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Intensive Hardwood Management


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Intensive Hardwood Management

  1. 1. Intensive Hardwood Plantation Management Randall J. Rousseau Mississippi State University
  2. 2. Hardwood Mgmt. is not Pine Mgmt.!!! <ul><li>No single species can be planted over a large geographic area across a number of environments </li></ul>b. A limited number of hardwood species fit well into a typical plantation scenario c. Genetic material and herbicides are limited in hardwoods therefore increasing the cost of plantation culture Intensive Hardwood Plantation Management
  3. 3. Important Factors: Fast Growth Species well suited to Plantation Mgmt. Species must be matched correctly to Soil/Site Conditions Seedling quality, proper establishment and care is needed to achieve maximum growth rates a. In terms of growing in even-aged stands at similar growth patterns Intensive Hardwood Plantation Management
  4. 4. Baker-Broadfoot Site Evaluation for Hardwoods Based on Four Factors : a. Soil Physical Properties b. Moisture Availability c. Soil Aeration d. Nutrient Availability
  5. 5. Stock Types : Bare-root Seedlings Containerized Seedlings <ul><li>Dormant and in-leaf </li></ul>QUALITY!! Intensive Hardwood Plantation Management
  6. 6. Nuttall Oak Seedlings 1-0 Bare-root Stock B A First-Order Lateral Root Numerous buds for increased leaf area Excellent Root Collar Diameter Tap Root length and diameter are excellent
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  8. 8. Intensive Hardwood Plantation Management Important Factors: More desirable sawtimber species, such as oaks, can be grown in pure stands but will demand longer rotation length with an increased awareness of genetics and competition effects While work has been going on for some time it has been spotty and typically inconsistent through time.
  9. 9. Intensive Hardwood Plantation Management Important Factors: Today, the production of 2 nd -Generation Biofuels using woody material has generated renewed interest intensive hardwood plantation culture Utilization will be different (whole tree vs stem wood) but so are the type of sites where these plantations are expected to being grown
  10. 10. Short-Rotation Woody Crops Although there were other groups in the Northeast that were looking at Hardwood Plantations, the USFS Stoneville Group was the first in the South This work primarily revolved around the production of eastern cottonwood and included silviculture, genetics, biometrics, pathology, and entomology This was the forerunner to the Short-Rotation Woody Crops instituted by DOE which faded due to a lack of an outlet - except for segments of the pulp and paper industry 1. 2. 3. Intensive Hardwood Plantation Management
  11. 11. Intensive Hardwood Plantation Management Short-Rotation Woody Crops As a result, only a limited number of organizations such as Westvaco, IP, Champion, Boise-Cascade, James River, and Union Camp continued research and development of this system. 4. 5. In the mid-1990s, a renewed interest was undertaken by the pulp and paper industry in short-rotation plantations as there appeared to be a shortfall of hardwoods. a. Uplands and Fertigated Sites were evaluated
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  17. 18. Because of costs and the changing face of the industry the majority of these programs went by the wayside 6. 7. Recently increased oil prices, climate change data leading to GHG reduction – Focus on renewable energy In the South - Biomass is the Key and definitely Woody Biomass will play a major role Short-Rotation Woody Crops Intensive Hardwood Plantation Management
  18. 19. Currently - Resurgence of SRWC research with a variety of species USDA/DOE grants focus on supply to emerging bioenergy/biofuels industry (KiOR, ZeaChem, and Gevo) Build on traditional tree improvement with newly developing genomic tools (increasing selection efficiency) Genetic modification to develop genotypes designed to meet the needs of increased growth and reduced costs Intensive Hardwood Plantation Management
  19. 20. Advantages: <ul><li>Growth rates </li></ul><ul><li>Ease of cloning </li></ul><ul><li>Short rotations </li></ul><ul><li>Coppice ability </li></ul><ul><li>Variation in DR </li></ul><ul><li>Planting stock </li></ul><ul><li>Improved genetics </li></ul>Disadvantages: <ul><li>High fertility sites needed </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of herbicides </li></ul><ul><li>High cost of establishment </li></ul><ul><li>Disease susceptibility </li></ul><ul><li>Poor drought tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of adaptability </li></ul><ul><li>Planting stock – aspen </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of a long-term BP </li></ul>Hardwoods - Short-Rotation Woody Crops Intensive Hardwood Plantation Management
  20. 21. Intensive Hardwood Plantation Management Current US Locations and Species Northeast : Growing primarily willows (shrub willow), this is being used for generation of power however biofuels tests are underway. Production rates – 12 gt/ac/yr Mid-West : Growing primarily hybrid poplars with many of these being DxN hybrids, primarily being grown for pulp and paper production Pacific Northwest : Growing primarily hybrid poplars with many of these being DxT and DxM hybrids, originally for pulp and paper production, then sawtimber, and now biofuels
  21. 22. Intensive Hardwood Plantation Management Hardwood Species for the South I. Eastern Cottonwood <ul><li>Improved clones that possess rapid growth, disease resistance, good rooting ability, & excellent storage ability </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of a fairly large population for breeding </li></ul><ul><li>Strong coppice production </li></ul>Positives: <ul><li>Lack wide adaptability to exhibit rapid growth across a variety of sites </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment cost </li></ul><ul><li>Production rates at very high stocking levels </li></ul>Negatives:
  22. 23. Intensive Hardwood Plantation Management Hardwood Species for the South II. Sycamore <ul><li>Improved seed from a variety of seed orchards that exhibit rapid growth and high survival rates </li></ul><ul><li>Higher wood density and lower moisture content </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of a fairly large population for breeding </li></ul><ul><li>Strong coppice production </li></ul>Positives: <ul><li>Susceptible to diseases that greatly increases mortality (but can be solved through genetics) </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment cost </li></ul><ul><li>Production rates at very high stocking levels </li></ul>Negatives:
  23. 24. Intensive Hardwood Plantation Management Hardwood Species for the South III. Sweetgum <ul><li>Improved seed from a variety of seed orchards </li></ul><ul><li>Oust can be used during establishment to control herbaceous competition – lowers establishment costs </li></ul><ul><li>Clones have been developed </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptable to a number of sites </li></ul>Positives: <ul><li>Growth rates considerably slower than cottonwood and sycamore </li></ul><ul><li>Lower yields in tons/ac </li></ul>Negatives:
  24. 25. Intensive Hardwood Plantation Management Hardwood Species for the South IV. Willows <ul><li>Excellent rooting aspects – resulting in high survival rates </li></ul><ul><li>Performs well on poorly drained soils – marginal ag sites </li></ul><ul><li>Strong coppice production </li></ul><ul><li>Planting stock is clonal from unrooted cuttings </li></ul>Positives: <ul><li>Very little to no genetic information – no improved clones available </li></ul><ul><li>No information on yields in the South </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment costs probably similar to cottonwood </li></ul>Negatives:
  25. 26. Intensive Hardwood Plantation Management Hardwood Species for the South V. Hybrid Aspen <ul><li>Performs well on upland sites </li></ul><ul><li>Very little disease or insect problems </li></ul><ul><li>Root sprouts effectively </li></ul>Positives: <ul><li>Not well tested throughout the South </li></ul><ul><li>Very little genetic information </li></ul><ul><li>Must be established using seedlings </li></ul>Negatives:
  26. 27. Intensive Hardwood Plantation Management Hardwood Species for the South VI. Eucalyptus <ul><li>Rapid growth rates and good wood density </li></ul><ul><li>Performs well on upland soils </li></ul><ul><li>Coppices well and clones are easily developed </li></ul><ul><li>Strong coppice production </li></ul>Positives: <ul><li>Susceptible to cold throughout the winter </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment cost </li></ul><ul><li>Public relations </li></ul>Negatives:
  27. 28. Intensive Hardwood Plantation Management Hardwood Species for the South VII. Oak Spp. <ul><li>More desirable sawtimber species </li></ul><ul><li>Valuable wildlife species </li></ul><ul><li>Herbaceous competition can be controlled by herbicides </li></ul>Positives: <ul><li>Slow to develop </li></ul><ul><li>Oak on oak competition may not be suited to the production of quality sawtimber </li></ul><ul><li>Very little improved genetics </li></ul>Negatives:
  28. 29. Information on inheritance of specific traits such as stem form, disease resistance, growth, wood density and genetic gain per unit of time - allowing clones to be moved as soon as possible from testing to operational plantations Intensive Hardwood Plantation Management Example - Cottonwood
  29. 30. Dicamba 2,4-D + Roundup Genetics along with Silviculture and Physiology must be combined to realize maximum gains
  30. 31. Breeding : 1. Done in a greenhouse 2. Four months to maturation 3. Approx. 30 seed/capsule Intensive Hardwood Plantation Management
  31. 32. Progeny tests Three-Stage Testing Progeny tests and clonal screening trials are established on a single site that have specific requirements Operational release CP Seed Breeding Population Intensive Hardwood Plantation Management (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) Clones Clonal Screening Trials Biotechnology Standard Clone Tests
  32. 33. Gains through Time 12-yr Rotation 8 gt/ac/yr 10-yr Rotation 12 gt/ac/yr 8-yr Rotation 16 gt/ac/yr
  33. 34. Can we continue to increase growth rates and yields? Newly developed clones have been found but must be incorporated into the overall program Question: Answer: 10” DBH Clone at Age 5 Intensive Hardwood Plantation Management
  34. 35. Breeding : Also plays an important role in developing hybrids that result in increased adaptability, growth, and disease resistance For Biomass production both upland and bottomland sites will have to be productive and breeding of hybrids may be the most viable alternative 1. Hybrid poplars have been shown to do well on non-alluvial and more upland sites in other geographic areas outside of the South and they have been the first option for upland sites in the South 2. Unfortunately, disease has been the greatest stumbling block to the use of hybrid poplars in the South Intensive Hardwood Plantation Management
  35. 36. DM 12 ft 9/1/2010 9 ft D
  36. 37. Hybrid Aspen on an Upland Site in Western Kentucky
  37. 38. Genomics and Biotechnology : This is the future , but it must be combined with traditional breeding systems and newly developing silvicultural tools to fully succeed Genomics is another tool that will enhance our ability to become much more efficient at breeding and selecting the correct genotypes as it ties directly to the genome 1. In 2006, the Populus genome was sequenced 2. Using genomic techniques will make it possible to select and breed for specific genes or gene combinations Intensive Hardwood Plantation Management
  38. 39. Genomics and Biotechnology : 1. Genetic modification has been achieved in many plants as well as forest species including – Populus and Eucalyptus Genetic Modification 2. Traits such as herbicide resistance and cold tolerance have been shown to be effective but deregulation and a clear understanding of the risks have been the primary stumbling blocks Risk would be the movement of the engineered gene to a natural population and reducing the fitness of the natural population Intensive Hardwood Plantation Management
  39. 40. Genetic Modification <ul><li>Simple introduction such as “HR” provides insight into substantial savings – especially for hardwoods </li></ul><ul><li>This single characteristic could play a significant role in determining economic feasibility of dedicated short rotation crops </li></ul>Intensive Hardwood Plantation Management
  40. 41. Genetic Modification Herbicide Resistance (HR) in eastern cottonwood <ul><li>Capable of significantly reducing cost of plantation establishment </li></ul><ul><li>Would greatly aid in the development of dedicated bioenergy plantations as these would be more than likely on very close spacing </li></ul><ul><li>Risks would be greatly reduced as these bioenergy plantations would be harvested at a very early age (i.e. 2 to 5 yrs) </li></ul>Intensive Hardwood Plantation Management
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  42. 43. Genetic Modification Exotic Species <ul><li>ArborGen has been evaluating the introduction of a cold-hardy gene in a tropical Eucalyptus hybrid </li></ul><ul><li>These tests have been scattered around the Southeast and have held promise </li></ul><ul><li>Like any other genetic entity tests must be completed to determine what line would be the best suited genotype </li></ul><ul><li>This material is aimed at the bioenergy market </li></ul>Intensive Hardwood Plantation Management
  43. 44. Freeze Tolerance Achieved in Multiple Field Trials <ul><li>Results from first winter in South Carolina </li></ul><ul><li>Results from second winter in Alabama </li></ul>ArborGen Confidential Field results indicate freezing tolerance to ~16°F (- 8° to - 9°C) Control Lead Lines + Control Lead Line
  44. 45. Needs extensive testing for a number of reasons Genetic Modification
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  46. 47. Aspen Eucalyptus
  47. 48. Summary: <ul><ul><li>Intensive hardwood plantation culture should be incorporated wherever economics are positive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production of woody biomass in the South is key to the production of renewable energy and biofuels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genomic tools and genetic modification could result in unprecedented gains and significantly reduced costs </li></ul></ul>Intensive Hardwood Plantation Management