Forest Health Panel - Invasives - Dr. Tamara Walkingstick


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  • This is where cogongrass was found in Mississippi in 2010.[CLICK]It is now known from Washington County, MS. That’s where Greenville is.US highway 82 and US highway 278 cross the river at Greenville and head west across Arkansas. At Lake Village they connect with US highway 65 which connects to the interstate system at Pine Bluff.Cogongrass is just across the river from Arkansas. If it isn’t already here, it will be soon.How is it going to get here?
  • The US Forest Service has partnered with several universities to run this website. It provides information about EAB and links to state and regional EAB web sites.
  • The Cooperative Extension Service has started an invasive species blog.So far we have discussed invasive pests in general terms, much of what I presented early in this presentation. We are about to start discussing particular invasive pests.We will also be developing an invasive pests web site for Arkansas. All of this is being paid for by a grant from APHIS.
  • Forestry Commission – The Forestry Commission keeps tracks of some insect and disease problems in Arkansas.Call your county forester. He’ll report the problem on up the line.
  • Mississippi State has set up an invasive plant database for the mid-south.Natural resource professionals can report invasive plant pests to this web site. This web site also has a searchable database that you can use to find out what plant pests have been found in your area.
  • APHIS has developed a web site called HungryPests that provides more than you ever wanted to know about invasive pests.The bugman video is a must-see.
  • The State of Texas has launched a web site about invasive species. The Sirex woodwasp is one of the species included on this web site. There are many others.The only problem with this web site is that it deals with pests from more arid environments than Arkansas. Many of the pests they discuss are not in Arkansas.
  • New invasive pests are coming.We may be able to slow them down or at least limit the damage they do, . . .but we must prepare ourselves to take action.
  • New invasive pests are coming.We may be able to slow them down or at least limit the damage they do, . . .but we must prepare ourselves to take action.
  • Forest Health Panel - Invasives - Dr. Tamara Walkingstick

    1. 1. Arkansas Invaders: Invasive Species in Arkansas Forests Tamara Walkingstick, Ph.D. Jon Barry, Ph.D. UA Division of Agriculture Arkansas Forest Resources Center
    2. 2. Introduction Definition of Invasive Problem with Invasives Top Invasive Plants What‟s coming What to do Useful websites
    3. 3. Which of these is an Invasive?
    4. 4. What about these?
    5. 5. What is an Invasive Species? ALL OF THEM!!! OR ARE THEY? According to the USFS: “..a species that is non-native or alien to the ecosystem under consideration and whose introduction does or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health.”
    6. 6. Invasive Exotic Species Not all invasive species are exotic Eg. Sweetgum, elm, E. Red Cedar+. Not all Exotics are invasive Eg. Japanese Maple, Catalpa BUT many are Eg: Kudzu, Honeysuckle, Privet
    7. 7. What‟s the problem? Replace rare & endangered species Hybridize w/native plant species Kill trees & shrubs Prevent forest regeneration Harbor plant pathogens, such as bacterial leaf scorch (Xylella fastidiosa) Kill of entire species: ie disease like Chestnut Blight
    8. 8. Other Damage  Compete with native species.  Alter hydrological patterns & stream function  Change fire regimes  Might contain toxins that may be lethal to certain animals. For example, garlic mustard can be lethal to a native butterfly species.
    9. 9. Cost of Invasives  Spreading over approximately 1,729,730 acres per year  Invasive plants cost $35 billion in damages & treatment each year!!
    10. 10. Percent Forest Area Covered by Invasive Species 0.0% 5.0% 10.0% 15.0% 20.0% Alabam a M ississippi TennesseeKentucky S.CarolinaVirginia Texas (east)G eorgia N .C arolinaLouisianaArkansas Florida State PercentCoverage 3.0% What about Arkansas? From FIA 2008 data
    11. 11. Non-native Invasive Species Presence by Plant Type for Arkansas 69.5% 18.8% 8.8% 2.3% 0.7% Vines Shrubs Ferns and Forbs Grasses Trees
    12. 12. Top Five Invasive Plants Mimosa Privets Japanese Honeysuckle Tall fescue Non-native Lespedeza These species occurred on the most forested acreage based on FIA data. 
    13. 13. Potential Invasive Species Cogon Grass Emerald Ash Borer Sirex Wasp Asian Long Horn Beetle Gypsy Moth Thousand Cankers Disease
    14. 14. Cogongrass Imperata cylindrica Federal Noxious Weed Fire hazard No wildlife value Reduces tree seedling growth & establishment Very difficult to remove once established Wind and equipment spread
    15. 15. Whitish midrib often off-center
    16. 16. Very Dense Mat of Rhizomes
    17. 17. • Cogongrass in Mississippi – 2010 • It‟s in Greenville, MS • US Hwy 82 & Hwy 278 are potential entry points at Lake Village Courtesy of
    18. 18. Web site for information
    19. 19. Emerald Ash Borer Agrilus planipennis
    20. 20. • Adults feed on ash foliage - cause little damage • Larvae feed on the inner bark of ash trees – disrupt tree's ability to transport water & nutrients
    21. 21. Research It
    22. 22. Asian Longhorned Beetle Anoplophora glabripennis
    23. 23. Male ALB Larva ALB Pupa Adult & Exit Hole
    24. 24.
    25. 25. Thousand Cankers Disease  A new pest complex could pose a major threat to walnut trees (Juglans spp.).  The black walnut twig beetle (Pityophthorus juglandis) transmits a Penicillium-like fungus (Geosmithia) cause what is termed “thousand cankers disease.”  Although not yet detected in Arkansas, it is killing large numbers of eastern black walnuts in various western states.  Found in TN in 2010
    26. 26. Thousand Cankers Disease  Beetles feed on trees & transmit spores of the fungus to the tree  At each feeding location, the fungus will form a canker.  The tree declines & dies about thousands to beetles attacks and therefore cankers  Cankers are not evident on the exterior bark of the tree  Initial attacks by the beetle are extremely difficult to detect.  http://www.thousandcankerdisease. com/
    27. 27.
    28. 28. Web Resources    Weeds Gone Wild   org.shtml  y.html
    29. 29. Invasive Species in AR Forests  Program Funded by:  Arkansas State Plant Board  USDA Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)  Focus:  Education regarding potential invasive species to AR forests  Train professionals, MGs, MNs, agents  Methods:  Presentations  Website  On-line courses  State-wide Conference  Educational materials
    30. 30. Research It
    31. 31. On-line Course: Arkansas Invaders  Instructional videos  Scripted Presentations  On-line reading materials  Discussion board  Quizzes  Resources  Certificate  CFE‟s
    32. 32. Report It
    33. 33. Report It
    34. 34. Research It
    35. 35. TexasInvasives.Org Research It
    36. 36. Impacts  400 registered foresters educated  80% of all foresters registered in AR  Includes foresters from AR, OK, LA, TX  Estimated 3.3 million acres of woodland (~18% of the forested acres in AR)  > 250 Master Gardeners educated  One Master Gardener wrote:  “Because of two presentations of yours that I heard, I removed five burning bushes as well as a wee clump of Japanese Blood grass. People drive by my gardens to get ideas about what to plant…they stop and ask questions too.  “Rather difficult for me to say, „Don‟t plant these‟ when they are on display in our yard. … Just wanted you to know that you are making a difference with your talks”.
    37. 37. Conclusions Invasive Pests are coming. We can slow them down. We need you to help.
    38. 38. Questions?