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Vision and reality


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Vision and reality

  1. 1. Chapter 7 Jefferson Vision and Reality What was Jefferson and the Republicans vision? What was the reality? What about his stance on the Federal Government? Who would be the true leaders?
  2. 2. Patterns of Education • What would keep everyone together—if you don’t have a strong federal government? • “virtuous and enlightened citizenry” • “crusade against ignorance” • A seed was planted
  3. 3. • Schooling became the responsibility of private institutions—who received an education? • Poor? • Women? • “Paternal vision of society”? white men preside benevolently over everyone else
  4. 4. Republican Motherhood • But what about the mothers?—educate the women but only to make them better wives and mothers—no advance schooling • 1784 Judith Sargent Murray • -equal in intellect and potential • -same educational opportunities than men • -same economic opportunities • -establish a separate sphere for herself • How was she viewed at the time? •
  5. 5. Native Americans • “noble savages” not “necessarily inferior” • Educate to assimilate-who? • African Americans?
  6. 6. Higher Education • Elitist-One in a thousand went to college— classics and theology
  7. 7. The Practice of Medicine • University of Pennsylvania-Benjamin Rush • Practitioners • Bleeding and purging
  8. 8. Cultural Aspirations • In terms of Culture, what did Americans want? • We were politically independent and now we wanted to be culturally independent • What does that look like?
  9. 9. Noah Webster
  10. 10. American Writers-struggled to create a somewhat native literary culture • Washington Irving- • Mercy Otis Warren • Mason Weens
  11. 11. Religious Skepticism • Religion declines again—why??
  12. 12. Reasons for Decline • The Revolution • --secular affair • --promoting separation of church and state • --human logic • “universalism and Unitarianism” • Only about 10% of white Americans during this time were members of a Church • Soooooooooooooo…..
  13. 13. Second Great Awakening • The First Great Awakening emphasized Calvinist traditions and the deep depravity of human beings and believed they could only be saved through the grace of God. • S.G.A. placed a greater emphasis on humans’ ability to change their situation for the better-asserting their ‘free will’-in choosing to be saved –everyone could be saved—salvation through good works—more optimistic. • Women and African Americans participate and play a more active role • Outcome: reform movement-slavery-moral issue
  14. 14. Stirrings of Industrialization • While the US was busy winning its independence, England was in the process of an industrial revolution. • And in the US???? • Samuel Slater-spinning mill • Oliver Evans-automated flour mill • Eli Whitney-cotton gin and interchangeable parts
  15. 15. Trade and Transportation • To becoming industrial, a country needs a system for transporting raw materials to factories and finished goods to market. • Markets?? • Transporting?? • Oliver Evans, John Fitch, James Watt and Robert Fulton—steamboat • Turnpikes