APA Citation Style (6 th Ed.) Dr. Arlene S. Opina
HISTORY psychologists APA STYLE (1929)anthropolo business gists leaders
The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, s ixth edition.
APA concerns uniform use of the following elements: citation of references, selection of headings, tone, and length; punctuation and abbreviations; presentation of numbers and statistics; construction of tables and figures; and many other elements that are a part of a manuscript.
APA Citation Style APA requires that information be cited in 2 different ways: 1. within the text (no footnotes, endnotes) 2. in a reference list at the end of the paper (instead of Bibliography).
Reference Citations in Text In APA style, in-text citations are placed within sentences and paragraphs so that it is clear what information is being quoted or paraphrased and whose information is being cited.
Reference Citations in Text APA uses the author-date method of citation. The last name of the author and the date of publication are inserted in the text in the appropriate place.
Example • Provide the author and year, when referencing or summarizing a source. Example: In one developmental study (McVea, 2012), children learned...
Reference Citations in Text When quoting or summarizing a particular passage, include the specific page or paragraph number, as well. Lopez (2009) overstated the case when she asserted that "we seem to be reaching ... from the hands of philosophers" (p. 218).
No page numberIf page numbers are not included in electronic sources (such as Web- based journals), provide the paragraph number preceded by the abbreviation "para." or the heading and following paragraph.(Mönnich & Spiering, 2008, para. 9)
Reference Citations in Text When quoting in your paper, if a direct quote is less than 40 words, incorporate it into your text and use quotation marks. If a direct quote is more than 40 words, make the quotation a free-standing indented block of text and DO NOT use quotation marks.
Works by a single author In one experimental study (Lopez, 2012), students learned... OR In the study by Lopez (2012), critical thinking… OR In 2012, Lopez’ study of critical thinking…
Works by two authorsWhen a work has two authors, always cite both names every time the reference occurs in the text. In parenthetical material join the names with an ampersand (&). as has been shown (Jambalos & Albano, 2008)In the narrative text, join the names with the word "and.” as Jambalos and Albano (2008) demonstrated
With three, four, or five authors Cite all authors the first time the reference occurs. In all subsequent citations per paragraph, include only the surname of the first author followed by "et al." (Latin for "and others") and the year of publication.First Citation: Gabano, Go, Lumpas, Sicat, and Opina (2010) found…Subsequent Citation: Gabano et al. (2010) found …
6 or more authors Cite only the name of the first author followed by et al. and the year. As mentioned…(Gabano et al. , 2010).
Works by associations, corporations, government agencies, etc. The names of groups that serve as authors (corporate authors) are usually written out each time they appear in a text reference. As found in the study…(NationalInstitute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2009).
No Author Cite the first few words of the reference entry (usually the title). Use double quotation marks around the title of an article, chapter, or Web page. Italicize the title of a periodical, book, brochure, or report. For example: The students seemed …(“Medical Miracles,” 2009). Blended Learning (Education Reform, 2010). Treat reference to legal materials such as court cases, statutes, and legislation like works with no author.
Anonymous authors should be listed as such followed by a comma and the date. on climate change (Anonymous, 2008).
Interviews, Email, and Other Personal Communication Personal communication is not included in the reference list; only in the text. Just cite in your text the communicators name, and the phrase "personal communication," enclosed in parenthesis and the date of the communication. Example (R. S. Lumpas, personal communication, November 6, 2012). Or A. S. Sicat also claimed that his students enjoyed tv games shows as part of the activities conducted in his classroom. (personal communication, November 3, 2012).
Reference List References cited in the text of a research paper must appear in a Reference List . This list provides the information necessary to identify and retrieve each source.
Digital object identifier (DOI) DOI - a unique alphanumeric string assigned to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the internet. The DOI is typically located on the first page of the electronic journal article near the copyright notice. When a DOI is used in your citation, no other retrieval information is needed.
No DOI If no DOI has been assigned to the content, provide the home page URL of the journal or of the book or report publisher. Do not insert a hyphen if you need to break a URL across lines; do not add a period after a URL, to prevent the impression that the period is part of the URL. In general, it is not necessary to include retrieval dates unless the source material has changed over time.
References Listed alphabetically by first authors last name. Hanging indented (succeeding lines 5-7 spaces from margin) No period after URL Double spacing Times New Roman point 12 For example: Ibrado, V. (2012). Register, genre and style. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
OrderEntries should be arranged in alphabetical order by authors last names. Sources without authors are arranged alphabetically by title within the same list.
Example ReferencesAPA formatting and style guide. Owl Purdue Online Writing Lab. Retrieved from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/10/Ballesteros, T. F. (2006). Technical writing. Makati City, Philippines: Mindshapers Company. Inc.Calderon, J. F., & Gonzales, E. (2005). Methods of research and thesis writing. Mandaluyong City: National Book Store.Campbell, D.T., & Stanley, J.C. (1991). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for research. Chicago: Rand McNally.Comparative study. (2007, March 22).Arteology, the science of products and professions. Retrieved May 7, 2012 from http://www2.uiah.fi/ projects/metodi/172.htm
Authors Write out the last name and initials for all authors of a particular work. Use an ampersand (&) instead of the word "and" when listing multiple authors of a single work. Example: (Mangosong, M. & Zabala, D.)
Titles Capitalize only the first word of a title or subtitle, and any proper names that are part of a title. Example:Carter, R., & Nunan, D. eds. (2001). The Cambridge guide to teaching English to speakers of the languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Pagination Use the abbreviation p. or pp. to designate page numbers of articles from periodicals. The abbreviation p. or pp. is used only in magazines and newspapers, but not in journals. These abbreviations are also used to designate pages in encyclopedia articles and chapters from edited books.
Newspapers & MagazinesLucero, R. (2009). The role of consciousness in second language learning. Manila Bulletin 11 (2): pp. 129-158.Patangan, E. (2010). Hurray for “SIMPSONS” family values. (2000, January 13). Harper’s Magazine, p.16.
Indentation The first line of the entry is flushed with the left margin, and all subsequent lines are indented (5 to 7 spaces) to form a "hanging indent format“.
Underlining vs. Italics It is appropriate to use italics instead of underlining for titles of books and journals. ExampleWhite, R., & Arndt, V. (2000). Process writing. New York: Longman.
With two to seven authors (list all authors) List all authors by their last names and initials. Use the ampersand “&” instead of "and" before the last author followed by a period. Example:Biber, D., Bass, T., Sell, B., Bett, S., West, P., Grit, M., & Conrad, S. (2009). Register, genre and style. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
With eight to more authors (List the first six, … and the last author) List the six authors; commas separate author names. After the sixth authors name, use ellipses; then the last author’s name. Limit the authors to seven names only. ExampleBiber, D., Bass, T., Sell, B., Bett, S., West, P., Grit, M.,… Conrad, S. (2009). Register, genre and style. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
With editor only Place the abbreviation ed. or eds. following the author/s name/s marked by a comma. Example:Reid, I., ed. (2009). The place of genre in learning: Current debates. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Reprinted work Indicate the original date of publication within parentheses. Example:White, R., & Arndt, V. (2000). Process writing. New York: Longman (original work published 1991).
Articles in journals, magazines, and newspapers. References to must include the following elements: author(s), date of publication, article title, journal title, volume number, issue number (if applicable), and page numbers.
JOURNALS, MAGAZINES, NEWSP APERS accessed onlineGatcho, R. (2008). Students’ typology: The effects of regret in escalation of commitment. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 105(2), 221- 232. doi:10.1016/j.obhdp.2007.08.002
Article from an Internet-only journalHirtle, P. B. (2008, July-August). Copyright renewal, copyright restoration, and the difficulty of determining copyright status. D-Lib Magazine, 14(7/8). doi:10.1045/july2008-hirtle .
Journal article from a subscription database (no DOI)Lapuz, A. (2008, July 21). Information worth billions. Fortune, 158(2), 73-79. Retrieved from Business Source Complete, EBSCO. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com
For Periodicals Same format as for books, except that the italicized entry is not the title but the name of the periodical. The abbreviation p. or pp. is used only in magazines and newspapers, but not in journals. Example:Villanueva, G. (1990). The role of consciousness in second language learning. Manila Bulletin 11 (2): pp.129-158.
Magazine article, in printKluger, J. (2010, January 28). Why we love. Time, 171(4), pp.54-60.
Newspaper article, no author, in print Example:As prices surge, Thailand pitches OPEC-style rice cartel. (2008, May 5). The Wall Street Journal, p. A9.
JournalThe effect of authentic materials on the motivation of EFL learners. ELT Journal. 51 (2): 144-156.
No Author or editor, in printMerriam-Websters collegiate dictionary (11th ed.). (2003). Springfield, MA: Merriam- Webster.Poverty. (n.d.). Merriam-Webster dictionary online. Retrieved from http://www.merriam- webster.com/dictionary/poverty
Dissertations References should include the following elements: author, date of publication, title, and institution (if you accessed the manuscript copy from the university collections). If there is a UMI number or a database accession number, include it at the end of the citation.
Dissertation, accessed onlineYoung, R. F. (2011). Crossing boundaries in urban ecology: Pathways to sustainable cities (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses database. (UMI No. 327681). UMI (Universal Management Infrastructure) UMI is the worlds oldest and largest publisher of dissertations. Virtually all doctoral institutions in the US use UMI to archive dissertations.
Unpublished Dissertation/ Research PaperHua, J.K. (2010). Drug abuse in the Philippines: Implications for a proposed drug-abuse program for public high schools. (Unpublished undergraduate thesis). Centro Escolar University, Makati.
Encyclopedias or dictionaries and entries in an encyclopedia References must include the following elements: author(s) or editor(s), date of publication, title, place of publication, and the name of the publisher. For sources accessed online, include the retrieval date as the entry may be
Encyclopedia set or dictionaryAglibot, S., & Mercado, I. (Eds.). (2010). The new Grove dictionary of music and musicians.(2nd ed., Vols. 1-29). New York, NY: Grove.
Article from an online encyclopediaContainerization. (2008). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved May 6, 2012 from http://search.eb.com
Technical and/or research reports, accessed onlineDeming, D., & Dynarski, S. (2008). The lengthening of childhood (NBER Working Paper 14124). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved July 21, 2008, from http://www.nber.org/ papers/w14124
Audio-visual media References must include the following elements: name and function of the primary contributors (e.g., producer, director), date, title, th e medium in brackets, location or place of production, and name of the distributor. If the medium is indicated as part of the retrieval ID, brackets are not needed.
Videocassette/DVDAchbar, M. (Director/Producer), Abbott, J. (Director), Bakan, J. (Writer), & Simpson, B. (Producer) (2004). The corporation [DVD]. Canada: Big Picture Media Corporation.
AudioHanh, T. (Speaker). (2008). Mindful living: a collection of teachings on love, mindfulness, and meditation [Cassette Recording]. Boulder, CO: Sounds True Audio.
Motion pictureGilbert, B. (Producer), & Higgins, C. (Screenwriter/Director). (2008). Nine to five [Motion Picture]. United States: Twentieth Century Fox.
Television broadcastAnderson, R., & Morgan, C. (Producers). (2010, June 20). 60 Minutes [Television broadcast]. Washington, DC: CBS News.
Music recordingJackson, M. (2009). Beat it. Thriller [CD]. New York, NY: Sony Music.
Blog entryArrington, M. (2008, August 5). The viral video guy gets $1 million in funding. Message posted to http://www.tech crunch.com
Professional WebsiteNational Renewable Energy Laboratory. (2008). Biofuels. Retrieved May 6, 2008, from http://www.nrel. gov/learning/re_biofuels. html
By Dr. Arlene S. Opina Contributor Victoria Grace C. Ibrado