing urban environmental stress.The streams of waste from commercial and industrial processes are more readily modified and reducedby redesign of the processes themselves. In many cases the establishments can more easily cope withtheir own wastes if they have space near their plant. The wastes from one industrial process may be thematerial inputs for another. Again, consolidation policies would not help.
  19. 19. FINAL REPORT / KKKA6414The stream of wastes from the construction industry is a significant proportion of the wastes disposedof by landfill. Increasing proportions of materials from demolition of old buildings are now beingrecovered and recycled, but much more could be. Greater consideration of the energy costs ofconstruction would lead to greater reuse of existing buildings, the construction of new buildings fromless energy expensive materials and the more efficient use of materials to reduce the flow of wastes.The introduction of charges related to the volume and type of wastes collected from different types ofdevelopment would make the population more aware of the costs of waste disposal and of its impacton the environment. Residents would be encouraged to separate out wastes which can be recoveredand recycled, or composted and used for mulch on site, thus reducing the volume to be transported totips. Therefore housing forms which allow residents to minimize the wastes transported from theirproperty should be encouraged. Commercial and shopping centers can be developed with facilitieswhich make it easier to separate and recycle materials. Industrial plant can be developed to reduce thewaste stream by treating more of it on site. Most areas of traditional residential development can copewith their own kitchen and garden wastes by composting but this is not a viable option for the greatproportion of higher density housing. In a compact city industrial and commercial undertakings mayfind their sites too cramped to redesign their processes to reduce waste production or process it on site.2.4.4 Noise pollutionMost urban activities result in noise: whether it be the busy hum of a factory; the hubbub ofmusic and conversation from a cafe; the incessant driving beat of a disco; or, most commonly, thepervasively intrusive sounds of traffic. The amenity of an area may be affected by its ambient noiselevel, which is frequently that of the traffic passing through. Excessive noise levels may injuriouslyaffect the health of residents. There is little data relating to the ambient noise levels of different formsof development although it is clear that noise is one of the sources of friction among residents ofhigher density housing. Noise can reduce the privacy of an area. An area regarded as quiet, peaceful ortranquil is a positive feature. This condition is more likely to be found in traditional residential areasthan in the compact city. The denser the development the more likely it is that the sounds of traffic,police sirens, fire engines and trains will be reflected and reverberate, producing the familiar noise ofthe city. Lower density development allows the sounds from the individual sources to attenuatewithout being intrusive.
  20. 20. FINAL REPORT / KKKA64142.4.5 Air pollutionOne reason factories were and remain separated from residential areas is that many processes resultedin the release of particulates and gases which are offensive or toxic or both, even if they are notgreenhouse gases .The dust and grit deposited on households from factory emissions may not beinjurious to health, although some are, and some contribute to the greenhouse effect, but they add tothe discomfort of life and the cost of cleanliness for those nearby. Higher density development, inwhich industrial or commercial processes are allowed in residential areas, increases the risk of suchexposure.A second source of air pollution is that which comes from the conscription of residents in the olfactorydelights of neighbors‟ meals or activities. Invasions of privacy may be experienced by householdsliving at higher densities when they can tell from the breeze that their neighbours are about to feast onsome aromatic dish. Living near a restaurant or even a sidewalk cafe can result in exposure to aromaswhich all do not find pleasing all the time. These experiences are rare in traditional Australian housingbut would be common in the type of high density, mixed use development promoted by the proponentsof the compact city.2.4.6 Energy consumptionEnergy consumption is an important source of stress to the environment because it exacerbates thegreenhouse effect. The greater proportions of the energy are consumed at fixed-point sites in theproduction or creation of the urban environment, in the operation of the city, and in mobile sources ofconsumption as its inhabitants pursue their interests and activities. About 36% of energy consumed isin the form of petroleum products. Although other important greenhouse gases are generated byenergy consumption, this discussion is confined to consideration of carbon dioxide, which is taken asthe indicator of total greenhouse gas emission. Renewable energy accounts for only 6% ofAustralian energy consumption, all of which is used at fixed points of consumption. The greaterpart of the 94% of non-renewable energy sources is consumed at fixed points.A significant proportion of energy is used in the manufacture of building materials, their fabricationinto components and fittings, and in the construction of buildings. The activity in the constructionsectors is one
  21. 21. FINAL REPORT / KKKA6414Of the main contributors to energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions nationally . In additionto the embodied energy of a building a significant proportion of energy consumed in the constructionphase is in the waste generated during construction.Energy is also consumed in the operation of the built environment, for space heating and cooling,lighting and water heating. Due to rising living standards energy consumption is constantly increasing.Buildings can be designed to take better account of the local climate for their space heating, coolingand lighting. In some regions this will require that they be designed to ensure maximum protectionfrom the sun in summer, and to minimize the use of materials which increase the heat load on thebuilding. They can also be designed to make maximum use of natural cooling and ventilation. In otherregions where buildings must be heated in winter they can be oriented to trap as much solar energy aspossible. Appropriate design and siting as well as the use of appropriate materials in their constructioncan result in significant gains in efficiency through the passive heating of buildings. In some regionsall the space heating needs of buildings can be met in this way.In larger buildings, especially offices and larger apartment blocks, better energy managementprograms for the building as a whole can lead to significant energy savings. Similarly, better energymanagement and the redesign of manufacturing processes can result in savings.Separate houses consume more reticulated energy than medium density housing or flats but it is morelikely to come from a wider variety of forms than in flats. High-rise flats are more likely to useelectricity for all their energy needs whereas houses are more likely to use renewable sources such aswood and solar power for a significant proportion of their needs. Households in semi-detachedhousing (including terrace houses and town houses) spend nearly as much on energy as those inseparate houses and it is again more likely to be as electricity or natural gas. But the fact thathouseholds spend so little of their income on fuel and power, 2.6% compared with 3.4% on alcoholicbeverages and 15.1% on transport, suggests that they would be loath to spend large sums on alteringtheir dwellings to achieve greater energy efficiency. This could change if energy prices wereincreased.Offices cannot function without the continuous consumption of large amounts of energy for heating,cooling and air-conditioning; moreover, they need a lot of energy to operate lifts. For a variety ofreasons, including safety, high-rise buildings whether for offices or residences can use only the moreexpensive forms of energy for their operation. Safety, convenience and local air pollutionconsiderations mean that the major energy source in the form of electricity rather than say, coal, oil orgas may be used in their operation, but this form of energy is the most expensive in terms of its globalenvironmental impact.It is clear that lower density development is more likely to be able to meet its energy needs usingrenewable sources such as wood and solar energy than higher density development.Furthermore lower density development is more likely to be able to maximize advantages fromorientation and design, and from energy reductions due to garden space.
  22. 22. FINAL REPORT / KKKA64143. Transportation and infrastructure3.1 INTRODUCTIONComprehensive and efficient transportation system networks with good inter and intra city linkages areessential enabling factors to ensure Kajang‟s position as a commercial centre. For the residents ofKajang, the city must be able to provide an efficient and equitable city structure that, as far as possible,allows all members of the community equal accessibility to all areas and facilities so that everyonemay enjoy the maximum benefits of city living.The basic structure is now in place with a comprehensive road and rail network, and the program nowfor Kajang will be to develop, refine and integrate this transportation system to serve the City and itspopulation. In this respect, MPKj shall assist in the implementation of a fully integrated transportationsystem.3.2 EXISTING SITUATIONThe modal share of public transport represents a major shift away from public transport and inparticular bus transport, which is partly attributable to higher personel affluence leading to an increasein car ownership and also to deficiencies in the bus services. The increasing reliance on privatetransportation, in particular private cars, has created considerable pressure on the road network whichhas contributed to the problems of traffic congestion.Increased affluence and out migration from Kajang have both contributed to the present trafficcongestion problems in the City Centre. The population of Kajang maintained an annual growth ratewhile person trips by cars increased at an average annual growth rate in the Kajang City Centre. Thehigh travel demand has been met in large part by private transportation in particular, private cars. As aconsequence, there has been congestion and a serious deterioration of travel speed on major roads inmany parts of Kajang, especially in the City Centre as well as in the east and south, due to majortraffic routes operating at or above capacity during peak hours. Low vehicle occupancy has furtheraggravated the problem.Although traffic management measures have done much to ease traffic flows particularly Privatesector involvement in the provision of transport infrastructure has expanded from the original role ofbus and taxi transport operations to toll road construction and the implementation, operation andmaintenance of the commuter. There is a degree of overlap and duplication in the functions of thevarious agencies responsible for Kuala Lumpur‟s transportation network which has led, in someinstances, to conflicting policies or programmers. This has made it more difficult to formulate policiesfor public and private transportation which are consistent. Inadequate coordination of policiesconcerning public transport and public/ private transport modes.
  23. 23. FINAL REPORT / KKKA64143.2.1 EXISTING SITUATIONRail - Based Public TransportThe upgrading of KTMB rail services and the operation of the KTM commuter added rail services atKajang city between Kuala Lumpur - Seremban This service allows commuters to capture a significantportion of the long distance daily travel needs.However, optimal usage has still to be achieved due to:  inadequate interchange facilities at stations including car and motor cycle parking and pedestrian linkages;  lack of integration between rail-based stations; and  Poor support services including inadequate feeder bus frequency and service coverage. It is clear that rail-based public transport services are far less accessible than bus services and, consequently, their ability to service patrons in a single trip from origin to destination is very limited. The 2-kilometre radius coverage of the feeder buses that operate from stations is not enough to ensure sufficient accessibility.  Poor accessibility to rail-based public transport.Bus ServicesAt present there are some major private companies operating buses per day. Each company operatesabout some routes, most of which are radial in nature, terminating at the City Centre. Improvements tothe bus network are being facilitated by MPKj providing exclusive bus and taxi lanes in the CityCentre and comfortable stop facilities. Together these improvements are intended to offer passengers aquick, comfortable and convenient transport option.Despite the improvements to the bus system and road infrastructure, bus utilisation is low, primarily asa consequence of route duplication, unreliable service frequency, overcrowding during peak hours andthe poor condition of buses.  Under utilization of bus services; and  Unreliable and poor quality of services. Alternative transport particularly outside peak hours. There is no shortage of taxis but availability is frequently a problem at peak periods and during bad weather.  Unreliable taxi services. In traffic congestion
  24. 24. FINAL REPORT / KKKA6414Private TransportationCars and Car ParkingCar parking on all major arterial roads is causing traffic congestion. The existing old bus terminal is atTukang Street in the City Centre. The majority of inter city buses and coaches terminate there, thusadding to traffic congestion and consequently, longer journey times for passengers.MotorcyclesThe accident rate involving motorcycles is higher than for all other forms of transport. Motorcyclescontribute significantly to noise and air pollution.
  25. 25. FINAL REPORT / KKKA64143.3 FUTURE TRANSPORTATIONUSING New diesel-electric TRAIN INSTEAD OF AN OLD KTM RAILWAYThe Train-Trams will be used in both regional traffic as well as in inner-city traffic. Speeds of up to100 km/h can be reached in regional traffic and almost 70 km/h in inner-city traffic.USING THE PERSONAL POD CAR INSTEAD OF CURRENT PRIVATE VEHICLEBecause of following advantages:  Low capital and operational costs  Flexible routing  24-hour availability  On-demand service with no transfers  Zero on-site emissions  Extremely low overall energy use
  26. 26. FINAL REPORT / KKKA64144 .FUTURE ENERGY4.1 SOLAR ENERGYSolar Energy is the energy that is produced by the sun in the form of heat and light. It is one of themost renewable and readily available source of energy. The fact that it is available in plenty and freeand does not belong to anybody makes it one of the most important of the non-conventional sources ofenergy. Solar energy has been used by people since ancient times by using simple magnifying glassesto concentrate the light of the sun into beams so hot they would cause wood to catch fire.Mainly, Solar energy can be used to convert it into heat energy or it can be converted into electricity.Solar energy can be converted into electricity by means of solar thermal energy and photovoltaic.Through Solar Photovoltaic (SPV) cells, solar radiation gets converted into DC electricity directly.This form of energy can be used to power solar watches, calculators or traffic signals. They are oftenused in locations that are not connected to electricity grid. Solar heat energy can be used to heat wateror space heating which means heating the space inside the building. SSolar energy can be broadly categorized as active or passive solar energy depending on how they arecaptured and utilized. In active solar energy special solar heating equipment is used to convert solarenergy to heat energy whereas in passive solar energy the mechanical equipment is not present.Activesolar include the use of mechanical equipment like photovoltaic cells, solar thermal collectors orpumps and fans to trap the solar energy. Passive solar technologies convert solar energy to heat energywithout use of active mechanical systems. It is mainly the practice of using windows, walls, trees,building placement and other simple techniques to capture or deflect the sun for use. Passive solarheating is a great way to conserve energy and maximizing it‟s utilization. An example of passive solarheating is what happens to your car on a hot summer day. Environmental ImpactAlthough Solar energy is considered to be one of the cleanest and renewable sources of energy amongthe available sources but is has some environmental impacts too. Solar energy uses photovoltaic cells
  27. 27. FINAL REPORT / KKKA6414to produce solar power. However, manufacturing the photovoltaic cells to produces that energyrequires silicon and produce some waste products. Inappropriate handling of these materials may leadto hazardous exposure to humans and the environment. Installing solar power plants may require largepiece of land, which may impact existing ecosystems. Solar energy does not pollute the air whenconverted to electricity by solar panels. It is found in abundance and does not help in global warming .Future of Solar EnergySolar technology is now poised to play a larger role in the future, thanks to new developments thatcould result in lower costs and improved efficiency. In fact, the solar PV industry aims to provide halfof all new U.S. electricity generation by 2025. More and more architects are recognizing the value ofactive and passive solar and learning how to effectively incorporate it into building designs. Solar hotwater systems can compete economically with conventional systems in some areas. Perhaps the futureis here now. Shell has predicted that 50% of the world‟s energy will come from renewable sources by2040. In recent years manufacturing costs of photovoltaic cells has dropped by 3-5% per year whilegovernment subsidies have increased. While to some such facts about solar energy seem trivial, thismakes solar energy an ever-more affordable energy source. In the next few years it is expected thatmillions of households in the world will be using solar energy as the trends in USA and Japan show.Aggressive financial incentives in Germany and Japan have made these countries global leaders insolar deployment for years.How Solar Power Works 1. Roof Mounted Solar Panels these panels absorb FREE solar energy from the sun 2. Inverter this device converts the solar energy into power for your home or business 3. Electrical Panel this is where the power gets distributed throughout your home or business for use 4. Utility Meter any excess energy created by your solar system will flow into the utility grid through the meter 5. Utility Grid state and national infrastructure that provides power to your home and business when demand exceeds solar production
  28. 28. FINAL REPORT / KKKA64144.2 Biomass Basics and Environmental ImpactBiomass is any organic matter, particularly cellulosic or lingo-cellulosic matter, which is available ona renewable or recurring basis, including trees, plants and associated residues; plant fiber; animalwastes; industrial waste; and the paper component of municipal solid waste.Plants store solar energy through photosythesis in cellulose and lignin cells. Cellulose is defined as apolymer, or chain, of 6-carbon sugars; lignin is the substance, or “glue,” that holds the cellulose chaintogether. When burned, these sugars break down and release energy exothermically, giving off CO2,heat and steam. The byproducts of this reaction can be captured and manipulated to create electricity,commonly called biopower, or fuel known as biofuel. (Both short for "biomass power" and "biomassfuel" respectively).Biomass is considered to be a replenish able resource—it can be replaced fairly quickly withoutpermanently depleting the Earth‟s natural resources. By comparison, fossil fuels such as natural gasand coal require millions of years of natural processes to be produced. Therefore, mining coal andnatural gas depletes the Earth‟s resources for thousands of generations. Alternatively, biomass caneasily be grown or collected, utilized and replaced.Moreover, using biomass to create energy has positive environmental implications. Carbon dioxide isa naturally occuring gas. Plants collect and store carbon dioxide to aid in the photosynthesis process.As plants or other matter decompose, or natural fires occur, CO2 is released. Before theanthropomorphic discovery of fossil fuels, the carbon dioxide cycle was stable; the same amount thatwas released was sequestered, but it has since been distrupted. In the past 150 years, the period sincethe Industrial Revolution, carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere have risen from around 150 ppm to330 ppm, and are expected to double before 2050.
  29. 29. FINAL REPORT / KKKA6414An overwhelming majority of scientists now link carbon dioxide with rising temperatures in theatmosphere and other issues associated with climate change. Scientists are predicting a rise in averagetemperature 2-10 degrees Celsius. This change may seem insignificant, but note that the former ice ageresulted from an average of 5 degrees Celsius drop in temperature [4]. This small shift in averagetemperature has huge implications for melting ice sheets, which would raise global water levels up to30 feet, flooding the coastal cities in which most of the world currently resides. Additionally, moreextreme weather patterns are predicted to occur, as well as habitat loss, spread of disease and a wholehost of other problems. The amount of CO2 pumped into the atmosphere today will remain for at leasta hundred years, since the half life will outlive all of us.In order to curb CO2 emissions, we must take active strides to reduce our emissions. At present, theUnited States is responsible for 25% of the worlds emissions, and is currently dedicated to a policywhich actually encourages the release of more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, claiming it to be anindication of economic growth. Burning biomass will not solve the currently unbalanced carbondioxide problem. However, the contribution that biomass could make to the energy sector is stillconsiderable, since it creates less carbon dioxide than its fossil-fuel counterpart. Conceptually, thecarbon dioxide produced by biomass when it is burned will be sequestered evenly by plants growing toreplace the fuel. In other words, it is a closed cycle which results in net zero impact (see diagrambelow). Thus, energy derived from biomass does not have the negative environmental impactassociated with non-renewable energy sources.
  30. 30. FINAL REPORT / KKKA6414Biomass is an attractive energy source for a number of reasons. First, it is a renewable energy sourceas long as we manage vegetation appropriately. Biomass is also more evenly distributed over theearths surface than finite energy sources, and may be exploited using less capital-intensivetechnologies. It provides the opportunity for local, regional, and national energy self-sufficiency acrossthe globe. It provides an alternative to fossil fuels, and helps to reduce climate change. It helps localfarmers who may be struggling and provides rural job opportunities.Biomass Energy ConversionBioenergy conversion requires a comparison with other energy sources that are displaced by thebioenergy. Thus, biomass for power must be compared to coal, natural gas, nuclear, and other powersources including other renewables. While comprehensive data is not available, one study by REPPshows that emissions from biomass plants burning waste wood would release far less sulfur dioxide(SO2), nitrogen oxide (NOx) and carbon dioxide (CO2) than coal plants built after 1975. Thecomparison with combined cycle natural gas power plants is more ambiguous, since biomass releasesfar more sulfur dioxide, similar levels or greater levels of nitrogen oxide, but far less carbon dioxidethan combined cycle natural gas plants.Life-cycle impactsSeveral studies by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory examined the “life-cycle” impact ofbioenergy for power. That is, the studies examined the air, land and water impacts of every step of thebioenergy process, from cultivating, collecting, and transporting biomass to converting it to energy.One study found that a bioenergy operation featuring biomass gasification with combined-cycle powerplant technology would release far less SO2, NOx, CO2, particulate matter, methane and carbonmonoxide than coal power plants meeting new federal air pollution standards.5.CULTURE, LEISURE AND TOURISM5.1 CULTURE, LEISURE AND TOURISMThe City Strategy defines culture to encompass all events and experiences that bring people together:and the facilities, public spaces and places they share. The Strategy recognizes that the challenge is tocreate an environment where people can live civilized lives and participate fully in the life of the city.The city must aim to be challenging, stimulating and exciting. City culture has a key role in thedevelopment of active communities, a vibrant economy and the international image of the city. Thecultural, leisure and tourism industries make an increasingly important contribution to the city‟seconomy.Cultural, leisure and tourist development that would be likely to attract a lot of people should bedirected towards existing centers where there is good accessibility to modes of travel other than theprivate car. Proposals for such development in other locations will have to demonstrate evidence ofneed. Once this has been established a sequential approach to site selection will be required. Firstpreference will be given to sites within the city centre as defined on the Proposals Map. These will be
  31. 31. FINAL REPORT / KKKA6414followed by edge-of-city centre sites, then town centre and edge-of-town centre sites followed bydistrict centre sites. Where development would adversely affect existing centers permission will not begranted. In assessing the impact on existing centers, account should be taken of the likely effects onthe night time economy.5.2 Location of DevelopmentThe Local Plan makes provision for cultural, leisure and tourist developments as part of mixed-usedevelopment on a number of sites. These will be relatively small scale in nature and will providesupport for other uses on their site.Cultural, leisure and tourist development that would be likely to attract a lot of people should bedirected towards existing centers where there is good accessibility to modes of travel other than theprivate car. Once this has been established a sequential approach to site selection will be required.First preference will be given to sites within the city centre. These will be followed by edge-of-citycentre sites, then town centre and edge-of-town centre sites followed by district centre sites. Wheredevelopment would adversely affect existing centers permission will not be granted. In assessing theimpact on existing centers, account should be taken of the likely effects on the night time economy.5.3 Community Buildings:Community buildings provide important facilities in which people can meet and interact. They need tobe close to places where people live to serve local communities. Therefore, existing buildings areprotected from development in order to ensure they remain truly available. Development will only bepermitted where the facility can be re-provided so as to meet the needs of the community it serves inan equally convenient location. Alternatively, where it can be demonstrated that there is no communityneed for a building, development will also be permitted.
  32. 32. FINAL REPORT / KKKA6414Applications for new community buildings will be considered against the sustainable developmentprinciples. The council will seek a contribution from developers towards the provision of communityfacilities in areas where new development would result in insufficient or inadequate facilities.Community buildings include community halls, community centers, meeting rooms, day centers, drop-in centers and places of worship and their meeting halls .5.4 OPEN SPACE:Kajang‟s open spaces contribute to the quality of the urban environment. They create the characterwhich makes Kajang the Green City. These spaces offer the opportunity for recreation and socialinteraction. The open spaces perform a variety of functions.They provide for formal sporting activities; they provide for informal recreation and relaxation; andthey provide space for events and entertainment. The protection and enhancement is vital to make thecity a desirable place to live, work and relax in. This section of the plan deals with recreational openspace. The city‟s greenways are both an important nature conservation and recreation resource.The Structure Plan recommends that local plans should establish open space standards based upon theNational Playing Fields Association (NPFA) minimum standard. This standard requires the provisionof 2.4 hectares of open space per 1,000 populations. Of this 1.6 hectares should be for sport and 0.8hectares for children‟s pal PPG 17 advises authorities to set their own standards of provision based on
  33. 33. FINAL REPORT / KKKA6414their own assessments of need for open space, sports and recreational facilities. Authorities are alsoexpected to undertake audits of existing open space, sports and recreational facilities.The audit is assessing the quality and quantity of open space within the city, assessing needs for openspace, providing recommendations for open space standards and providing policy options for the city‟sopen space strategy.The Audit will provide the basis for the city‟s Open Space Strategy. The council will review the openspace policies when it has received the Audit report. This will be done as part of the work on the LocalDevelopment Framework. Until that is done the Council will use the NPFA standard as the basis forassessing the need for additional open space.The distribution of this open space across the city is not even. There is a need to protect playingpitches in areas to ensure the needs of the whole city are met. The existence of these areas should notbe seen as justification for seeking the development of other open spaces in their vicinity.5.5 Protection of Open SpacesProtection of Open space is an important resource contributing to the quality of life in the city. Thisspace is not evenly distributed across the city. Therefore in some areas where there may appear to beover provision, this space provides for the recreational needs of a larger population.Development will only be permitted in exceptional circumstances, for example, if it can bedemonstrated that the space can be re-provided on an alternative site and the new space is of equalbenefit (or better) to the community as the existing space in terms of availability, quality, quantity andaccessibility and its future maintenance can be ensured.Playing fields play an important role in the provision of open space. They offer formal sportingopportunities, which have health benefits. They also contribute visually to the character of areas. Somespaces also provide informal opportunities for recreation. The loss of playing fields will be stronglyresisted unless there is a strategic sporting requirement.
  34. 34. FINAL REPORT / KKKA64145.6 Open Space in New Residential DevelopmentsThe residents of any new development are likely to add to the demand that already exists for outdoorplaying space. New development should provide for the open space facilities that are required as aresult of the development. Public open space of an appropriate type should, therefore, be provided inassociation with the new development to meet the needs of the occupiers. Open space should beprovided in accordance with the minimum standard of 2.4 hectares per 1000 population,. Wherefeasible the open space should be provided on site but where this is not possible the council will accepta financial contribution to enable this to be provided off-site.5.7 Provision of Children’s Play AreasIt is important that new development provides for the play requirements arising from development.One-bedroom and sheltered housing units and student residential halls will be excluded from anycalculations. The residential standards brief includes guidance on play space provision.For smaller developments - fewer than 25 units - the council will accept a financial contribution toenable this to be provided offsite. The contribution should cover the cost of providing equipment,maintaining that equipment and providing the land. The level of contribution will be assessed on a pro-rata basis.For larger developments, in excess of 25 units, play space should be provided as an integral part of thedevelopment. Where there is an existing public play area within 400 meters walking distance of thedevelopment the council will accept a financial contribution towards enhancing this facility unlessspace is limited at the existing facility so that it is not capable of being extended or enhanced toaccommodate the additional requirement and or the demand at the existing facility is alreadyexcessive.
  35. 35. FINAL REPORT / KKKA6414Developments which exceed 100 units should make provision on-site and meet the play needs whicharise from the development. This will usually mean one play area for each 100 dwellings or part ofeach 100. However, it may be possible to meet the play need by providing fewer, large play facilities.5-8 Provision of New Public Open SpaceThere is a need to improve open space provision across the city. To meet current deficiencies the sitesidentified are safeguarded for future open space provision. These will be brought forward whenresources allow.

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