Spanish and Portuguese Colonial System• Denied political power to the Natives and put economic restrictions on them that made it difficult to trade with other countries other than Spain or to make their own goods
Toussaint L’Ouverture• Led a movement of African slaves in Haiti and gained independence
Causes• They were inspired by the ideas of the French and American Revolutions.• They believed that government should protect its citizens rights• They got a taste of independence when Napoleon took over Spain but was taken away when Napoleon was defeated
South America• Simon Bolivar: Known as the “Liberator”• Most important leader in the struggle for independence in South America. He helped Venezuela, Ecuador, and Colombia gain independence. He then moved to Peru and helped Jose San Martin liberate Peru. He declared himself dictator.
Effects• Create new independent countries in Central and South America
Monroe Doctrine• Issued by the U.S. to protect the newly independent countries by telling European countries to stay away—keep out of North and South America