Chapter 7 Jefferson
Vision and Reality
What was Jefferson and the Republicans
What was the reality?
What about his stance on the Federal
Who would be the true leaders?
Patterns of Education
• What would keep everyone together—if you
don’t have a strong federal government?
• “virtuous and enlightened citizenry”
• “crusade against ignorance”
• A seed was planted
• Schooling became the responsibility of private
institutions—who received an education?
• “Paternal vision of society”?
white men preside benevolently over
• But what about the mothers?—educate the women
but only to make them better wives and mothers—no
• 1784 Judith Sargent Murray
• -equal in intellect and potential
• -same educational opportunities than men
• -same economic opportunities
• -establish a separate sphere for herself
• How was she viewed at the time?
• “noble savages” not “necessarily inferior”
• Educate to assimilate-who?
• African Americans?
• Elitist-One in a thousand went to college—
classics and theology
The Practice of Medicine
• University of Pennsylvania-Benjamin Rush
• Bleeding and purging
• In terms of Culture, what did Americans want?
• We were politically independent and now we
wanted to be culturally independent
• What does that look like?
American Writers-struggled to create a
somewhat native literary culture
• Washington Irving-
• Mercy Otis Warren
• Mason Weens
• Religion declines again—why??
Reasons for Decline
• The Revolution
• --secular affair
• --promoting separation of church and state
• --human logic
• “universalism and Unitarianism”
• Only about 10% of white Americans during
this time were members of a Church
Second Great Awakening
• The First Great Awakening emphasized Calvinist
traditions and the deep depravity of human beings
and believed they could only be saved through the
grace of God.
• S.G.A. placed a greater emphasis on humans’ ability to
change their situation for the better-asserting their
‘free will’-in choosing to be saved –everyone could be
saved—salvation through good works—more
• Women and African Americans participate and play a
more active role
• Outcome: reform movement-slavery-moral issue
Stirrings of Industrialization
• While the US was busy winning its
independence, England was in the process of
an industrial revolution.
• And in the US????
• Samuel Slater-spinning mill
• Oliver Evans-automated flour mill
• Eli Whitney-cotton gin and interchangeable
Trade and Transportation
• To becoming industrial, a country needs a
system for transporting raw materials to
factories and finished goods to market.
• Oliver Evans, John Fitch, James Watt and