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SHEFFIELD HALLAM

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SHEFFIELD HALLAM

  1. 1. SCHOOL OF HOUSING, BUILDING AND PLANNING, UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA PULAU PINANG, MALAYSIA. ͟͢͠͞ Voce Viva 4th March 2014/ Page 1 THE POTENTIAL OF FIBRE OPTIC DAYLIGHTING FOR INTERIOR ILLUMINATION IN TROPICAL CLIMATE (Candidate: Muhammad Arkam B. Che Munaaim) Percentage of energy consumed for interior lighting according to country and sectors: Country Year % in Lighting Sectors Source USA 2011 21% Industrial US EIA Singapore 2011 13% Green Office Building Yudel son Japan 2011 33% Commer cial IIEJ United Kingdom 2010 20% All sectors Griffiths Malaysia 2009 19% Office Building Saidur Global 2006 43% Commer cial Waide Global 2006 31% Residential Waide Global 2006 18% Industrial Waide Global 2006 19% Overall Waide 1. Research Questions Q1: What is the minimum, maximum and average lux level can be obtained from a fibre optic daylighting system? Q2: What is the potential of fibre optic daylighting system for tropical climate? Q3: Will the fibre optic daylighting system significantly effect on internal building relative humidity level? Q4: Is there any heat introduced to inside the building by the fibre optic daylighting system? Q5: How many savings in terms of electrical energy and environmental benefits contributed by fibre optic daylighting system? 2. Research Objectives In order to assess the optimum approach for fibre optic daylighting strategy which become the main objective of this research, below specific objectives are outlined: To examine the illumination level obtained by fibre optic daylighting system in full scale experiment for various tropical climate conditions related to solar radiation. To investigate the effects of fibre optic daylighting system in building for relative humidity and heat parameters. To evaluate the potential of saving on electricity energy and CO2 resulting from fibre optic daylighting system in tropical climate. 3. Significance of Research This research related to the encouragement on energy studies especially to meet MS1525:2007 which focussed on the Renewable Energy (RE) and Energy-Efficiency (EE) aspect in building design. This research will conclude the possibility of using fibre optic cable as a light medium mainly in light distribution strategies thus creating an opportunity for maximizing the solar daylighting system in illuminating the interior building core daily. This research will provide an empirical results of fibre optic as a medium of daylighting distribution since will cover the most basic parameters especially in lighting level and human comfort in a building. This method also will create an awareness among users in taking an advantage from available daylighting in tropical climate. 4. Research Limitation Normal tropical data is collected in 17 days collection and perception of weather condition is based on observation only. Since the main objective of the FOC daylighting system is to illuminate interior spaces that no sunlight penetration is possible, research will only consider the total dark room for test bed. 5. Human Comfort Parameters (Source: Malaysian Standard, 2007, GBI, 2009) PARAMETERS RECOMMENDED VALUES Lux Level 300-400 Lux General offices, shops and stores, reading and writing; infrequent reading and writing. TEMPERATURE : Dry Bulb Temperature 23 ⁰ C – 26 ⁰ C HUMIDITY: Design Relative Humidity 55 % - 70 % ; A space relative humidity below 70 % for comfort cooling purposes. Height of Light Source 800 mm above the floor level
  2. 2. SCHOOL OF HOUSING, BUILDING AND PLANNING, UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA PULAU PINANG, MALAYSIA. ͟͢͠͞ Voce Viva 4th March 2014/ Page 2 6. Daylighting Distribution Strategies 7. FOC light medium studies: Research Field Of Studies Hayman (1990), GB Fibre optic photocells using model for daylighting. Grise and Patrick (2002), USA Potential of solar lighting by using fibre optic cable with consideration of the basic principle and method of light concentration. Kandili and Ulgen (2007), Turkey Modelling system of transmission concentrated solar energy via optical cable. Sansoni et al. (2008), Italy Internal lighting by solar collector and fibre optic. Han and Kim (2009), Korea High density daylight for interior illumination by using fibre optic cable with solar tracking and concentrator. Christopher (2009), USA Design and application of fibre optic daylighting system. Chen et al. (2010), Malaysia Fibre optic and solar concentrator and test for its indoor illumination. Hamzah and Chen (2010a), Malaysia Reviewed on the limitation in current daylighting in solar concentrated devices with solar tube and fibre optic cable. Patrick et al. (2011), Canada Improving passive solar concentrator for fibre optic lighting. Irfan and Seoyong (2012), Korea Fibre optic-based daylighting system with uniform illumination based on heat problem. Wong and Yang (2012), Hong Kong Remote sources lighting system to illuminate enclosed lift lobbies using fibre optic cables. 8. FOC area of studies: Research Field Of Studies Research MethodH C T D Hayman (1990), GB. Modeling/ Simulation Grise and Patrick (2002), USA Simulation Kandilli and Ulgen (2007), Turkey Mathe matical Modeling Sansoni et al. (2008). Italy Computer Simulation Han and Kim (2009), Korea Empirical Chen et al. (2010), Malaysia Modeling/ Mathe matical Hamzah and Chen (2010b), Malaysia Literatures Patrick et al. (2011), Canada Modeling/ Empirical Irfan and Seoyong (2012), Korea Modeling/ Simulation Seung et al. (2013), Korea Modeling/ Empirical Sapia (2013), Italy Computer Simulation H-Heat, C-Capture, T-Transmit, D-Distribute. 9. Tropical Climate Name Geographic Distribution Tropical Rain forest Amazon, Congo, east coast of Central America, east coast of Brazil, east coast of Madagascar, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines. Tropical Monsoon Coastal areas of south-west India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Myanmar, southwest Africa, Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana, north-east and southeast Brazil. Tropical Savanna Northern and eastern India, interior Myanmar and indo-Chinese Peninsula, northern Australia, south central Africa, Venezuela, centre of Brazil, western Central America, south Florida and Caribbean Islands. (Source: Petersen et al., 2009) (Source: http://koeppen-geiger.vu-wien.ac.at/present.htm)
  3. 3. SCHOOL OF HOUSING, BUILDING AND PLANNING, UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA PULAU PINANG, MALAYSIA. ͟͢͠͞ Voce Viva 4th March 2014/ Page 3 10. Methodology Figures Construction Materials: i) 2” cement render on normal concrete floor. ii) Plastered brick wall both sided. iii) Metal decking with steel truss pitch roof. iv) 12mm gypsum board for ceiling finishes. v) White painting interior and exterior. vi) No window or other opening / fenestrations and no roof insulation to suggest on worst case condition. The FOC Daylighting components is based on the recommendation made by Stiles et al. (1998), Andre and Schade (2002), Grise (2002), Hansen and Edmonds (2003), Ghisi and Tinker (2006), Kandilli and Ulgen (2007), Sansoni et al. (2008), Hammam et al. (2007), Jeong et al. (2009), Irfan and Seoyong (2012) and Seung et al. (2013) 11. Selection of Components: Receiver (Fresnel Lens) This research considers a Fresnel lenses type of solar receiver with sun tracking system as also selected by Ono and Cuello (2003), Kandilli and Ulgen (2007), Sansoni et al. (2008) and Couture et al. (2011) in their research. Fresnel lens is widely used because it gives the good performance at a low cost (Irfan and Seoyong, 2012). Fibre Optic Cable (Plastic Acrylic) This research will be using 6 x 10m plastic acrylic type of cable for transmit the light from the receiver as it most commonly used in fibre optic lighting in terms of tolerable losses at reasonable cost as also applied by Cariou et al (1982), Jaramillo et al. (1998 and 1999), Ciamberlini et al. (2003) and Ono and Cuello (2003). Diffusers (Plastic Acrylic) is chosen due to 2 materials compatibility that connecting the cables-diffusers. However, very few research in light diffusing system for fibre optic cable daylighting where started in 2003 by Sapia (Italy) and in 2011 by Patrick et al. (Canada). 12. Measurement and Data Collection External Mini Meteorological Station Internal Data Collection 13. Analysis Method: RQ1 (O1) – Empirical, graph analysis in real condition observation RQ2 (O1) - Regression, graph analysis RQ3 (O2) – Comparisons, graph analysis RQ4 (O2) – Comparisons, graph analysis RQ5 (O3) – Simulation, electrical equations, conversion, mathematic calculation. Justification on analysis method: Based on the consideration on solar radiation and external lux intensity in data analysis also been conducted by A.Zain et al. (2002a), Irfan and Seoyong (2012) for internal-external lux comparative analysis. Simplified comparative analysis method was implemented by A.Zain et al. (2002a), Hein and Chirarattananon (2007) and and Mazran (2010) for heat analysis. Meanwhile Tsoutsos et al. (2005) who investigated the environmental impact from solar energy followed by Ghisi and Tinker (2006) when outlined the value of saving per kWh as per concluded earlier than that by Lancashire and Fox in 1996.
  4. 4. SCHOOL OF HOUSING, BUILDING AND PLANNING, UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA PULAU PINANG, MALAYSIA. ͟͢͠͞ Voce Viva 4th March 2014/ Page 4 14. Lux Analysis 15. Humidity Analysis [Left Axis: Relative Humidity, RH (%), Right Axis: Solar Radiation (W/m2 )] (22nd May 2013-ON) [Left Axis: Relative Humidity, RH (%), Right Axis: Solar Radiation (W/m2 )] (7th June 2013-OFF) It is can be concluded here that the fibre optic daylighting system is not significantly influence the internal relative humidity parameter since the building is totally dark and enclosed and yet no notable change detected for this parameter during data analysis. 16. Heat Analysis Comparison of average surface temperature for fibre optic light diffuser during system ON and OFF Comparison of average internal temperature during system ON and OFF It is observed from above graphs that the fibre optic daylighting system somehow introduces a measureable heat on the diffuser’s surface and internal temperature when comparing the days with the system ON to the days with the system OFF. The different averaged at ± 2 o C as what can be observed in the black circle. 17. Energy and Environmental Saving Analysis 351 watt is an amount of electrical energy required to illuminate the room in achieving GBI and MS1525:2007 recommendation of minimum 300 lux based on simulation. Estimated daily energy required, E = 351 Watt X 8 hour = 2,808 Watt hour. = 2.8 kWh x 33.54 cent/kWh = USD 0.29 / day, 8 hours of operation. On environmental savings*, as suggested by Lancashire and Fox (1996) and Ghisi and Tinker (2006): *Saving from the installation per operation day Environmental Benefits 680 gram 1,904 gram Carbon Dioxide (CO2) 5.67 gram 15.88 gram Sulphur Dioxide (SOx) 2.27 gram 6.36 gram Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) Above saving is obtainable by the condition of the system is working well in suitable weather condition. 0 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 - 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0 22/05/201307:59:03 22/05/201308:34:03 22/05/201309:09:03 22/05/201309:44:03 22/05/201310:19:03 22/05/201310:54:03 22/05/201311:29:03 22/05/201312:04:03 22/05/201312:39:03 22/05/201313:14:03 22/05/201313:49:03 22/05/201314:24:03 22/05/201314:59:03 22/05/201315:34:03 22/05/201316:09:03 22/05/201316:44:03 22/05/201317:19:03 22/05/201317:54:03 Solar Radiation Outside Inside 0 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 - 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0 6/7/20137:58:16:00 07/06/1308:33AM 07/06/1309:07AM 07/06/1309:42AM 07/06/1310:17AM 07/06/1310:52AM 07/06/1311:27AM 07/06/1312:02PM 07/06/1312:37PM 07/06/1301:12PM 07/06/1301:47PM 07/06/1302:22PM 07/06/1302:57PM 07/06/1303:31PM 07/06/1304:06PM 07/06/1304:41PM 07/06/1305:16PM 07/06/1305:51PM Solar Radiation Outside Inside 26.0 27.0 28.0 29.0 30.0 31.0 32.0 33.0 34.0 35.0 36.0 1stDay8:00:00AM 8:55 9:50 10:45 11:40 12:35 13:30 14:25 15:20 16:15 17:10 2ndDay8:00:00AM 8:55 9:50 10:45 11:40 12:35 13:30 14:25 15:20 16:15 17:10 3rdDay8:00:00AM 8:55 9:50 10:45 11:40 12:35 13:30 14:25 15:20 16:15 17:10 Diffuser temperature system on (22nd May, 28th May and 1st June) Diffuser temperature system off (5th June, 6th June and 8th June 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 1stDay8:00:00AM 8:55 9:50 10:45 11:40 12:35 13:30 14:25 15:20 16:15 17:10 2ndDay8:00:00AM 8:55 9:50 10:45 11:40 12:35 13:30 14:25 15:20 16:15 17:10 3rdDay8:00:00AM 8:55 9:50 10:45 11:40 12:35 13:30 14:25 15:20 16:15 17:10 Indoor temp system on (22nd May, 28th May and 1st June) Indoor temp system off (5th June, 6th June and 8th June)
  5. 5. SCHOOL OF HOUSING, BUILDING AND PLANNING, UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA PULAU PINANG, MALAYSIA. ͟͢͠͞ Voce Viva 4th March 2014/ Page 5 18. Summary This research was outlined about the potential of fibre optic daylighting for interior illumination in tropical climate. To conclude the potential and restriction of the system, sequencing experiments were conducted started with the literature survey and designing the empirical data collection method to satisfy the research objectives and research questions. Based on results of analysis that explained earlier, it is trusted that the experiments conducted in field study achieving the comprehension in understanding the potential of fibre optic daylighting for interior illumination in tropical climate. 19. Recommendation on Future Works a) Full scale empirical studies on parabolic receiver/solar concentrator type in determining the efficiency and potential. b) Future works/studies related to enhancement of solar concentrator devices with pointolite generated from low power but high intensity artificial lights. c) In conducting research for item (ii) above, a green energy of light source such as solar panel with battery is compulsory to be chosen. d) Exploring the potential of “side emitting” fibre optic daylighting instead of “end emitting” approach which explored in this research. e) Development of hybrid solar powered LED lighting with fibre optic daylighting in one system approach for interior illumination. f) Development of comprehensive daylighting strategies using fibre optic cable and automatic roof skylight powered with a green energy. Eventually, it is humbly admitted here that the whole research was conducted with high consciousness in achieving most prominent quality in research with reputable methodology and data collections approach. Reference made around the globe especially related to main standard in lighting and interior illumination in determining human comfort with related to the lighting. It is believed that overall research and thesis outlined is prepared to justify the importance on understanding the potential of fibre optic daylighting for interior illumination in tropical climate. This thesis also the first in explicating the overall potential of fibre optic daylighting strategy under remote- source-daylighting research area that synthesizing actual imperical data collected and analyzed in real tropical climate condition. 20. References United States Energy Information Administration. How Much Electricity is Used for Lighting in the United States? {Online}, {Accessed 20th August 2013}. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.eia.gov/tools/faqs/faq.cfm?id=99&t=3 Yudelson, A. (2011). Report on building and construction authority zero energy building. Braddell Road Campus, Singapore. Institute of Energy Economics Japan (2011), Electrical Saving Potential of LED Lighting {Online}, {Accessed 21th August 2013}. Available from World Wide Web: http://eneken.ieej.or.jp/data/3893.pdf Griffiths, M. (2010), Lighting Technology. Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology (POST), London: No.351. Saidur, R. (2009). Energy Consumption, Energy Savings and Emission Analysis in Malaysian Office Buildings. Energy Policy 2009; 37(10):4104-13. Waide, P. (2006). Why we’re here: The potential to lower global lighting energy consumption. IEA Energy Efficiency and Environment Division, France. {Online}, {Accessed 21th August 2013}. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.energieeffizienz.ch/files/3_Paul_Waide_IEA. pdf MS-Malaysian Standard (2007). MS1525:2007 Code of practice on energy efficiency and use of renewable energy for non-residential buildings (first revision). Department of Standard Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. Green Building Index {Online}, {Accessed 26th July 2012}. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.greenbuildingindex.org/ Hayman, S. (1990). Fibre-Optic Photocells for Daylighting Model Studies. Building and Environment. 25(4):333- 337. Grise, W. and Patrick, C. (2002). Passive Solar Lighting Using Fiber Optics. Journal of Industrial Technology. 19(1):2- 7. Kandilli, C. and Ulgen, K. (2007). Review and modeling the systems of transmission concentrated solar energy via optical cable. Science Direct Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 13. pp67-84. Sansoni, P., Fontani, D., Francini, F., Mercatelli, L., Jafrancesco, D., Sani, E. and Ferruzzi, D., (2008). Internal lighting by solar collectors and optical fibres. www.intechopen.com. Han, H. and Kim, J.T. (2009). Application of High-Density Daylight For Indoor Illumination. Energy. 35(6):2654- 2666. Christopher, G.W. (2009). Design and Application of Fibre Optic Daylighting Systems. Masters Thesis, Kansas State University. Chen, W., Hamzah, A.R. and Rao, S.P. (2010). Daylighting Can Be Fluorescent: Development of A Fiber Solar Concentrator and Test For Its Indoor Illumination. Energy and Buildings. 42(5): 717-727.
  6. 6. SCHOOL OF HOUSING, BUILDING AND PLANNING, UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA PULAU PINANG, MALAYSIA. ͟͢͠͞ Voce Viva 4th March 2014/ Page 6 Hamzah, A.R. and Chen, W. (2010a). Limitations In Current Day Lighting Related Solar Concentration Devices: A Critical Review. International Journal of the Physical Sciences. 5(18):2730-2756. Patrick, C., Hafed, N., Abdul, A. and Monica, H. (2011). Improving passive solar collector for fiber optic lighting. Proceedings of The IEEE Electrical Power and Energy Conference. Irfan, U. and Seoyong, S. (2012). Development of Optical Fiber- Based Daylighting System With Uniform Illumination. Journal of The Optical Society of Korea. 16(3):247-255. Wong, I. and Yang, H.X. (2012). Introducing Natural Lighting Into The Enclosed Lift Lobbies of Highrise Buildings By Remote Source Lighting System. Applied Energy. 90:225-232. Seung, J.O., Wongee, C., Saffa, R., Young, J., Spencer, D., Hyun, J.H. (2013). Computational Analysis on the Enhancement of Daylight Penetration Into Dimly Lit Spaces: Light Tube vs. Fiber Optic Dish Concentrator. Building and Environment. 59:261-274. Sapia, C. (2013). Daylighting In Buildings: Developments of Sunlight Addressing By Optical Fiber. Solar Energy. 89:113-121. Petersen, J.F., Trapasso, L.M. and Sack, D. (2009). Physical geography. Cengage Learning. World Maps of Koppen-Geiger Climate Classification: Institute for Veterinary Public Health Austria {Online}, {Accessed 4th August 2013}. Available from World Wide Web: http://koeppen-geiger.vu-wien.ac.at/ Stiles, M., McCluney, R. and Kinney, L. (1999). Solar lighting-a new industry. Florida Solar Energy Centre, University of Central Florida, Florida, USA. Andre, E. and Schade, J. (2002). Daylighting By Optical Fiber. Master Thesis. Lulea University of Technology. Grise, W. and Patrick, C. (2002). Passive Solar Lighting Using Fiber Optics. Journal of Industrial Technology. 19(1):2- 7. Hansen, V. and Edmonds, I. (2003). Natural Illumination of Deep Plan Office Buildings: Light Pipe Strategies. ISES Solar World Congress 2003, Goteborg, Sweden. Ghisi, E. and Tinker, J.A. (2006). Evaluating The Potential For Energy Savings On Lighting By Integrating Fibre Optics In Building. Building and Environment. 41:1611-1621. Kandilli, C. and Ulgen, K. (2007). Review and modeling the systems of transmission concentrated solar energy via optical cable. Science Direct Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 13. pp67-84 Hammam, M., El-Mansy, M.K., El-Bashir, S.M. and El- Shaarawy, M.G. (2007). Performance Evaluation of Thin-Film Solar Concentrators for Greenhouse Applications. Desalination. 209: 244-250. Jeong, T.K., Hyunjoo, H., Hwa, Y.S., In Hye, Y., Seung, H.B., Hyo, J.K., Hyun, T.A. and Gon, K. (2009). Healthy sunlighting system in Korea: Development and efficiency. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference On Sustainable Healthy Buildings. pp7-34. Ono, E. and Cuello, J.L. (2004). Design Parameters of Solar Concentrating System For Co2-Mitigating Algae Photobioreactors. Energy. 29:1651-1657. Cariou, J.M., Dugas, J. and Martin, L. (1982). Transport of Solar Energy with Optical Fibers. Solar Energy. 29(5):397-406. Jaramillo, O.A., Arriaga, L.G., Sebastian, P.J., Fernandez, A.M. and Del Rio J.A. (1998). Application of Fibre Optics In The Hydrogen Production By Petroelectrolysis. International Journal Hydrogen Energy. 23:985-993 Jaramillo, O.A., Del Rio, J.A. and Heulsz, G. (1999). A Thermal Study About Optical Fibres Transmitting Concentrated Solar Energy. J Phys D. 32:1000-1005. Ciamberlini, C., Francini, F., Longorbardi, G., Piattelli, M. and Sansoni, P. (2003). Solar System For Exploitation of The Whole Collected Energy. Opt Laser Eng. 39:223- 246. Couture, P., Nabbus, H., Al-Azzawi, A. and Havelock, M. (2011). Improving passive solar collector for fiber optic lighting. Proceedings of The IEEE Electrical Power and Energy Conference. pp.68-73. A. Zain, A., Sopian, K., Zainol Abidin, Z. and Othman, M.Y.H. (2002a). The Availability of Daylight From Tropical Skies: A Case Study of Malaysia. Renewable Energy. 25(13):21-30. Hien, V.D. and Chirarattananon, S. (2007). Daylighting Through Light Pipe For Deep Interior Space of Buildings With Consideration of Heat Gain. Asian Journal on Energy and Environment. 8(1):461-475. Mazran, I. (2010). The Potential of Hybrid Turbine Ventilator To Improve Indoor Climatic Conditions In Hot-Humid Environment. PhD. Thesis, Universiti Sains Malaysia. Tsoutsos, T. Frantzeskaki, N. and Gekas, V. (2005). Environmental Impacts From The Solar Energy Technologies. Energy Policy. 33:289-296. Ghisi, E. and Tinker, J.A. (2006). Evaluating The Potential For Energy Savings On Lighting By Integrating Fibre Optics In Building. Building and Environment. 41:1611-1621. Lancashire, D.S. and Fox, A.E. (1996). Lighting: the way to building efficiency. Consulting Specifying Engineer. pp34-36.
  7. 7. SCHOOL OF HOUSING, BUILDING AND PLANNING, UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA PULAU PINANG, MALAYSIA. ͟͢͠͞ Voce Viva 4th March 2014/ Page 7 21. APPENDIX Publication List: Journals The following are papers were submitted as a direct result of this research. 1) Muhammad Arkam, C.M., Karam, M.O., Ismail, M.R. and Abdul Malek, A.R. (2013). The Potential of Fiber Optic Daylighting System In Tropical Malaysia. Indoor and Built Environment. Corrected, awaiting AE’s Recommendation (Submitted 29th August 2013) 2) Muhammad Arkam, C.M., Karam, M.O., Ismail, M.R. and Abdul Malek, A.R. (2013). An Empirical Study of Heat Gain Impact In Tropical Building Interiors from Fiber Optic Daylighting System. Energy Efficiency. Under review (Submitted 18th September 2013) 3) Muhammad Arkam, C.M., Karam, M.O., Ismail, M.R. and Abdul Malek, A.R. (2014). A Review Study on the Application of the Fiber Optic Daylighting System in Malaysian Buildings. Journal of Sustainable Building Technology & Urban Development. Under review (Submitted 13th Jan 2014) Exhibitions 1) Muhammad Arkam Che Munaaim (2012). The Potential of Light Transmission Using Fibre Optic Cable For Interior Illumination In Malaysia. In: Ekspo Rekacipta dan Pameran Penyelidikan UniMAP 2012. 20th Disember 2012. Dewan Pauh Putra UniMAP, Perlis. 2) Muhammad Arkam Che Munaaim and Norazlina Ismail (2012). The Potential of Light Transmission Using Fibre Optic Cable For Interior Illumination In Malaysia. International Engineering Invention and Innovation Exhibition (i-ENVEX) and Malaysian International Young Inventors Olympiad (MIYIO) 2012. 26th -29th April 2012. 2020 Hall, Kangar, Perlis. 3) Muhammad Arkam Che Munaaim and Norazlina Ismail (2012). The Potential of Light Transmission Using Fibre Optic Cable For Interior Illumination In Malaysia. In: Ekspo Rekacipta dan Pameran Penyelidikan UniMAP 2011. Awarded of Bronze Prize. 11th Januari 2011. Dewan Pauh Putra, Perlis. 4) Muhammad Arkam Che Munaaim and Norain Ali (2012). Light Transmission Using Light Tube For Interior Illumination In Malaysia. In: Ekspo Rekacipta dan Pameran Penyelidikan UniMAP 2011. 11th Januari 2011. Dewan Pauh Putra, Perlis. Presentations 1) Muhammad Arkam Che Munaaim (2013). Presentation for The Institute of Engineers and Technology’s (United Kingdom) in CEng Professional Review, University of Manchester, United Kingdom, 29th November 2013. 2) Muhammad Arkam Che Munaaim (2014), in Research Seminar Series, Faculty of Natural and Built Environment, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield United Kingdom, 12th February 2014. Technical Visit to USM Research Facility Below arrangements to visit was conducted during installation and data collection. 1) Ir. Ahmad Izdihar, PEng, GBIF. Visit to site on behalf of GBI Malaysia and Exergy Malaysia Sdn Bhd for Proposed Prime Minister’s Office Platinum GBI Certification Potential (Innovation) on 29th August 2013. 2) Ir. Amran Mahzan, KFM Project Sdn Bhd on behalf of PMC, PMO’s GBI Platinum Certification Potential (Innovation) on 29th August 2013. 3) Cypark Berhad (En Shahrul Azad), Technical Visit for explore Solar Lighting Equipment‘s potential, 20th May 2013. 4) Mega Jati Consult Sdn Bhd (En Mohd Hilmi Ir. Abd Mokhti), Technical Visit for explore Solar Lighting Equipment‘s potential, 20th May 2013. 5) Application to Visits: Green Technology Ltd, Hong Kong (June 2013) for Fibre Optic Daylighting Strategy via email. Postponed due to unpublished results. 6) Application to Visits: Sri Lanka’s Green Energy Consultant (April 2013) for Fibre Optic Daylighting Mock Up via email. Postponed due to unpublished results. 7) Application to Visits: Singapore’s Green Mark Consultant (April 2013) for Fibre Optic Daylighting System via email. Postponed due to unpublished results. Postponed due to unpublished results.

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