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World history world war i


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World history world war i

  1. 1. World War I1914-1918
  2. 2. What was happening in Europe?• Despite more than 40 years of general peace, tensions among some European nations—England, France and Germany—were building in 1914. Throughout the late 1880’s and early 1900’s, a number of factors created problems among the powers of Europe and set the stage for a monumental war.
  3. 3. The MAIN reasons for war
  4. 4. Militarism• Building up arms• When Germany stated to modernize its army and navy, England felt it had to do the same . Other major powers followed their lead.•
  5. 5. Alliances• Agreements or promises to defend and help another country.• A series of interlocking allies• When the conflict started, these ties led to the division of Europe into 2 camps-1. Austria- Hungary and Germany and 2. France, Russia and Britian•
  6. 6. ImperialismTrying to build up an empire. By the 1800’s, Britain and France had colonies in Africa and Asia that provided raw materials and markets for their products. Germany wanted its own colonies and trade
  7. 7. Nationalism• Having pride in your country, willing to defend it. As well as self-determination-the ability to chose own government
  8. 8. The Balkan Crisis
  9. 9. • Historically, the Ottoman Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Empire had ruled the Balkans. But as nationalism became a powerful force in the 1800’s, the different national groups—the Serbs, Bosnians, Croats and Slovens-- within these empires began to press for independence.• The first to gain independence were the Serbs—they formed Serbia.
  10. 10. • Historically, the Ottoman Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Empire had ruled the Balkans. But as nationalism became a powerful force in the 1800’s, the different national groups—the Serbs, Bosnians, Croats and Slovens-- within these empires began to press for independence.• The first to gain independence were the Serbs—they formed Serbia.
  11. 11. Russia supported Serbia, BUT Austria-Hungary did not and annexed Bosnia
  12. 12. The Serbs were furious-it demonstrated to them that Austria-Hungary had no intention of letting the Slavic people become independent.• So then the archduke of Austria-Hungary Franz Ferdinand visited the Bosnia capital of Sarajevo and was assassinated by a Serbian.
  13. 13. The War Begins
  14. 14. The SidesTriple Entente-Allied Powers Triple Alliance—Central Powers --Germany--Great Britain --Austria-Hungary--France --Italy--Russia(United States)
  15. 15. Propaganda• Propaganda – communication used to influence opinion
  16. 16. US Joins the War• Zimmerman telegram• 1915 – German unrestricted submarine warfare--sunk the Lusitania – British ship with American passengers• Germany stopped submarine attacks until 1917• US joins the Allies with the return of sub attacks
  17. 17. A Bloody Conflict WWI proved to be unlikeprevious wars in many ways. New technology made WWI a more impersonal war, as well as a far more deadlier one.
  18. 18. Trench Warfare• On the Western Front, troops dug a network of trenches that stretched from the English Channel to the Swiss border. The space between the opposing trenches was known as no man’s land. To break through enemy lines, both sides began with massive artillery barrages. Then bayonet wielding solders would run out of their trenches, and race across no man’s land and throw grenades into the other trench. The results were devastating. Hundreds of thousands of men were killed.•
  19. 19. Western Front
  20. 20. Western Front
  21. 21. Western Front
  22. 22. • Symbol for the futility of war Trench warfare has become a powerful symbol of the futility of war. Its image is of young men going "over the top" (over the parapet of the trench, to attack the enemy trench line) into a maelstrom of fire leading to certain death, typified by the first day of the Somme (on which the British suffered 57,000 casualties) or the grinding slaughter in the mud of Passchendaele. To the French, the equivalent is the attrition of the Battle of Verdun in which they suffered 380,000 casualties.[10]
  23. 23. Western Front
  24. 24. New Inventions of the War• Mustard Gas• Tanks• Submarines• Airplanes• Zeppelins• Machine Guns
  25. 25. New Technology• Machine Gun– Good for defense—600 bullets a minute—could stop an advance but heavy machine guns required teams of up to eight men to move them, maintain them, and keep them supplied with ammunition. This made them impractical for offensive maneuvers, contributing to the stalemate on the Western Front.
  26. 26. Chemical WarfareChlorine -A large enough dose could kill, but thegas was easy to detect by scent and sight.Phosgene- first used in December 1915, was theultimate killing gas of World War I—it was 18times more powerful than chlorine and muchmore difficult to detect.Mustard gas -- hard to detect and lingered on thesurface of the battlefield and so could inflictcasualties over a long period. The burns itproduced were so horrific that a casualtyresulting from mustard gas exposure was unlikelyto be fit to fight again.
  27. 27. Tanks• First were very slow and cumbersome, mechanically unreliable and fairly easy to destroy. But they could roll over barbed wire and trenches. The British improved them and improved tanks and tactics allowed them to break through enemy lines to become a significant element of warfare.
  28. 28. The Flame Thrower• New and improved- smaller, lightweight- a single person could carry and spray burning fuel on the victims. Effective in attacks on nearby trenches but could not be fires long distance.
  29. 29. Airplanes• Brought war into the sky. First used to scout out enemy lines, then improved for fighting and bombing. In time, a device that times the firing of a machine gun with the rotation of a planes propeller. The Germans created a high flying, gas filled airship called Zeppelins. Not very precise and slow moving
  30. 30. Great films over WWI• The Lost Battalion•• All Quiet on the Western Front•• Merry Christmas••• War Horse•
  31. 31. Russia Leaves the War• In 1917 riots broke out in Russia over the government’s handling of the war and the scarcity of food and fuel. Czar Nicholas II abdicated his throne. The Bolsheviks, a group of communists, soon came to power. First thing the leader, Vladimir Lenin did was pull Russia out of the war. With the Eastern Front settled, Germany was now free to concentrate its forces in the west.
  32. 32. End of the War• In March of 1918, the Germans launched a massive attack along the Western Front. By June they were less than 40 miles from Paris. American troops played an important role in containing the German offensive. The French and American forces held them back.
  33. 33. • Heavy casualties on both sides. But by early November of 1918, German defenses had been shattered.• At the 11th hour, on the 11th day of the 11th month, Germany signed an armistice or cease fire, that ended the war.
  34. 34. Treaty of Versailles• In January 1919, a peace conference began in Paris to try to resolve the complicated issues arising from WWI.• All leaders of the countries involved were present except Germany.• The Big Four-US, Britain, France and Italy
  35. 35. Fourteen Points• President Wilson wanted a fair peace policy. His plan became know as the Fourteen Points—Wilson’s plan for lasting peace• --end to secret agreements (alliances)• --freedom of the seas• --reduction of armaments• --self determination for ethnic groups
  36. 36. League of Nations• The most important part of his plan was a peacekeeping organization called A League of Nations.• Everyone else at the peace talks thought that Wilson’s plan was too easy on Germany—they wanted Germany to paid reparations—war damages—because they said it had started the war. The Treaty of Versailles was written without many of Wilson’s hopes. In the end the US did not ratify the treaty. Congress did not like the League of Nations idea
  37. 37. WWI Results• Dissolution of 4 empires—Russian Empire, Ottoman Empire, German Empire and Austria- Hungary.• 9 new countries were formed out of these— Yugoslavia, Poland, and Czechoslovakia
  38. 38. Before and After
  39. 39. And the Band Played…• When I was a young man I carried my pack And I lived the free life of a rover From the Murrays green basin to the dusty outback I waltzed my Matilda all over Then in nineteen fifteen my country said Son Its time to stop rambling cause theres work to be done So they gave me a tin hat and they gave me a gun And they sent me away to the war And the band played Waltzing Matilda As we sailed away from the quay And amidst all the tears and the shouts and the cheers We sailed off to Gallipoli How well I remember that terrible day the blood stained the sand and the water And how in that hell that they called Suvla Bay We were butchered like lambs at the slaughter Johnny Turk he was ready, he primed himself well He us with bullets, he rained us with shells And in five minutes flat hed blown us all to hell Nearly blew us right back to Australia But the band played Waltzing Matilda As we stopped to bury our slain And we buried ours and the Turks buried theirs Then started all over again Now those In mad world of blood, death and fire And for weeks I kept myself alive Then a big Turkish shell knocked me arse over tit And when I woke up in my hospital bed And saw what it had done, I wished I was dead Never knew there were worse things than dying no more Ill go waltzing Matilda the green far and near For to hump tent and pegs, a man needs two legs No more waltzing Matilda for me :
  40. 40. • So they collected the cripples, the wounded maimed And they shipped us back home to Australia , the blind insane Those proud wounded heroes of Suvla And as our ship pulled into Circular Quay I looked at the place where legs used to be And thank Christ there was nobody waiting for me To grieve and to mourn and to pity And the band played Waltzing Matilda As they carried us down the gangway But nobody cheered, they just stood and stared turned all their faces away And now every April I sit on my porch And I watch the parade pass before me my old comrades, how proudly they march Reliving dreams of past glory The forgotten heroes a forgotten war And the young people ask , "What are they marching for?" And I ask myself the same question And the band plays Waltzing Matilda And the old men answer to the call But year after year their numbers get fewer Some day no one will march there at all Waltzing Matilda, Waltzing Matilda Wholl a-waltzing Matilda with me? [ Lyrics from: