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4 Writing Research chap 1-3


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4 Writing Research chap 1-3

  1. 1. Chapters 1-3 Plus a sample
  2. 2. Writing the Title of the Investigation <ul><li>There are some functions that the title serves as it is used in a study among which are the following: </li></ul><ul><li>It draws, in summary form, the content of the entire investigation. </li></ul><ul><li>It serves as a frame of reference for the whole research. </li></ul><ul><li>It enables the researcher to claim the title as his own. </li></ul><ul><li>It helps other researchers to refer to the work for possible survey of theory. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Chapter 1 The Problem and Its Background
  4. 4. Chapter 1 <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul>Philosophy or rationale Legal basis/ bases Historical setting Preview of the whole study
  5. 5. Chapter 1 <ul><li>Background of the Study </li></ul><ul><li>Setting of the Study </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretical Framework or Conceptual Framework </li></ul>Difference between the two When to apply them or not Theoretical or conceptual model
  6. 6. Chapter 1 <ul><li>Statement of the Problem </li></ul>Major problem Subproblems <ul><li>Assumption/s of the Study </li></ul>Reasons for assuming Reliability and validity of responses on the instrument
  7. 7. Chapter 1 <ul><li>Hypothesis/es of the Study </li></ul>Based on descriptive information Descriptive and inferential statistics Alternative hypotheses <ul><li>Significance of the Study or Importance of the Study </li></ul>Value or worth Clientele it serves
  8. 8. Chapter 1 <ul><li>Scope, Delimitation, and Limitation </li></ul>Scope and delimitation differentiated Delimitation and limitation differentiated
  9. 9. Chapter 1 <ul><li>Definition of Terms </li></ul>Standard definition Operational definition Explanation and/ or illustration Spelling out acronyms and abbreviations
  10. 10. Chapter 2 <ul><li>Review of Related Literature </li></ul><ul><li>and Studies </li></ul>
  11. 11. Chapter 2 <ul><li>Literature </li></ul>Foreign Local <ul><li>Studies </li></ul>Foreign Local
  12. 12. Chapter 2 <ul><li>Relevance and Relationship of Studies Reviewed with Present Study </li></ul>Justifying the study
  13. 13. Chapter 3 <ul><li>Methods and Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>(Research Design) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Chapter 3 <ul><li>Methods of Research to be Used </li></ul>Descriptive Historical Experimental Documentary Aspect of study in the use of approaches
  15. 15. Chapter 3 <ul><li>Subject of the Study </li></ul><ul><li>Sampling Techniques to be Used </li></ul>Random Purposive Stratified Cluster Incidental
  16. 16. Chapter 3 <ul><li>Instrument(s) to be Used </li></ul>Questionnaire/ Checklist Interview schedule Opinionnaire Norms and standards Attitude scales Interviews (structured or unstructured Observations Documents Personality Tests
  17. 17. Chapter 3 <ul><li>Validation of the Instrument(s) (if not yet validated) </li></ul>Pretest (dry run) By experts <ul><li>Administration of the Instrument (after revision) </li></ul>Exclusion of respondents used in the pretest Tallying, scoring and tabulating the data
  18. 18. Chapter 3 <ul><li>Statistical Treatment of Data </li></ul>Descriptive: Measures of Central Tendency Mean Mode Median Weighted mean or average
  19. 19. Chapter 3 <ul><li>Statistical Treatment of Data </li></ul>Descriptive: Measures of Variability Range Standard deviation Variance Absolute mean deviation Quartile deviation
  20. 20. Chapter 3 <ul><li>Statistical Treatment of Data </li></ul>Descriptive: Coefficient of Correlation Parametric Pearson product moment Multiple correlation coefficient Partial correlation coefficient
  21. 21. Chapter 3 <ul><li>Statistical Treatment of Data </li></ul>Descriptive: Coefficient of Correlation Non - Parametric Spearman rank – correlation coefficient, etc.
  22. 22. Chapter 3 <ul><li>Statistical Treatment of Data </li></ul>Inferential: Parametric Z – test t – test F – test (ANOVA) Non - Parametric Chi-square Friedman 2 – way ANOVA, etc.
  23. 23. Sample Workshop Sheet
  24. 24. Title: <ul><li>“ A Comparative Analysis of the Sources of Stress of the Management Team of Centro Escolar University” </li></ul>
  25. 25. Theoretical Framework: <ul><li>Gray suggests a strong relationship between job-related stress and the employee’s efficiency in undertaking his tasks. The sources of stress may be: (1) personal, (2) interpersonal relationship with peers, subordinates and superiors, and (3) career-related. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Main Problem: <ul><li>The main thrust of the present investigation is to determine the various sources of stress encountered by the management team of Centro Escolar University in the performance of their duties. This will also determine how these sources of stress vary from one level to another. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Specific Problems: <ul><li>What are the characteristics of the top and middle level management team of CEU in terms of: </li></ul>Specifically, it will answer the following questions: 1.1 Gender 1.2 Age 1.3 Highest educational attainment 1.4 Length of service? 2. How are the following sources of stress encountered by the top and middle level management team of CEU: 2.1 Personal 2.2 Interpersonal relationship 2.3 Career related?
  28. 28. 3. How do the sources of stress encountered by the top and middle level management compare? 4. Taken singly and in combination, how do: 4.1 Gender 4.2 Age 4.3 Highest educational attainment 4.4 Length of service relate to the various sources of stress encountered by the management team of CEU? Specific Problems:
  29. 29. Significance of the Study: <ul><li>The study will serve as a basis for the management team to improve the working conditions in the University in the hope of improving worker efficiency. When the various sources of stress shall have been identified, the management team can find ways and means to minimize their effects on the employees of the University. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Methods of Research: <ul><li>The study will make use of the descriptive method of research on the ground that the study is mainly status-related. However, the study will go beyond mere counting and tabulation for it will go deeper by probing into the observed differences or relationships among the variables of the study. </li></ul>