World Link Grammar.Intro


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This is a course That Approaches to grammar instruction given by Ian Martin
Teacher Development.

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World Link Grammar.Intro

  1. 1. Approaches to grammar instruction Ian Martin Teacher Development World Link
  2. 2. Prescriptive vs. Descriptive <ul><li>A prescriptive grammar specifies what is right and what is wrong </li></ul><ul><li>A descriptive grammarian tries to avoid making judgments about correctness, and concentrates on describing and explaining the way people actually use language </li></ul>
  3. 3. ?? <ul><li>A: Would you like some more coffee, sir? </li></ul><ul><li>B: Yes please. </li></ul><ul><li>A: Can you hit the man in seat 10D. </li></ul><ul><li>C: Sure. </li></ul><ul><li>B: Thanks. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Interpreting literally <ul><li>A: How many times do I have to tell you? </li></ul><ul><li>B: Five times. </li></ul><ul><li>A: We need this photocopied for the 4 o’clock meeting. </li></ul><ul><li>B: That’s true. </li></ul><ul><li>A: Let’s give Heidi a call. </li></ul><ul><li>B: Yes, please do. </li></ul><ul><li>A: Could you do the dishes? </li></ul><ul><li>B: Yes, I could. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Grammar and context <ul><li>A: What did you buy your girlfriend? </li></ul><ul><li>B: I bought the flowers for my girlfriend. </li></ul><ul><li>A: Who did you buy the flowers for? </li></ul><ul><li>B: I bought my girlfriend a bunch of flowers. </li></ul><ul><li>A: What did you buy your girlfriend? </li></ul><ul><li>B: I bought my girlfriend a bunch of flowers. </li></ul><ul><li>A: Who did you buy the flowers for? </li></ul><ul><li>B: I bought the flowers for my girlfriend. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Grammar and pronunciation <ul><li>She’s Italian, isn’t she? </li></ul><ul><li>(rising intonation) </li></ul><ul><li>= I believe that she’s Italian, but I’m really not certain. </li></ul><ul><li>(falling intonation) </li></ul><ul><li>= I’m pretty sure she’s Italian, but I’d like your confirmation on that. </li></ul><ul><li>She’s Italian, is she? (rising intonation) </li></ul><ul><li>= I thought she was Spanish, but I’ve just received information that leads me to revise my belief. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Grammar and pronunciation <ul><li>Daughter: Mom, can I get a belly-button ring? </li></ul><ul><li>Mother: No. (falling tone) </li></ul><ul><li>Daughter: Did you say yes? </li></ul><ul><li>Mother: No. (rising tone) </li></ul><ul><li>Daughter: Well, I kinda got one today. </li></ul><ul><li>Mother: No! (low tone) </li></ul>
  8. 8. The power of the pause <ul><li>A woman without her man is nothing. </li></ul><ul><li>A woman without her man (pause) is nothing. </li></ul><ul><li>A woman (pause) without her man is nothing. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Grammar and vocabulary <ul><li>DRUNK GETS NINE MONTHS IN VIOLIN CASE </li></ul><ul><li>IRAQI HEAD SEEKS ARMS </li></ul><ul><li>MOUNTING PROBLEMS FOR YOUNG COUPLES </li></ul><ul><li>QUEEN MARY MAY HAVE BOTTOM SCRAPED </li></ul>
  10. 10. Authenticity (spoken vs. written) <ul><li>When I was in Thailand, one of the things that I did wrong was to wear shorts. I wore them to museums and other places without thinking that I might be offending people. When I got home my friends told me I should not have worn shorts, that the Thais found it offensive. I wish I had paid more attention to cultural dos and don’t before I arrived. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Authenticity (spoken vs. written) <ul><li>One of the things that … that I kinda did wrong when I was in Thailand that I wish I … I had paid more attention to before I did it … was I wore shorts around town, and when … when I went with friends to, to go, um, you know, visit the museums or whatever, and we got back home … and they said you know you really shouldn’t wear shorts around town, and I was like … I didn’t even think about it – and you know, it … it’s really kind of offending to them. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Helping students make sense <ul><li>Three subsystems of language: phonological, lexical, and grammatical </li></ul><ul><li>Language can only make sense, and be understood, in context </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate teaching of grammar with teaching of pronunciation and vocabulary </li></ul>
  13. 13. Form, Meaning and Use Form Meaning Use Celce-Mercia & Larsen-Freeman
  14. 14. Form, Meaning and Use How is it formed? What does it mean? When/why is it used?
  15. 15. Deductive vs. Inductive presentation <ul><li>In a deductive presentation, students are given the rule, and apply it to a set of examples </li></ul><ul><li>In an inductive presentation, students infer the rule, pattern or generalization from a set of examples </li></ul>
  16. 16. World Link grammar <ul><li>Presentation and practice reflect the most common problems mastering a structure </li></ul>
  17. 17. Form <ul><li>Meaningful practice, keeping declarative knowledge in working memory </li></ul><ul><li>Need to avoid ‘inert’ knowledge </li></ul>
  18. 18. Meaning <ul><li>Activities needs to associate form and meaning of target structure </li></ul><ul><li>For beginners, visual reinforcement/TPR can help </li></ul>
  19. 19. Use <ul><li>Trouble choosing correct structure or language for a given context </li></ul><ul><li>Past tense or present perfect? </li></ul><ul><li>Discourse grammar </li></ul>
  20. 20. ‘ Filling in the gaps’ <ul><li>Textbooks can’t teach everything </li></ul><ul><li>Not all language students need is found in the classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Regularly occurring patterns </li></ul><ul><li>There are always exceptions to rules; rules don’t change – language does </li></ul>
  21. 21. Grammar for beginners <ul><li>Beginners more likely to rely on L1 </li></ul><ul><li>Structures aren’t learned one at a time </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent regression (‘he cans swim well’) </li></ul><ul><li>Negative evidence is important </li></ul><ul><li>Recycle </li></ul>
  22. 22. World Link grammar <ul><li>Focuses students on form, through meaningful, communicative interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Balances deductive and inductive presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Provides appropriate presentation and practice for each target </li></ul>
  23. 23. Questions?