Chapter 20 Sec. 1 Mobilizing for War The War dramatically change American society—it ended the Great Depression. “The industrial output of the USduring the war astounded the rest of the world. American workers were twice as productive as German workers and five times more productive than Japanese worker.”
American Industry Gets the Job Done• 600,000 Jeeps• 88,000 tanks• 7000 ships—liberty ships (welded not riveted)Cheap, easy to build and hard to sink• 20 million rifles• 40 billion bullets• 43 million men drafted• As well as mines, helmets, cooking utensils, airplanes and scores of other military equipment
You’re in the Army Now• Over 40 million men were drafted. First given physical exams and injections against smallpox and typhoid. They were issued uniforms, boots, and whatever equipment was available. The clothing bore the label GI meaning Government Issue. Which is why American soldiers were called GIs. Then they were giving aptitude tests and shipped off to 8 weeks of basic training.
A Segregated Army• African Americans had separated barracks, latrines, mess halls, and recreational facilities.• Double V Campaign—a victory over Hitler’s racism aboard and a victory over racism at home.• Tuskegee Airman• http://youtu.be/BpA6TC0T_Lw
Women in the Army• Women’s Army Corps, nurses, administrative and clerical jobs• 2nd Lt. Elmira Dalrymple
Life on the Home Front• “Rosie the Riveter”• Eventually 2.5 millionWomen went to work inShipyards, aircraft factoriesAnd other manufacturingplants
African American• Roosevelt issued Executive Order 8802— declaring no discrimination in the employment of worker in defense industries or government because of race.
Japanese American Relocation• Because of fear and racism all persons of Japanese ancestry were ordered to evacuate to internment camps.• http://www.imdb.com/media/rm497324544/t t0099291
Racism Explodes into Violence• The “Great Migration” continued with African Americans continuing with their migration to the North to take industrial jobs –again meeting with discrimination and sometime resulting in violence.
Zoot Suit Riots• Racism also reared its ugly head in other places as well as with other nationalities.• Mexican Americans and juvenile crime became linked because of a zoot suit.
• Upon hearing rumors that Mexican American teenagers had attacked sailors in California, 2,400 soldiers and sailors attacked Mexican American neighborhoods in LA. The attacked teenagers, but their hair, tore off their zoot suits. The police stood by as the violence continued for days. In the end the Zoot suit was banned.
• Despite discrimination, over 500,000 Hispanic Americans served in WWII with distinction.
Rations• Rationing was common practice in order to conserve.• Meat, sugar, gasoline and rubber were restricted.• Coupons were given out.• “Meatless Monday, Wheat- less Tuesday”• Victory Gardens and Scrap Drives• Paying for the War