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# Study of relationship between seam slippage& strength

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### Study of relationship between seam slippage& strength

1. 1. PROJECT SUBMITTED BY:- ABDUR RAHIM KHAN Tousif Ahmed Sardar ASIF SHAIKH Gourav Kundu Under the supervision of Prof. Anirban dutta
2. 2. CONTENT 1.Introduction    Seam Seam slippage. Factors affecting to seam slippage 2.Literature review. 3.Process Parameter 4.Project plan 5.Test result 6.Result analysis 7. Summarization 8.Conclusion 9.Reference
3. 3. ABSTRACT  Seam slippage is one of the most objectionable faults in case of woven garments and it degrades the product quality and hampers the brand image of the manufacturer very badly.  Hence it is very essential to analyse various factors influencing seam slippage or seam slippage strength for woven garment and it is also essential to establish mathematical relationship or co-relation regression between seam slippage strength and various processing parameters.  Also the mechanical and structural properties of the woven fabric play an important role in occurrence of seam slippage in garment.  Therefore it is essential to analyse the influence various structural properties of the fabric on seam slippage keeping the other sewing parameters unchanged.
4. 4.  In our present research work fabric sample are different G.S.M.,cover factor,thickness value are used and stitched sample are formed using super imposed seam on single needle lock stitch machine keeping the embroidery thread , needle number ,thread tension unchanged, followed by testing of seam slippage strength for all those stitch samples.  Mathematical relationship and graphical analysis are carried out to measure the dependency and co-relation between seam slippage strength and the structural parameters of woven fabric.
5. 5. 2. INTRODUCTION 1. introduction to SEam  A seam is the join where two or more layers of fabrics are held together with stiches  The noun definition according to the online dictionary: – 1. Its the 'line' that is formed by sewing together pieces of cloth. – 2. Its the stitches used to make such a line.
6. 6. Stiches used for making garment are:- :
7. 7. 2. INTRODUCTION TO SEAM SLIPPAGE  Seam slippage is the pulling away or separation of the fabric at the seam, causing gaps or holes to develop. It involves warp and weft threads pulling apart, but not yarn breakage.  Seam slippage occurs when the density of the fabrics or the construction is low, less warp and weft per inch. Sometimes seam slippage occurs when the finished chemical, like resin or silicon is added on the surface of the fabric. This makes the fabric yarns to be more slippery and also reduces the tensile strength of the fabric.
8. 8. 3. FACTORS AFFECTING TO SEAM SLIPPAGE  Many factors are identified which have direct or indirect influences on seam slippage like fabric density (picks per inch and ends per inch), shrinkage of the fabric, SPI or stitch density, weight of the fabric, rpm of the machine, GSM of the fabric , cover factor of the fabric etc.  Seam slippage occurs on woven fabric, when yarns slide together along other yarns or a line of stitching.  Seam slippage occurs with a low stitch count, insufficient tension on threads, or improper stitch and seam selection
9. 9.  Slippage will more likely to occur in fabrics that have filament yarns, low counts and unbalanced weave.  Seam slippage may also be affected by stitch type and size, tension, seam type and size, thread used for sewing and excessive use of fabric lubricant.  Some yarns are highly twisted, smooth, and slippery making them more prone to slippage.
10. 10.  Sizing applied in manufacturing sometimes help stabilize the fabric, but may be adversely affected by moisture and perspiration. Breakup of the sizing will occur during the agitation necessary for dry cleaning.  Seams may be sewn or constructed improperly with insufficient stitches per inch.  Very shallow seam allowances may have been used. Strain on the fabric at the seams will allow slippage to take place.  If the item is an extremely tight fit, excessive stress and strain occurs during wear.
11. 11. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW  1). According to Ms. Anita a Desai [02 ], this paper represents the Seam • strength and Seam slippage of fabrics. Different types of stitches and different types of sewing thread s and their affect, construction on the above mentioned properties have also been reviewed. The five major contributors to seam strength include:– – – – – • • 1. Fabric type and weight. 2. Thread type and size. 3. Stitch and seam construction. 4. Stitches per inch. 5. Stitch balance. Below is one formula that was developed for estimating the seam strength on woven fabrics. SPI* Thread Strength* 1.5 = Estimated seam strength (for lockstitch 301).
12. 12. Seam slippage also depends upon different force like breaking force of rupture, a minimum elongation, or both are required to determine the sewn seam slippage, or seam integrity of a fabric for a specified end use. • So a thorough knowledge of different types of stitches, analyze the different parameters of sewing thread and also different types of sewing threads and their affect o is required for the garment manufacturing process. Also this paper reviews about thread construction, twist, application, size and other parameters.  2). According to Bharani M., Shiyamaladevi P.S.S. and Mahendra Gowda R.V [03], In the present work, the quality of fabric samples was controlled, now the garment longevity depends on the seam parameters like various factors such as seam strength, seam slippage, seam puckering and yarn severance. • In the present work, fabrics of different blend proportions i.e., cotton and was prepared with different woven structures like plain, twill, satin. These fabrics were treated with fabric softener like silicone. • The fabric samples of plain weave were found to have greater seam performance than the twill and satin. Various other factors influencing the seam strength and seam slippage are also discussed in detail. The final observation table as per there is as furnished below :-
13. 13. Table no. :- 1 Cotton-Plain Fabric Seam Slippage (6.0mm seam opening) Breaking Load at 6.0 mm opening (Kgf) Sl. No. Warp Seam Opening(mm) Weft Weft Warp With Finish Without Finish With Finish Without Finish With Finish Without Finish With Finish Without Finish 1 9.2 8.1 19.9 19.3 6 6 1.3 3.7 2 8.5 8.2 20 19.4 6 6 3.2 2.6 3 8.6 8.2 19.8 19.5 6 6 1.9 5.4 Mean 8.8 8.2 19.9 19.4 6 6 2.1 3.9
14. 14.  3). According to( Behera, 1997b; Kothari, 1999), Seam slippage is expressed as the transverse ratio of seam strength to fabric strength including the ratio of elongation of fabric to the ratio of elongation at the seam. Any movements of warp & weft yarns away from a seam line under transverse stresses exacerbate the potential slippage.  4). According to (Behera et al., 1997a; Behera & Sharma, 1998; Tarafdar et al., 2005; Gurada, 2008) have suggested measuring seam slippage according to the ASTM 1683-04 standard for evaluation of seam quality. In this standard, the force required for slippage of 0.6mm of seam has been determined. The measurement of seam slippage from the ASTM 1683-04 standard is well established as an international standard and most apparel industries follow this method to evaluate seam slippage.
15. 15. 3. PROCESS PARAMETER FABRIC WOVEN SEAM SUPER IMPOSED SIRUBA-L818F-M1 SNLS M/C SPI: - 11 NEEDLE: - 14 40 TEX THREAD SPUN POLYESTER Coats
16. 16. 4. PLAN OF ACTION .
17. 17. 1.
18. 18. 5. TEST RESULT Table no:- 2 Table no:- 3 Table no:- 4 Table no:- 5 Fabric Sample No: GSM Cover factor Thickness Seam slippage strength AP-1-13 73.90 20.56 0.12 4.85 AP-2-13 64.60 18.46 0.11 4.07 AP-3-13 217.60 18.83 0.36 5.97 AP-4-13 104.60 20.96 0.16 4.28 AP-5-13 274.00 21.55 0.37 7.80 AP-6-13 64.30 12.97 0.09 3.95 AP-7-13 129.45 18.23 0.30 4.70 AP-8-13 240.90 23.25 0.39 7.19
19. 19. 6. RESULT ANALYSIS 1.GSM Vs. Seam slippage strength TABLE NO.-6 TABLE FOR REALTIONSHIP BETWEEN GSM & SEAM SLIPPAGE STRENGTH SEAM CORRELATION GSM(GM/M2) SLIPPAGE COEFFICIENT X1 STRENGTH(KG BETWEEN (X1& Y0) /CM2)(Y0) (R10) 64.30 3.95 64.60 4.07 73.90 4.85 104.60 4.28 0.956842081 129.45 4.70 217.60 5.97 240.90 7.19 274.00 7.80 GSM Vs. Seam slippage strength(kg/cm2)(y0) 9.00 8.00 7.00 6.00 SEAM STRENGTH(Kg/cm2) (Y0) 5.00 4.00 3.00 Poly. (SEAM STRENGTH(Kg/cm2) (Y0)) 2.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 50.00 100.00 150.00 200.00 250.00 300.00 y = 9E-08x3 + 3E-05x2 - 0.001x + 4.176 Y0 = 9E-08X13 + 3E-05X12 - 0.0017X1 + 4.1768………(1.1)
20. 20. Table for calculation of exponential equation for GSM(x1) vs. Seam slippage strength(y0) The exponential equation is Y0=abX1 Taking logarithm of both the sides with base 10 log Y0 = log a + (x1)log b ASSUMING log Y0 = Y , log a = A , log b = B , we have Y =BX1 + A X12 X1 Y0 Y=logY0 Y*X1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 73.90 64.60 217.60 104.60 274.00 64.30 129.45 4.85 4.07 5.97 4.28 7.80 3.95 4.70 0.6857 0.6096 0.7757 0.6314 0.8921 0.5966 0.6721 5461.21 50.6763 4173.16 39.3798 47349.76 168.7992 10941.16 66.0490 75076 244.4339 4134.49 38.3612 16757.3025 87.0031 8 TOTAL 240.90 1169.35 7.19 0.8567 5.7200 58032.81 221925.89 206.3860 901.0885 As per description the equations according to fitting normal curve by least square method are 8A + 1169.35B = 5.7200 1169.35A + 221925.89B = 901.0885 By solving this above two equation we get, Y0=1.54*1.003X1------------(1.2)
21. 21. Table for calculation of exponential equation for GSM(x1) vs. Seam slippage strength(y0) The exponential equation is Y0=aX1b Taking logarithm of both the sides with base 10 log Y0 = log a + blogX1 Assuming log Y0 = Y , log a = A , logX1 = X , we have Y =BX + A Using fitting exponential curve we get the following table SL. No. X1 Y0 X=logX1 Y=logY0 X2 Y*X 1 73.90 4.85 1.87 0.6857 3.491832037 1.2814 2 64.60 4.07 1.81 0.6096 3.276941769 1.1035 3 217.60 5.97 2.34 0.7757 5.464649091 1.8134 4 104.60 4.28 2.02 0.6314 4.078508225 1.2752 5 274.00 7.80 2.44 0.8921 5.942627807 2.1747 As per description the equations according to fitting normal curve by least square method are 8A + 16.78B = 5.7200 16.78A + 35.66B = 12.1871 6 64.30 3.95 1.81 0.5966 3.269626923 1.0788 7 129.45 4.70 2.11 0.6721 4.46097509 1.4195 8 240.90 7.19 2.38 0.8567 5.673146542 2.0406 16.78 5.7200 35.66 12.1871 TOTAL By solving this above two equation we get Y0=0.75*X12.51------------(1.3)
22. 22. 2. COVER FACTOR VS. SEAM SLIPPAGE STRENGTH TABLE NO.-7 TABLE FOR REALTIONSHIP BETWEEN COVER FACTOR & SEAM SLIPPAGE STRENGTH CORRELATION SEAM SLIPPAGE COVER COEFFICIENT STRENGTH(KG/C FACTOR (X2) BETWEEN (X2& M2)(Y0) Y0) (R20) COVER FACTOR(X2) VS SEAM SLIPPAGE STRENGTH(Y0) 9.00 8.00 7.00 12.97 3.95 18.23 4.70 5.00 18.46 4.07 3.00 18.83 5.97 20.56 4.85 20.96 4.28 21.55 7.80 23.25 7.19 6.00 SEAM STRENGTH(Kg/ cm2)(Y0) 4.00 2.00 0.335078897 Poly. (SEAM STRENGTH(Kg/ cm2)(Y0)) 1.00 0.00 0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 Y0 = 416.45X33 - 226.84X32 + 40.162X3 + 2.0721………….(3.1)
23. 23. Table for calculation of exponential equation for cover factor(x2) vs. Seam slippage strength(y0) The exponential equation is y0=abx2 Taking logarithm of both the sides with base 10 Log Y0 = log a + (x2)logb Assuming log Y0 = Y , log a = A , log b = B , we have Y =BX2 + A X2 Y0 Y=logY0 X22 Y*X2 1 20.56 4.85 0.6857 422.58889 14.0968 2 18.46 4.07 0.6096 340.79331 11.2535 3 18.83 5.97 0.7757 354.38686 14.6033 4 20.96 4.28 0.6314 439.41126 13.2364 8A + 154.80B = 5.7200 5 21.55 7.80 0.8921 464.55984 19.2279 154.80A + 3062.66B = 112.3232 6 12.97 3.95 0.5966 168.19675 7.7373 7 18.23 4.70 0.6721 332.17438 12.2494 8 23.25 7.19 0.8567 540.54837 19.9187 TOTAL 154.80 5.7200 3062.66 112.3232 As per description the equations according to fitting normal curve by least square method are By solving this above two equation we get, Y0=1.76*1.06X2------------(2.2)
24. 24. Table for calculation of exponential equation for cover factor(x2) vs. Seam slippage strength(y0) Using fitting exponential curve we get the following table The exponential equation is y0=ax2b Taking logarithm of both the sides with base 10 Log y0 = log a + blogx2 Assuming log y0 = y , log a = a , logx2 = x , we have y =bx + a SL. No. X2 Y0 X=logX2 Y=logY0 X2 Y*X 1 20.56 4.85 1.31 0.6857 1.723861 0.9004 2 18.46 4.07 1.27 0.6096 1.603378 0.7719 3 18.83 5.97 1.27 0.7757 1.624959 0.9889 4 20.96 4.28 1.32 0.6314 1.746192 0.8344 As per description the equations according to fitting normal curve by least square method are 8A + 10.25B = 5.7200 5 21.55 7.80 1.33 0.8921 1.778278 1.1896 6 12.97 3.95 1.11 0.5966 1.238566 0.6640 7 18.23 4.70 1.26 0.6721 1.589322 0.8473 8 23.25 7.19 1.37 0.8567 1.867096 1.1706 10.25 5.7200 13.17 7.3671 10.25A + 13.17B = 7.3671 TOTAL By solving this above two equation we get Y0=0.27*X210------------(2.3)
25. 25. 3. Thickness vs. Seam slippage strength TABLE NO.-8 Table for relationship between thickness & seam slippage strength Correlation Seam slippage Thickness coefficient strength(kg/cm2 (mm)(x3) between (x3& )(y0) y0) (r30) 0.09 3.95 0.11 4.07 THICKNESS(X3) Vs. SEAM SLIPPAGE STRENGTH(Y0) 9.00 8.00 7.00 6.00 5.00 SEAM STRENGTH(Kg/cm 2)(Y0) 4.00 Poly. (SEAM STRENGTH(Kg/cm 2)(Y0)) 3.00 0.12 4.85 0.16 4.28 0.30 4.70 0.36 5.97 0.37 7.80 0.39 7.19 2.00 0.860509626 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 Y0 = 416.45X33 - 226.84X32 + 40.162X3 + 2.0721………….(3.1)
26. 26. Table for calculation of exponential equation constants (series 1) for thickness(x3) vs. Seam slippage strength(y0) The exponential equation is y0=abx3 Taking logarithm of both the sides with base 10 Log y0 = log a + (x3)logb Assuming log y0 = y , log a = a , log b = b , we have y =bx3 + a X3 Y0 Y=logY0 X32 Y*X3 1 0.12 4.85 0.6857 0.013225 0.0789 2 0.11 4.07 0.6096 0.0121 0.0671 3 0.36 5.97 0.7757 0.126025 0.2754 4 0.16 4.28 0.6314 0.0256 0.1010 8A + 1.87B = 5.7200 5 0.37 7.80 0.8921 0.133225 0.3256 1.87A +0.5527 B = 1.4268 6 0.09 3.95 0.5966 0.007225 0.0507 7 0.30 4.70 0.6721 0.087025 0.1983 8 0.39 7.19 0.8567 0.148225 0.3298 TOTAL 1.87 5.7200 0.5527 1.4268 As per description the equations according to fitting normal curve by least square method are By solving this above two equation we get, Y0=3.42*5.96X3------------(3.2)
27. 27. Table for calculation of exponential equation constants (series 1) for thickness(x3) vs. Seam slippage strength(y0) Using fitting exponential curve we get the following table The exponential equation is y0=ax3b Taking logarithm of both the sides with base 10 Log y0 = log a + blogx3 Assuming log y0 = y , log a = a , logx3 = x , we have y =bx + a SL. No. X3 Y0 X=logX3 Y=logY0 X2 Y*X 1 0.12 4.85 -0.94 0.6857 0.882289 -0.6441 2 0.11 4.07 -0.96 0.6096 0.918928 -0.5844 3 0.36 5.97 -0.45 0.7757 0.202295 -0.3489 4 0.16 4.28 -0.80 0.6314 0.633425 -0.5026 As per description the equations according to fitting normal curve by least square method are 8A -5.6B = 5.7200 5 0.37 7.80 -0.44 0.8921 0.191588 -0.3905 6 0.09 3.95 -1.07 0.5966 1.146144 -0.6387 7 0.30 4.70 -0.53 0.6721 0.281089 -0.3563 8 0.39 7.19 -0.41 0.8567 0.171843 -0.3551 -5.60 5.7200 4.43 -3.8206 5.6A - 4.43B = 3.8206 TOTAL By solving this above two equation we get Y0=9.27X32.29------------(3.3)
28. 28. 4.(GSM*COVER FACTOR) Vs. SEAM SLIPPAGE STRENGTH TABLE NO.-9 Table for relationship between (GSM*cover factor) & Seam slippage strength Correlation Seam slippage GSM*cover coefficient strength(kg/cm2 factor(xgc) between (xgc& )(y0) y0) (rgc0) 833.91 1192.55 3.95 4.28 2359.31 4.70 4096.36 5.97 5600.85 5905.7 7.19 8.00 6.00 SEAM STRENGTH(Kg/c m2)(Y0) 5.00 4.85 2192.64 9.00 7.00 4.07 1519.16 (GSM*COVER FACTOR) Vs. seam slippage strength((Y0) 4.00 0.974193386 Poly. (SEAM STRENGTH(Kg/c m2)(Y0)) 3.00 2.00 1.00 0.00 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 7.80 Y0 = 2E-17XGC5 - 4E-13XGC4 + 3E-09XGC3 - 8E-06XGC2 + 0.0106XGC - 0.8878…………(4.1)
29. 29. Table for calculation of exponential equation constants (series 1) for (GSM*cover factor) (x1*x2) vs. Seam slippage strength(y0) The exponential equation is y0=abxgc Taking logarithm of both the sides with base 10 Log y0 = log a + (xgc)logb Assuming log y0 = y , log a = a , log b = b , we have y =bxgc + a XGC Y0 Y=logY0 XGC2 Y*XGC 1 1519.16 4.85 0.6857 2307847.106 1041.7514 2 1192.55 4.07 0.6096 1422175.503 726.9718 3 4096.36 5.97 0.7757 16780165.25 3177.6766 8A + 23700.48B = 5.7200 4 2192.64 4.28 0.6314 4807670.17 1384.5289 23700.48A + 97826420.8B = 18480.9773 5 5905.70 7.80 0.8921 34877292.49 5268.4431 6 833.91 3.95 0.5966 695405.8881 497.5083 7 2359.31 4.70 0.6721 5566343.676 1585.6872 8 5600.85 7.19 0.8567 31369520.72 4798.4100 TOTAL 23700.48 5.7200 97826420.80 18480.9773 As per description the equations according to fitting normal curve by least square method are By solving this above two equation we get, Y0=3.67*1.0001XGC------------(4.2)
30. 30. Table for calculation of exponential equation constants (series 1) for (GSM*cover factor) (x1*x2) vs. Seam slippage strength(y0) Using fitting exponential curve we get the following table The exponential equation is y0=axgcb Taking logarithm of both the sides with base 10 Log y0 = log a + blogxgc Assuming log y0 = y , log a = a , logxgc = x , we have y =bx + a SL. No. XGC Y0 X=logXGC Y=logY0 X2 Y*X 1 1519.16 4.85 3.18 0.6857 10.1226 2.1818 2 1192.55 4.07 3.08 0.6096 9.464708 1.8754 3 4096.36 5.97 3.61 0.7757 13.04942 2.8023 4 2192.64 4.28 3.34 0.6314 11.16206 As per description the equations according to fitting normal curve by least square method are 2.1096 8A + 27.02B = 5.7200 5 5905.70 7.80 3.77 0.8921 14.22249 3.3643 6 833.91 3.95 2.92 0.5966 8.532937 1.7427 7 2359.31 4.70 3.37 0.6721 11.37568 2.2668 8 5600.85 7.19 3.75 0.8567 14.04941 3.2112 27.02 5.7200 91.98 19.5542 27.02A + 91.98B = 19.5542 TOTAL By solving this above two equation we get Y0=0.37XGC2.19------------(4.3)
31. 31. 5.(GSM*THICKNESS) VS. SEAM SLIPPAGE STRENGTH TABLE NO.-10 Table for relationship between thickness & seam slippage strength Correlation Seam slippage GSM*thickn coefficient strength(kg/cm2 ess (x) between (x5& )(y0) y0) (r130) 5.47 3.95 7.11 8.50 (GSM*THICKNESS) Vs. SEAM SLIPPAGE STRENGTH(Y0) 9.00 8.00 7.00 4.07 6.00 4.85 SEAM STRENGTH(Kg/c m2)(Y0) 5.00 4.00 16.74 4.28 38.19 4.70 77.25 5.97 92.75 7.19 100.01 Poly. (SEAM STRENGTH(Kg/c m2)(Y0)) 7.80 0.955644343 3.00 2.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 50.00 100.00 150.00 Y0 = 6E-06XGT3 - 0.0005XGT2 + 0.0259XGT+ 4.0837……..(5.1)
32. 32. Table for calculation of exponential equation constants (series 1) for (GSM*thickness)(x1*x3) vs. Seam slippage strength(y0) The exponential equation is y0=abxgt Taking logarithm of both the sides with base 10 Log Y0 = log a + (xgt)logb ASSUMING log Y0 = Y , log a = A , log b = B , we have Y =BXGT + A XGT Y0 Y=logY0 XGT2 Y*XGT 1 8.50 4.85 0.6857 72.233001 5.8281 2 7.11 4.07 0.6096 50.495236 4.3318 3 77.25 5.97 0.7757 5967.2535 59.9237 8A + 346B = 5.7200 4 16.74 4.28 0.6314 280.093696 10.5678 346A + 26462.28B = 278.2560 5 100.01 7.80 0.8921 10002.0001 89.2184 6 5.47 3.95 0.5966 29.877156 3.2610 7 38.19 4.70 0.6721 1458.32334 25.6661 8 92.75 7.19 0.8567 8602.00601 79.4590 TOTAL 346.00 5.7200 26462.28 278.2560 As per description the equations according to fitting normal curve by least square method are By solving this above two equation we get, Y0=3.97*1.006XGT------------(5.2)
33. 33. Table for calculation of exponential equation for (GSM*thickness) (x1*x3) vs. Seam slippage strength(y0) Using fitting exponential curve we get the following table The exponential equation is y0=axgtb Taking logarithm of both the sides with base 10 Log y0 = log a + blogxgt Assuming log y0 = y , log a = a , logxgt = x , we have y =bx + a SL. No. XGT Y0 X=logXGT Y=logY0 X2 Y*X 1 8.50 4.85 0.93 0.6857 0.863724562 0.6373 2 7.11 4.07 0.85 0.6096 0.725265487 0.5191 3 77.25 5.97 1.89 0.7757 3.564118246 1.4645 4 16.74 4.28 1.22 0.6314 1.497323403 0.7727 As per description the equations according to fitting normal curve by least square method are 8A + 11.18B = 5.7200 5 100.01 7.80 2.00 0.8921 4.000173711 1.7842 6 5.47 3.95 0.74 0.5966 0.544156479 0.4401 7 38.19 4.70 1.58 0.6721 2.502492761 1.0632 8 92.75 7.19 1.97 0.8567 3.870268782 1.6854 11.18 5.7200 17.57 8.3666 11.18A + 17.57B = 8.3666 TOTAL By solving this above two equation we get Y0=2.83*XGT1.54------------(5.3)
34. 34. 7. SUMMERIZATION Y0 = 9E-08X13 + 3E-05X12 - 0.0017X1 + 4.1768………………(1.1) Y0=1.54*1.003X1------------(1.2) Y0=0.75*X12.51------------(1.3) Y0 = 0.0391X23 - 2.1304X22 + 37.908X2 - 214.39………….(2.1) Y0=1.76*1.06X2------------(2.2) Y0=0.27*X210------------(2.3) Y0 = 416.45X33 - 226.84X32 + 40.162X3 + 2.0721………….(3.1) Y0=3.42*5.96X3------------(3.2) Y0=9.27X32.29------------(3.3) Y0 = 2E-17XGC5 - 4E-13XGC4 + 3E-09XGC3 - 8E-06XGC2 + 0.0106XGC - 0.8878…………(4.1) Y0=3.67*1.0001XGC------------(4.2) Y0=0.37XGC2.19------------(4.3) Y0 = 6E-06XGT3 - 0.0005XGT2 + 0.0259XGT+ 4.0837……..(5.1) Y0=3.97*1.006XGT------------(5.2) Y0=2.83*XGT1.54------------(5.3)
35. 35. 8. CONCLUSION Seam slippage is a commonly occurred fault that degrades the quality & reduce commercial value of the garment.so it is essential to define seam slippage accurately as a function of different parameters. In the present project work seam slippage strength is analyzed as a function of different fabric parameter so that seam slippage can be controlled by changing fabric parameter accordingly. In the present study the fabric parameters i.e. GSM, cover factor, thickness are considered as the input parameters. GSM :- in our observation & analysis we found an excellent correlation between seam slippage strength with GSM with a value of 0.956 (table no:- 6) which tells that fabric with higher GSM gives higher seam slippage strength .It is explained by the fact that fabric with higher GSM have more compactness & hence generates higher degree of frictional force.
36. 36. Cover factor: - in case of cover factor we found poor correlation with value 0.33(table no: - 7) with seam slippage strength which indicates that the influence of cover factor as an individual parameter. But the product of GSM & cover factor shows a nice cc with value 0.97 (table no: - 9) which indicates these two parameters must be used in combination. Thickness :- in case of thickness we found nice correlation with value 0.86( table no:- 8) with seam slippage strength which indicates that the thicker fabric shows higher seam slippage strength mostly due to higher surface contact & frictional cohesion with the sewing thread. We also got an excellent cc with value 0.95(table no: - 10) between (GSM*thickness) & seam slippage strength.
37. 37. In our present study it is highlighted that significance of fabric GSM on seam slippage strength is most prominent one compare to cover factor, thickness. Several empirical equations are developed for the prediction of seam slippage strength. The equation no. 4.1 can be used for further progress in this research since this equation is based upon maximum correlation. Further work:1. Our further plan is to make a multiple regression analysis taking all the input i.e. GSM, cover factor, thickness & develop an empirical equation taking seam slippage strength as a function of GSM, cover factor, thickness. 2. It is plan to evaluate the prediction capacities of all those equation derived by taking some sample and calculation of standard error. 3. Our plan is to develop a computer program me algorithm based upon the most suitable empirical relationship for prediction of seam slippage strength.
38. 38. 9. REFERENCE • 1: Multiple Regression Link:- http://cameron.econ.ucdavis.edu/excel/ex01access.html • 2: Effect of stitches SPI & sewing threads on minimizing seam slippage on fabrics. By: Anita A Desai. • Link: http://www.fibre2fashion.com/industry-article/technology-industryarticle/practical-solutions-to-seam-puckering.asp • 3:- Characterization of Seam Strength and Seam Slippage on Cotton fabric with woven Structures and Finish. By:- Bharani M., Shiyamaladevi P.S.S. and Mahendra Gowda R.V. on Research Journal of Engineering Sciences Vol. 1(2), 41-50, August (2012) Link:- www.isca.in/IJES/Archive/v1i2/6.ISCA-JEngS-2012-046.pdf • 4:- According to (Sumit Mandal, Degree of Master of Philosophy under The Hong Kong Polytechnic University) Link:- http://cameron.econ.ucdavis.edu/excel/ex01access.html