Jackson (2)


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Jackson (2)

  1. 1. Jackson Common Man President? Old Hickory Background A Democratic Autocrat An Urbane savage, An atrocious Saint Self made man, slave holder, Indian oppressor
  2. 2. Common Man Extraordinary ordinary Man? • He became a symbol of the emerging working class and middle class • Born in a log cabin • Lived in a mansion • Slave-owner • Never lost his rough manner • No college degree
  3. 3. • Was he an egalitarian? • Equal rights for African Americans, Indians, women? • He was a frontier aristocrat and most who served with him were wealthy—so what was the difference?
  4. 4. • • • • • Talents and energies What was their goal? What/who did he hate? Who did he champion? A frugal Jeffersonian—interpreted the constitution narrowly—vetoed more bills than the total of the preceding presidents • Maysville Road
  5. 5. • “Kitchen Cabinet” • Peggy Eaton Affair
  6. 6. Jacksonian Democracy • It is debatable whether Jackson was a major molder the events of the era, or whether he took advantage of the democratic fever of the times, or just a symbol of the times, but his name is linked to the time.
  7. 7. The Rise of Mass Politics • What did his inauguration look like? • “King Mob” • The Expanding Electorate—What does democracy expanding look like?
  8. 8. 1824-1840 • Politics moved from the wealthy homes to the lower and middle classes. • 1824-350,000 votes cast for President • 1840-over 2.4 million • Why?
  9. 9. Reasons for Voter Participation • New state suffrage laws-• Changes in Political parties-- Caucus to Party Conventions • (Was power really transferred to the people?) • Campaign methods • Improved education • Increase in newspaper circulation
  10. 10. • Dorr Rebellion in RI. • Who was not voting regardless of all this expanding?
  11. 11. The Legitimatization of Party • With the growth of an electorate and a growing interest in politics came the need of a two party system—political parties were becoming desirable and even some said essential—Why? • Democrats and Whigs (opposed absolute monarchy)
  12. 12. Jackson’s theory of Democracy • “equal protection and equal benefits” to all its white male citizens and favor no region or class over another • An assault against who? • The Spoils System :To the Victor belongs the Spoils—established the right of elected officials to appoint their own followers to public office— an established feature of American politics today. • Rotation of officeholders
  13. 13. 3 Major Events in Jackson’s Presidency • Nullification Crisis • The Removal of the Indians • The National Bank War
  14. 14. • Nullification Crisisor a States Jackson--Was he a Unionist/Nationalists Rights kind of Man?? Vice President John C. Calhoun • Theory of Nullification-since the federal government was the creation of the states, the states themselves had the final say in a law and its constitutionality (what does this sound like?) Published anonymously entitled “The South Carolina Exposition and Protest”
  15. 15. • Tariff of Abomination 1828 • Promoted sectional differences • Daniel Webster (Mass.) debated Robert Hayne (S.C.) on states rights and the nature of the federal Union under the constitution—was the Constitution a compact between states or between the people of the US. If it was a compact made by the states, then each state had the right to interpret it..
  16. 16. • “Our Federal Union-It must be preserved”— Jackson • “The Union-next to our liberty most dear”— Calhoun
  17. 17. • South Carolina turned up the war of words by declaring the state would nullify the tariff and threatened to secede from the Union if the government tried to collect duties. • Jackson insisted this was treason • Henry Clay resolves the issue with the Compromise Tariff of 1833 • Force Bill “Bloody Bill”—President could use military to collect federal tariffs
  18. 18. The Removal of the Indians • Attitudes went from “noble savages” to simply “savages-uncivilized and uncivilizable • “Five Civilized Tribes”
  19. 19. • Indian Removal Act 1830-appropreated money to finance federal negotiations with the Indians aimed at relocating them to the West. • Many tribes were too weak to resist pressure and ceded their land over. • Not the Cherokees
  20. 20. • Cherokee Nation v. Georgia 1831-not a nation therefore cannot sue in Court • Worcester v. Georgia 1832-Georgia cannot force the Native Americans to move west. • “John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it”—Jackson
  21. 21. Trails of Tears
  22. 22. • Alternatives to the removal of the Indians--
  23. 23. Jackson and the Bank War • Bank of the United States: Privately owned, received federal deposits, controlled loans made by state banks and determined the interest rates • President of the Bank-Nicholas Biddle— represented everything Jackson hated.
  24. 24. • Jackson vetoed the new charter of the bank in 1832 • Bank “Unconstitutional?” • Removed the funds and put them into “Pet Banks”
  25. 25. Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge 1837 • The first court decision that found in favor of the state in challenges that invoked the Contract Clause of the Constitution. This was a sign of the court's shift away from the Marshall Court's nationalism towards state's rights. It fought against the unfairness of implied contracts that would impede economic progress
  26. 26. • If Jackson was consistent on anything, it was his consistency on expanding economic opportunities.
  27. 27. The Changing Face of American Politics • Whigs—United in opposition of Jackson’s policies, committed to Clays’ American System, and believed in active intervention by the government to change society
  28. 28. Martin Van Buren-The Panic of 1837 • The Killing of the Bank • Specie Circular • Speculation of Western Land
  29. 29. The Log Cabin Campaign of 1840 • Whigs: William Henry Harrison and John Tyler Presented themselves as the party of the common people, slogans “Tippee Canoe and Tyler too”- “Get the Ball Rolling” Democrats: Martin Van “Ruin”
  30. 30. President John Tyler • A man with no party