Chapter 20 sec


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Chapter 20 sec

  1. 1. Chapter 20 Sec. 1 Mobilizing for War The War dramatically changed American society—the country was different-WWII strengthened the Federal Gov.-more gov. interventions-it ended the Great Depression. “The industrial output of the US during the war astounded the rest of the world. American workers were twice as productive as German workers and five times more productive than Japanese worker.”
  2. 2. American Industry Gets the Job Done • 600,000 Jeeps • 88,000 tanks • 7000 ships—liberty ships (welded not riveted)Cheap, easy to build and hard to sink • 20 million rifles • 40 billion bullets • 43 million men drafted • As well as mines, helmets, cooking utensils, airplanes and scores of other military equipment
  3. 3. Government Interventions-gov. would fix wages, rents, prices, and production quotas • The War Production Board- • Office of Price Administration- • Office of War Mobilization- • West would become the shipping and aircraft capital
  4. 4. Unions • Unions grew from 9 million in 1940 to 15 million in 1945 • Women—1/3 of the workforce were married women in their 30’s—seen as temporary • Executive Order #8802- no discrimination in the employment of workers in defense industries or government because of race.
  5. 5. Did People Care? • Unemployment dropped from 14% in 1940 to 2% in 1943 • “ We Can Do It” attitude- everyone was called to sacrifice
  6. 6. You’re in the Army Now • Over 40 million men were drafted. First given physical exams and injections against smallpox and typhoid. They were issued uniforms, boots, and whatever equipment was available. The clothing bore the label GI meaning Government Issue. Which is why American soldiers were called GIs. Then they were giving aptitude tests and shipped off to 8 weeks of basic training. • cation/for-students/ww2-history/america-goes- to-war.html
  7. 7. •
  8. 8. A Segregated Army • The idea of fighting a war against racism wasn’t lost in African Americans. • The beginnings of the Civil Rights movement • Double V Campaign—a victory over Hitler’s racism aboard and a victory over racism at home. • African Americans had separated barracks, latrines, mess halls, and recreational facilities. • Tuskegee Airman •
  9. 9. Women in the Army • Women’s Army Corps, nurses, administrative and clerical jobs • 2nd Lt. Elmira Dalrymple
  10. 10. “They walk like free men”
  11. 11. • The struggle against the Nazi’s helped reshape the way U.S. thought of themselves. • Because Nazi’s were racists, Americans were thinking of themselves as tolerant, equal, diversified. • Now did Americans suddenly embrace equality for all??
  12. 12. Anti Semitism • Jews—only about 21,000 immigrated at this time • USS St. Louis
  13. 13. Japanese American Relocation • Executive Order # 9066 • Because of fear and racism all persons of Japanese ancestry were ordered to evacuate to internment camps. • t0099291 • Korematsu V. U.S.—Supreme Court ruled relocation was constitutionally permissible
  14. 14. Zoot Suit Riots • Racism also reared its ugly head in other places as well as with other nationalities. • Mexican Americans and juvenile crime became linked because of a zoot suit.
  15. 15. • Upon hearing rumors that Mexican American teenagers had attacked sailors in California, 2,400 soldiers and sailors attacked Mexican American neighborhoods in LA. The attacked teenagers, cut their hair, tore off their zoot suits. The police stood by as the violence continued for days. In the end the Zoot suit was banned.
  16. 16. • Despite discrimination, over 500,000 Hispanic Americans served in WWII with distinction.
  17. 17. Rations • Rationing was common practice in order to conserve. • Meat, sugar, gasoline and rubber were restricted. • Coupons were given out. • “Meatless Monday, Wheat- less Tuesday” • Victory Gardens and Scrap Drives • Paying for the War—war bonds and taxes