Format Of Synopsis

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A brief discussion about writing Synopsis of Dissertation for CPSP in Pakistan

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Format Of Synopsis

  1. 1. FORMAT OF SYNOPSIS A brief Discussion on the components of FCPS synopsis writing
  2. 2. BEFORE STARTING <ul><li>Before starting to work on Dissertation/Article, the FCPS trainee has to send a Synopsis to RTMC and get it approved. </li></ul><ul><li>The synopsis is a brief out line (about four A-4 size pages or 1000 words is the maximum limit) of your future work </li></ul>
  3. 3. The synopsis is a brief out line
  4. 4. SYNOPSIS HEADINGS <ul><li>A synopsis must have the following headings: </li></ul><ul><li>TITLE </li></ul><ul><li>INTRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>OBJECTIVES </li></ul><ul><li>OPERATIONAL DEFINITION </li></ul><ul><li>HYPOTHESIS </li></ul><ul><li>MATERIAL AND METHODS </li></ul>
  5. 5. TITLE <ul><li>Should reflect the objectives of the study. </li></ul><ul><li>It must be written after the whole synopsis has been written so that it is a true representative of the plan…… </li></ul>(i.e. the synopsis).
  6. 6. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Should contain brief background of the selected topic. </li></ul><ul><li>It must identify the importance of study, its relevance and applicability of results. </li></ul><ul><li>It must clearly state the purpose of the study. </li></ul>
  7. 7. RATIONALE/ SIGNIFICANCE/ NEED STATEMENT <ul><li>It must identify the importance of study, its relevance and applicability of results. </li></ul><ul><li>It must clearly state the purpose of the study. </li></ul>
  8. 8. OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Objectives are statements of mentions. They inform the reader clearly what the researcher plans to do in his/her work. </li></ul><ul><li>The must identify the variables involved in research. </li></ul><ul><li>Objective should start with an action verb and be sufficiently specific, measurable, achievable, relevant and time bound (SMART). </li></ul>
  9. 9. OBJECTIVES General Specific
  10. 10. SMART TIME BOUND RELEVANT ACHIEVABLE MEASURABLE SUFFICIENTLY SPECIFIC SMART
  11. 11. OPERATIONAL DEFINITION <ul><li>May be required in some synopses. </li></ul><ul><li>It is definition of a term specifically telling how it will be measured for e.g.: </li></ul><ul><li>Morbidity: this encompass a number of aspects viz. prolonged hospital stay, severe pain, immediate complications, long term sequelae. </li></ul><ul><li>A research must define how a vague term will be measured. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Efficacy <ul><li>Efficacy: These can by measured </li></ul><ul><ul><li>i. Time taken in relieve of symptoms which may be pain, fever cough heartburn etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ii. Taking into account number of side effects. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>iii. Time taken for complete recovery student is requirement to specify how he/she will measure efficacy. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. HYPOTHESIS <ul><li>A hypothesis is a statement showing expected relation b/w 2 variables. A hypothesis is needed in the following study designs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All interventional studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cohort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Case control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparative cross sectional. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. STUDY DESIGN <ul><li>Mention the name of the appropriate study design. </li></ul>
  15. 15. SETTING <ul><li>Name and place where the research work is to be conducted </li></ul>
  16. 16. DURATION OF STUDY <ul><li>How long will the study take with dates </li></ul>
  17. 17. SAMPLE SIZE <ul><li>How many patients will be included. If there are groups how many per group? </li></ul><ul><li>You need a statistician for this work </li></ul>
  18. 18. SAMPLING TECHNIQUE <ul><li>Type of sampling technique employed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sampling is that part of statistical practice concerned with the selection of individual observations intended to yield some knowledge about a population of concern, especially for the purposes of statistical inference. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. TWO REASONS <ul><li>Researchers rarely survey the entire population for two reasons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The cost is too high and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The population is dynamic, i.e., the component of population could change over time. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. THREE MAIN ADVANTAGES <ul><li>There are three main advantages of sampling: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The cost is lower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data collection is faster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is possible to ensure homogeneity and to improve the accuracy and quality of the data because the data </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. OBSERVATION <ul><li>Each observation measures one or more properties (weight, location, etc.) of an observable entity enumerated to distinguish objects or individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>Survey weights often need to be applied to the data to adjust for the sample design. </li></ul><ul><li>Results from probability theory and statistical theory are employed to guide practice. </li></ul><ul><li>In business, sampling is widely used for gathering information about a population. </li></ul>
  22. 22. SAMPLE SELECTION <ul><li>Inclusion criteria: on what bases will patients be inducted in the study. </li></ul><ul><li>Exclusion criteria: On what bases will patients be excluded from the study. </li></ul>
  23. 23. DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE <ul><li>A detailed account of how the researcher will perform research; </li></ul><ul><li>How s/he will measure the variable. </li></ul><ul><li>It includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification of the study variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methods for collection of data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data collection tools (Performa/questionnaire) </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. DATA ANALYSIS PROCEDURE <ul><li>Relevant details naming software to be used, which descriptive statistics and which test of significance if and when required, specifying variables where it will be applied. </li></ul>
  25. 25. REFERENCES <ul><li>In Vancouver style (for detail refer to page 132). </li></ul>
  26. 26. DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT
  27. 27. PROFORMA OR QUESTIONNAIRE <ul><li>The researcher must attach, as an annex, the proforma or questionnaire with the help of which he/she intends to collect data. </li></ul><ul><li>The proforma/ questionnaire must match the objectives and must not contain irrelevant sections like inclusion and exclusion criteria etc. </li></ul>

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