Page 1 of 20 Intelligent Urban Transport Management System Assignment 3Name Muhammad bin RamlanMatrix No. P57600Subject KA 6423Session 2012/2013Lecturer Prof Ir Dr Riza Atiq O.K. Rahmat
Page 2 of 20QuestionA city administrator wants to install a smart surveillance system at several strategiclocations to upgrade its CCTV camera system. You are given a task to prepare aproposal on evaluation of available smart camera systems on the market againstupgrading existing surveillance camera system. Please explain how the upgradingcan be done and give one example on how to carry out the traffic counting,determination of vehicle speed, classification of vehicles and incident detection. Usesketches to enhance your explanation.
Page 3 of 20Answer1.0 INTRODUCTION OF SMART SURVEILLANCE SYSTEMIntelligent visual surveillance systems deal with the real-time monitoring of persistentand transient objects within a specific environment. The primary aims of thesesystems are to provide an automatic interpretation of scenes and to understand andpredict the actions and interactions of the observed objects based on the informationacquired by sensors. Smart Cameras are becoming more popular in IntelligentSurveillance Systems area. Smart cameras are cameras that can perform tasks farbeyond simply taking photos and recording videos. Thanks to the purposely built-inintelligent image processing and pattern recognition algorithms, smart cameras candetect motion, measure objects, read vehicle number plates, and even recognizehuman behaviours.The important differences between a smart camera and “normal” cameras, such asconsumer digital cameras and camcorders, lie in two aspects. The first is in camerasystem architecture. A smart camera usually has a special image processing unitcontaining one or more high performance microprocessors to run intelligent ASIPalgorithms, in which the primary objective is not to improve images quality but toextract information and knowledge from images. The image processing hardware innormal cameras is usually simpler and less powerful with the main aim being toachieve good visual image quality. The other main difference is in the primarycamera output. A smart camera outputs either the features extracted from thecaptured images or a high-level description of the scene, which is fed into anautomated control system, while for normal cameras the primary output is theprocessed version of the captured images for human consumption. For this reason,normal video cameras have large output bandwidth requirements (in directproportion to the resolution of the image sensor used), while smart camera can havevery low data bandwidth requirements at the output (it can be just one bit in thesimplest case, with ‘1’ meaning ‘there is motion’ and ‘0’ meaning ‘there is no motion’,for example). These differences are illustrated in figure 1.
Page 4 of 20Differences between a normal camera (a) and a smart camera (b).
Page 5 of 20 2.0 EVALUATING EXISTING SMART CAMERA SYSTEMCAMERA DESCRIPTION BENEFIT APPLICATIONAGD Systems - AGD offers a comprehensive New technology Vehicle detectorTraffic range of detection products Field proven Junction controlInformation and covering a wide range of accuracy and Traffic dataMeasurement applications in traffic and reliability controlEquipment pedestrian control. The Cost-effective Traveler product range is targeted at solution information reducing the costs of Flexible design system providing efficient inputs to meets a variety of Journey time traffic control and detection and (travel time) management systems. The surveillance Remote video latest advances in radar application surveillance technology offer real time Superior to other system information on vehicle count detection system and speed, occupancy and queues. AGD also manufacture the most extensive range of nearside signals for Puffin, Toucan and Pegasus crossing strategies. A dedicated product selector is available on our website. Please use the link below to access this.
Page 6 of 20Traficon Traficon detectors provide Automatically traffic data standard traffic data (volume, generated alarms acquisition speed, etc) which can be warn the operators automatic used for statistical purposes. as soon as an incident incident takes place detection Automatic Incident and a maximum of intersection Detection information is given: vehicle presence Fast detection of stopped type detection vehicles or wrong-way drivers severity ramp metering speeds up intervention and location travel time thus saves lives. relevant traffic calculation data dynamic speed Flow Monitoring Combination of data indication Congestion within and and images queue tail through the large facilitates monitoring metropolitan areas continues verification of congestion to increase and limit mobility. alarms. monitoring Accurately monitoring the Cost effectiveness tunnel access average flow speed helps to Technical efficiency control distinguish different levels of and reliability ventilation service (e.g. fluid, dense, control congested, queue). Other rerouting applications are queue VMS-control monitoring during road-works dynamic queue and calculating travel time indication during based on flow information road works from the VIP detectors. dynamic lane opening or closing
Page 7 of 203.0 PROPOSED SURVEILLANCE CAMERA SYSTEMBased on the evaluating the benefit and the function, we are proposed AGDSystems - Traffic Information and Measurement EquipmentThe advantages of AGD Systems as non-intrusive detection technology are wellknown. AGD has invested in developing this economic approach for ITS-basedsolutions. The real-time information available from the radar includes: Speed Direction Occupancy Flow Queues HeadwayThis information can be routed through the network to the UTMC control center.Detection information from the network is now presented compliant with the UTMCstandards.Deployment of these detection systems is enhanced by a choice ofinterface media, making wireless solutions a cost-effective choice. The AGD Janusfamily offers a host of connectivity and data storage options in a single compacthousing. Link a Janus outstation to a roadside detector to add considerablefunctionality to your ITS-based system and benefit more from the existinginfrastructure
Page 8 of 20AGD offers a comprehensive range of detection products covering a wide range ofapplications in traffic and pedestrian control. The product range is targeted atreducing the costs of providing efficient inputs to traffic control and managementsystems. The latest advances in radar technology offer real time information onvehicle count and speed, occupancy and queues.AGD also manufacture the most extensive range of nearside signals for Puffin,Toucan and Pegasus crossing strategies. A dedicated product selector is availableon our website. Please use the link below to access this.Pedestrian DetectionThe AGD range of pedestrian detection products features CW Doppler radars for thedetection of moving pedestrians and cyclists on crossings. AGD utilize EnhancedDigital Vision technology for the detection of moving or stationary pedestrians andcyclists while waiting to cross is also available.These are used in conjunction with the extensive range of AGD nearside signals forPuffin and Toucan crossing strategies, which can be seen on the product selector onour website.Digital Vision Pedestrian DetectorsThe AGD640 is the latest digital vision detector for detecting waiting pedestrians orcyclists waiting to cross a carriageway. The dual optical system of this detector isdesigned to view a detection zone adjacent to the pole to which it is mounted.The AGD640 uses both ambient light and its own infra-red illumination system toperform a twenty-four hour detection function in conditions ranging from brightsunlight to urban night-time.
Page 9 of 20In enhanced mode the zone size is 3m x 2m with a high level of shadow rejection.Pedestrians that are waiting to cross in the designated zone will generate a detectstate.The integrated vision sensors and processing utilize the AGD Livewire basedplatform to adapt the detector’s performance for a given installation. AGD Livewireprovides the facility to adjust the zone size, presence and hold time. The AGD640 issupplied fully Bluetooth and serial cable livewire enabled offering the added benefitsof detector parameter adjustment and maintenance from the safety of ground level.Vehicle DetectionAGD’s ranges of vehicle detection products feature CW Doppler radars, advanceddigital radars and digital vision technology for the detection of moving and stationaryvehicles. These are offered with rugged housings, making them suitable for roadsideenvironments and for fixing to existing street furniture.The vehicle detection products featured on the AGD website can be used stand-alone or as part of a detection system. They provide relay outputs to local controllersor other key traffic data via RS422 interfaces. Enhanced features provide cost-effective and reliable detection information for intelligent traffic management.Radar Detection And Monitoring Of Vehicles For Traffic ApplicationsAGD offers a series of CW Doppler radar detectors designed for the detection andmonitoring of vehicles at signaled junctions, pedestrian crossing installations andother applications, where the detection of moving vehicles is required in a long zoneextending from the detector. Ease of installation, deployment with existing streetfurniture, and the advantages of non-intrusive detection make these detectors a cost-effective solution in urban environments.
Page 10 of 204.0 SEVERAL INFORMATION ON THE APPLICATION OF SMART CAMERA INTHE CURRENT MARKETTraffic CountingThe vehicle counting procedure by time-spatial image includes image preprocessing,detection, image morphological operation, vehicle detection and counting, errorcorrection etc. (a) Time-spatial image. (b) Image after edge detection. (c) Image after morphological close operation and hole-filling. (d) Image after moment computing.
Page 11 of 20 Flow Chart Vehicle Counting MethodDetermination of Vehicle SpeedFollowing is a brief description of the three main types of speed detection device thatcan be located and identified by using speed camera detection devices in the UK -laser detection radar detection and GPS (which stands for Global PositioningSatellite). Speed camera detection devices can use one or any combination of thesetechnologies.Dopplar Radar: The Dopplar radar directs a radio signal at a piece of road. Thefrequency changes that occur when a vehicle drives along the stretch of road willindicate its presence, and how fast the said vehicle is moving.Laser: Laser Detectors use laser pulses to measure where a vehicle is and from themeasurements taken can also work out the speed at which the vehicle is travelling.
Page 12 of 20GPS (Global Navigation Satellite System): GPS is a system that uses 24 satellitesorbiting the earth which continuously transmit precise microwave signals. A GPSReceiver uses signals from the satellites to calculate its location.So how do the Detection Devices work against this technology?In the case of laser and radar technology, there are two major ways in which theyallow a speeding motorist to remain undetected, and therefore escape prosecution:Jamming Signals: There are devices on the market known as ‘jammers’, whichscramble the signals sent to the speed cameras so that the camera cannot processor ‘read’ the information.Passive Detectors: These simply warn the motorist when they are in the vicinity of aspeed camera or detection device and alert the driver to their presence.GPS systems rely on an up to date database of all camera positions and will warnthe driver when a camera or detection device is nearby. This is also available onmany Satellite Navigation systems via a subscription service which is updatedregularly with new camera positions.Gatso Meter Speed CamerasGatso speed cameras use radar technology and as they can be used as fixed speedcameras, fixed upon tripods, used inside moving police vehicles and in-car mobilepolice units, they are extremely convenient for local authorities and police forcesacross the UK. Because of this, they account for 90% of our fixed speed cameras.Costing approximately £20,000 per camera - or £40,000 in rural locations due to theneed for a 240v power supply, the fixed Gatso cameras can take up to 400 picturesbefore the film runs out, and are rear-facing. They are designed this way so thatwhen the camera flashes at a speeding motorist, it doesnt blind them and cause anaccident. However this means that you often dont see a Gatso camera until the verylast minute- which makes sure that the camera pays for itself relatively quickly. Oftenyoull find two Gatsos pointing in opposite directions, to catch motorists travelingeither way.
Page 13 of 20Annoyingly, they are clever little machines which can distinguish between differentsizes of vehicles and can also enforce separate speeding limits - e.g. on roadswhere cars and vans are allowed to drive at 60mph, but HGVs are restricted to40mph, it will be able to tell which is which, and enforce the limits accordingly.Truvelo Speed CamerasTruvelo system is steadily becoming more common and some parts of the UK nowpredominantly use this type of camera. Three white lines are painted just ahead ofthe Truvelo camera and there are strips in the road that register the speed of thepassing vehicle and trigger the camera.By using an infra-red flash, the Truvelo camera avoids the flash that the rear Gatsocameras produce when a photograph is taken. This means that the driver doesntsee a flash but the camera can take a photograph of the driver, as well as the front ofthe vehicle.SPECS CamerasSPECS work in conjunction with the Automatic Number Plate Reading (ANPR)technology. These are the cameras that you often see fixed to gantries towering overmotorways or larger roads. You might also see them on central reservations or onthe roadside.They are fitted with infra-red illuminators and are only ever seen in groups of 2 ormore. The groups of cameras are fixed at separate locations and work together toestablish the average speed a vehicle is traveling at - by working out how long it tookit to travel between each camera position.When a car goes past the first and last cameras (and any in between), the numberplate details are recorded digitally. Using ANPR technology the video images of thenumber plates are married up and the computer is able to work out which vehiclesare speeding, and which are not.
Page 14 of 20The SPECS cameras are gaining in popularity, because they allow local authoritiesto impose controlled speed networks over various lengths of road using technologythat is already available. They are currently situated at various locations across theUK. Gatso speed cameras - sited at the road side, Gatso speed cameras use radar technology to measure speed, a photo of the back of the vehicle is taken. Truvelo speed cameras - sited at the road side, forward facing Truvelo speed cameras use loops in the road to trigger when a speed limit is exceeded. SPECS speed cameras - sited on overhead gantries, SPECS speed cameras measures your average speed between two points. Peek speed cameras - sited at the road side, Peek speed cameras use loops in the road to trigger when a speed limit is exceeded.Classification of VehiclesVideo-based Vehicle Detection and Classification (VVDC) system is applied forcollecting vehiclecount and classification data. The VVDC system has six modules:live video capture, user input,background extraction, vehicle detection, shadow
Page 15 of 20removal, and length-based classification. The VVDC system can take digitized videoimages or live video signal as input. Flow chart of the VVDC System The main user interface of the VVDC system
Page 16 of 20Incident DetectionWide area video detection for direct automatic incident detection is based on realtime analysis of the images of cameras that cover the whole road that has to bemonitored. This analysis will detect all abnormalities of the traffic such as Stoppedvehicles, inverse direction drivers, slow vehicles, fallen objects, traffic jamsFor example is the Idris Incident Detection system from US. The Idris IncidentDetection System (IDS) consists of a group of outstations spread along the roadway,each responsible for monitoring a loop site, i.e. inductive loops arranged as one looppair per lane at that point. Various algorithms are used to characterize the traffic anddetect anomalies, which trigger alarm messages to a Higher Level System (HLS).The IDS provides four broad categories of information: Alarms, which notify the occurrence of exceptional events on the highway Traffic information, sent at regular (configurable) intervals Vehicle data, which consist of records generated each time a vehicle passes over a loop site Status, which provides information regarding the roadside equipment, either on events or when requested by the HLSThe Single Stopped Vehicle (SSV) algorithm:The core of the IDS is the SingleStopped Vehicle (SSV) algorithm. Its primary objective is to detect stopped vehiclesin high-speed, free-flowing traffic - a situation in which accidents tend to be mostserious. When the first outstation detects a vehicle, it sends a message containingrelevant vehicle data to the next downstream outstation. This next outstation willexpect the vehicle to arrive within a certain time window. If it does, the outstation willinform the following one and so on. If it does not, it is likely that the vehicle hasstopped between the two outstations and an alarm is raised. This is a simplificationof the actual processing, which needs to keep a virtual map of all vehicles transitingeach outstation pair. The IDS is able to detect and track vehicles straddling lanesand changing lanes between outstations.
Page 17 of 20Alarms:Alarms are associated with the carriageway, the outstation and the lanenumber and, where applicable, provide the data for the relevant vehicle.Single Stopped Vehicle (SSV): This alarm is raised when a vehicle which wasdetected by an upstream outstation fails to be detected by the current one. Theimplication is that the vehicle has stopped somewhere between the two sites, eitheron the running lanes or the shoulder.Extra Vehicle: This alarm is raised when an unrecognized vehicle is detected at asite, i.e. the vehicle was not detected by the previous outstation. This would normallybe a previously stopped vehicle rejoining the traffic.Slow Vehicle: This alarm indicates a vehicle was detected at a speed significantlybelow the current average speed of other vehicles on the highway. This is in itself adangerous condition and may frequently indicate the vehicle is about to stop.Reverse Vehicle: Any vehicle moving in the wrong direction on a highway is a hazardand an alarm is generated immediately.Slow Traffic: This indicates the average speed of the vehicles has fallen below a pre-defined threshold at the site. The cause will usually be congestion. This will alsohappen upstream from an incident, in which case it will probably be followed shortlyby a Queued Traffic alarm.Queued Traffic: A Queued Traffic alarm is raised to indicate traffic on that lane isshowing shock-wave or start/stop behavior. This is usually due either to excessivecongestion or a downstream incident.Status: Status messages are used to inform a HLS of equipment status and SSValgorithm status, such as: Operating; Off by command; Degraded; Failed.
Page 18 of 20Traffic information:Traffic information messages provide data collected overconfigurable time periods: Traffic flow in vehicles per hour (on this lane) over the last time period. Average vehicle speed over the last time period. Presence of vehicles on the shoulder or in an ERA. Currently active alarms. This includes the number of active SSVs for that lane, Slow Traffic and Queued Traffic indications. Traffic count, in vehicles, over the last time period. For added flexibility, two data collection intervals are defined - one for the traffic count information and one for the flow, speed and alarm status informationVehicle records:Every time a vehicle crosses a loop site, a record is generatedincluding such information as: Carriageway, lane and direction Vehicle length and speed Date and time of the occurrence and site occupancy timeOther data may easily be obtained from this information, such as the headwaybetween consecutive vehicles.Traffic information message processing:This provides a real-time picture of thehighway conditions such as average speed and vehicle count. This can be used towarn of congestion, and support decisions, for example, to open a shoulder to traffic.Vehicle processing:Although the vehicle records are strictly a by-product of theincident detection processing, they provide significant opportunities in longer-termtraffic management. These include: Reconstitution of the highway scenario immediately prior to an accident, for legal support (Idris is accurate enough for speed enforcement) Monitoring of traffic volumes and speeds at any level of detail (seasonal, weekly, daily, hourly, etc.) for future highway expansion planning.
Page 19 of 20Monitoring of traffic patterns (lane changes, speed variations) to support trafficmanagement strategies both for day-to-day congestion management andscheduling of maintenance procedures.Analysis of motorists’ behaviour in diverse situations (frees flow, moderatecongestion, congestion and as a shock-wave of an incident propagates backalong the highway).Vehicle records can be used real-time, when maximum information is neededat the Control Centre, or, once stored in a database, can be analysed atleisure by even the most time-consuming algorithms.
Page 20 of 20Conclusions: By providing a comprehensive set of highly accurate data, in a flexiblemanner, the Idris Incident Detection System enables safe and efficient administrationof highway sections where traffic levels are reaching capacity. The following areasare addressed: Rapid response to events on the highway Day-to-day traffic administration Support for legal issues (reconstitution) if accidents occur Long term congestion and capacity expansion planning Deep off-line analysis of traffic behaviourIdris uses only inductive loops below the road surface to achieve this, improvingreliability and reducing whole-life cost.