Theodore Roosevelt• The accidental President— “wild man”—in favor of reform but not revolution.• Extremely energetic• He believed the federal government should not serve as the champion of any particular interest.
Trust Regulator—did not want to bust all trusts just the worst offenders
Trust-busting• Sherman Antitrust Act against J. P. Morgan’s Railroad Northern Securities Company--• “If we have done anything wrong, send your man to my man, and they can fix it up”- Morgan• Found to be a monopoly and it was dissolved.
Roosevelt’s policy toward Labor• He saw himself as an arbitrator between labor and management.• Threatened to send in troops in the Coal strike of 1902 and seize the mines if the mine owners failed to agree to arbitration.
Square Deal—TR’s domestic Policy- promise of fair and equal treatment for all• The Hepburn Railroad Regulation Act of 1906- sought some regulatory authority to the RR but not much.• Pure Food and Drug Act & Meat Inspection Act –both passed as a result of The Jungle- established federal inspection of meat and set national standards to prevent business from adding harmful preservatives other hazardous ingredients to food and drugs.
Reform-The New Nationalism• TR pushed for other reforms such as the 8 hour day, compensation for victims of industrial accidents, income taxes, and regulation of the stock market. He criticized those conservatives who would not go along with his reform measures. This caused a split in his support within the party.
Conservationists• TR believed in restricting private development on undeveloped government lands. He loved the outdoors and wanted to preserve it for posterity.• With the help of John Muir, founder of the Sierra Club, and Gifford Pinchot, TR used his influence to preserve almost two hundred million acres of government land.• Created the National Forest Service• No patience with legislative process—Executive orders
Foreign Policy• TR was ready to take on the challenges of the new world. He believed in using Americans power in the world when and where it was deemed necessary.• Persuaded Congress to appropriate money for a new modern Navy• The Great White Fleet—16 Battleships
• He was convinced that there were the “civilized” and the “uncivilized” nations in the world.• Civilized Nations: white, Anglo-Saxon, economically developed and producers of industrial goods• Uncivilized Nations: generally nonwhite, Latin or Slavic, sources of raw materials and markets
• Racism did not play the only role of distinction in his judgment. Japan was an economically developed nation, therefore it was civilized.• Civilized societies had the right and duty to intervene in the affairs of a “backward” nation to reserve order and stability for the sake of both nations.• Proponent of a powerful Navy
Protecting the Open Door in Asia• He wanted the Open Door policy to remain strong in China. So when war broke out between Russia and China he intervene and helped bring about a peace treaty.• He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for this accomplishment.
Iron Fist Neighbor• When the government of the Dominican Republic was deeply in dent to several European nations, France and Italy were threatening to take over the country if the debt wasn’t promptly repaid. TR repeated the principles of the Monroe Doctrine and added the Roosevelt Corollary that stated the US would intervene in the affairs of any Latin American country that proved incapable of governing itself. Very controversial.
Roosevelt saw construction of a canal through Central America as vital to American power in the world. A canal would save time and money for both commercial and military shipping.The US offered Colombia $10 million for the right to construct a canal but they said no.So then the US persuaded some Panamanians to revolt against the Colombia government with our help. Within 2 weeks Panama was an independent country and the US had a treaty with them to build a canal.
• Progressives expected Taft to enforce the antitrust laws and to make sure that the country’s natural resources were protected from big business.• He lost their support early on.• New cabinet officers• Taft was more conservative that TR, but criticism was unfair
Conservation• First to protect federal lands on which oil had been found• Also protected land that contained coal• Both going against Big Business
Trust-Busting• Better record than TR• Twice as many prosecutionsUnder the Sherman Anti TrustAct—90 to 44 that TR had.(Standard Oil )
Also under Taft’s Watch• 16th amendment—Income tax• 17th amendment-direct election of senators
Foreign Policy-Dollar Diplomacy• Taft used financial as well as military might to promote US business interests overseas and Latin America.
During Tafts Administration• The Titanic sinks-1912
Heaviest –332 lbs• Only President to• serve as Chief Justice• of the Supreme Court
• TR decided his successor was a mistake, so he decided to would run again. The Republican convention however nominated Taft instead.• Bitterly disappointed TR decided to run on the 3rd party ticket –The Bull Moose Party
Woodrow Wilson• If TR Bullied the Congress, Taft Bargained with the Congress and Wilson Seduced persuaded the Congress—1st PhD—words• First since John Adams to go to the Hill and address personally State of the Union speech.
Woodrow Wilson• Self righteous, religious, and moral• Energetic, firm, and committed toto reform—but not by regulated Government but by fair rules. Wanted US to be isolated from Global affairs• very productive and progressive first 2 years• Underwood Tariff—lowered the tariff ratesFrom 45% to 27% (Income tax made up difference)Federal Reserve Act-reorganized the banking system- control money supply-set interest rates
During his term• WWI• Margaret Sanger worked on birth control• His wife died and 1 year later remarries• The Great Migration• Charlie Chaplin• 18th Amendment-Prohibition• 19th Amendment-Women’s Suffrage