Field Compaction

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Field Compaction

  1. 1. RET 565 BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES AND INFRASTRUCTURES FIELD COMPACTION Prepared By: Muhammad Arkam Bin Che Munaaim SRM0069/08, 771224-07-5147 www.arkamonline.com
  2. 2. COMPACTION-DEFINITION Soil: The part of the earth's surface consisting of humus and disintegrated rock, Material in the top layer of the surface of the earth in which plants can grow (especially with reference to its quality or use) Compaction: An increase in the density of something.
  3. 3. COMPACTION-DEFINITION Thus, SOIL COMPACTION is the process to increase the soil (ground) density in order to make use the ground surface for development, ie, building, road, etc. The volume of void space is reduced by applying high loads over a small area to force the air out of an unsaturated soil mass.
  4. 4. COMPACTION-DEFINITION In other words, soil compaction is defined as the method of mechanically increasing the density of soil. In construction, this is a significant part of the building process. If performed improperly, settlement of the soil could occur and result in unnecessary maintenance costs or structure failure. Almost all types of building sites and construction projects utilize mechanical compaction techniques.
  5. 5. COMPACTION-WHY COMPACT? There are five principle reasons to compact soil: - Increases load-bearing capacity - Prevents soil settlement and frost damage - Provides stability - Reduces water seepage, swelling and contraction - Reduces settling of soil COMPACTION-TYPES OF COMPACTION There are four types of compaction effort on soil or asphalt: -Vibration (Vibratory Force Compaction) -Impact (Vibratory Force Compaction) -Kneading (Static Compaction) -Pressure (Static Compaction)
  6. 6. COMPACTION- RISK
  7. 7. COMPACTION-SIGNIFICANT To construct ROAD, highway, expressway, runway, railway, plantations, etc.
  8. 8. COMPACTION-SIGNIFICANT Building constructions, drainage, embankment, external services, etc.
  9. 9. COMPACTION-SOIL TYPES Sand, silt, and clay are the basic types of soil. Most soils are made up of a combination of the three. The texture of the soil, how it looks and feels, depends upon the amount of each one in that particular soil. The type of soil varies from place to place on our planet and can even vary from one place to another in our own backyard.
  10. 10. COMPACTION-SOIL TYPES
  11. 11. COMPACTION-SOIL TYPES
  12. 12. COMPACTION-SOIL TYPES Every soil type behaves differently with respect to maximum density and optimum moisture. Soil types are commonly classified by grain size, determined by passing the soil through a series of sieves to screen or separate the different grain sizes. Soils found in nature are almost always a combination of soil types. A well-graded soil consists of a wide range of particle sizes with the smaller particles filling voids between larger particles. The are three basic soil groups: Cohesive Granular Organic
  13. 13. COMPACTION-SOIL TYPES Cohesive soils Cohesive soils have the smallest particles. Clay has a particle size range of .00004quot; to .002quot;. Silt ranges from .0002quot; to .003quot;. Clay is used in embankment fills and retaining pond beds. Characteristics Cohesive soils are dense and tightly bound together by molecular attraction. They are plastic when wet and can be molded, but become very hard when dry. Proper water content, evenly distributed, is critical for proper compaction. Cohesive soils usually require a force such as impact or pressure. Silt has a noticeably lower cohesion than clay. However, silt is still heavily reliant on water content.
  14. 14. COMPACTION-SOIL TYPES Granular soils Granular soils range in particle size from .003quot; to .08quot; (sand) and .08quot; to 1.0quot; (fine to medium gravel). Granular soils are known for their water-draining properties. Characteristics Sand and gravel obtain maximum density in either a fully dry or saturated state. Testing curves are relatively flat so density can be obtained regardless of water content.
  15. 15. COMPACTION-SOIL TYPES
  16. 16. COMPACTION-SOIL TYPES THE BEST PROPERTY FOR SOIL COMPACTION
  17. 17. COMPACTION-METHOD BASIC PRINCIPLES: Preliminaries Site Clearing & Demolition Works Stripping Of Topsoil Soil Sampling Trial Embankment Excavation Of Cut/Fill Area Filling/Backfilling Materials Replacement Of Unsuitable Materials Backfilling To Unsuitable Area Embankment Filling Rock Blasting Rock Filled Embankment Sub Grade
  18. 18. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF FIELD COMPACTION METHOD- Preliminaries Site Clearing & Demolition Works ROAD ONLY Stripping Of Topsoil Soil Sampling Trial Embankment Excavation Of Cut/Fill Area Filling/Backfilling Materials 1) Survey: Existing ground level, setting Replacement Of Unsuitable Materials Backfilling To Unsuitable Area out of centre lines and road reserved, cut Embankment Filling and fill area, invert level and direction of Rock Blasting water path. Rock Filled Embankment Sub Grade 2) Submission of any approvals required. Temporary road diversion if required. Submit localized environmental mitigation 5) Where crossing of measures. watercourses, install temporary 3) Routes of transportation, temporary steel pipe to divert water flow. access, modes of transport, frequency and 6) Use machinery fitted with mode of filling identified. silencer to reduce noise level if 4) Provide adequate plant and equipment necessary. to carry out all activities.
  19. 19. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF FIELD COMPACTION METHOD- Preliminaries Site Clearing & Demolition Works ROAD ONLY Stripping Of Topsoil Soil Sampling Trial Embankment Excavation Of Cut/Fill Area Filling/Backfilling Materials 1) Setting out of contract limit, ROW and Replacement Of Unsuitable Materials Backfilling To Unsuitable Area centre line carried out by licensed surveyor. Embankment Filling 2) Approval from local authorities on Rock Blasting Rock Filled Embankment machineries to be used. Sub Grade 3) Determine status of land acquisition 5) Secure, establish and make a and confirmed. proper temporary access. 4) Liaise with local authorities and give 6) Provide sufficient temporary notice to vacate buildings on TOL land prior earth drain where necessary to to commence activity. avoid water ponding. 5) Public services and utilities identified 7) Confine the demolition within and protected where necessary. site, control dust and noise 6) Determine the status of termination of pollution arising from the work connection and temporary activity.
  20. 20. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF FIELD COMPACTION METHOD- Preliminaries Site Clearing & Demolition Works ROAD ONLY Stripping Of Topsoil Soil Sampling Trial Embankment Excavation Of Cut/Fill Area Filling/Backfilling Materials 1) Identify topsoil's stockpile area outside Replacement Of Unsuitable Materials Backfilling To Unsuitable Area the road reserve within ROW. Embankment Filling 2) Maintain public access and provide Rock Blasting Rock Filled Embankment alternative route where/ when necessary. Sub Grade 3) Use suitable machinery to remove an average depth of at least 100mm below existing ground level. 5) Control activities to within 4) Liaise with local authorities and give the areas (zoning and notice to vacate buildings on TOL land prior scheduling) to avoid unnecessary to commence activity. prolonged exposure, to decrease siltation in water courses and/ or dust in dry condition.
  21. 21. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF FIELD COMPACTION METHOD- Preliminaries Site Clearing & Demolition Works ROAD ONLY Stripping Of Topsoil Soil Sampling Trial Embankment Excavation Of Cut/Fill Area Filling/Backfilling Materials 1) Samples of suitable imported backfill Replacement Of Unsuitable Materials Backfilling To Unsuitable Area material shall be subjected to the following Embankment Filling tests ; Rock Blasting Rock Filled Embankment i) Atterberg's Limit for Plastic Limit, Sub Grade Liquid Limit and Plastic Index. ii) B.S. Heavy Compaction Test to obtain the Proctor Value for maximum dry density and optimum moisture content. iii) CBR Value to determine the bearing capacity in top sub grade layer. iv) Sieve Analysis to determine soil classification.
  22. 22. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF FIELD COMPACTION METHOD- Preliminaries Site Clearing & Demolition Works ROAD ONLY Stripping Of Topsoil Soil Sampling Trial Embankment Excavation Of Cut/Fill Area Filling/Backfilling Materials 1) The purpose of trial embankment fill is Replacement Of Unsuitable Materials Backfilling To Unsuitable Area to confirm the degree of compaction Embankment Filling required in relation to loose depth and Rock Blasting compaction equipment for various types Rock Filled Embankment of soil and machinery used. Sub Grade 2) The specified machinery will be directed to carry out specified number of passes required on different loose 5) All these datas will be plotted thickness of fill material followed by In and analyzed for the relationship Situ Field Density Test. between loose depth thickness 3) Test Result will be recorded and the and number of passes required test repeated for a different type of on different machinery used. compaction equipment and imported materials.
  23. 23. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF FIELD COMPACTION METHOD- Preliminaries Site Clearing & Demolition Works ROAD ONLY Stripping Of Topsoil Soil Sampling Trial Embankment Excavation Of Cut/Fill Area Filling/Backfilling Materials Replacement Of Unsuitable Materials Backfilling To Unsuitable Area Embankment Filling 1) Slopes, levels, and other control pegs Rock Blasting are available at cut areas to obtain the Rock Filled Embankment required design profile. Sub Grade 2) Confirm acceptance of material for embankment filling and/or backfilling materials.
  24. 24. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF FIELD COMPACTION METHOD- Preliminaries Site Clearing & Demolition Works ROAD ONLY Stripping Of Topsoil Soil Sampling Trial Embankment Excavation Of Cut/Fill Area Filling/Backfilling Materials Replacement Of Unsuitable Materials Backfilling To Unsuitable Area 1) Determine range of moisture content Embankment Filling to achieve the degree of compaction. Rock Blasting Rock Filled Embankment 2) Wet materials shall be spread and left Sub Grade to dry. If the materials found too dry, mix with water mechanically at spreading areas. 3) Obtain approval before using hard materials, rocks or boulders and discard all materials deemed unsuitable.
  25. 25. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF FIELD COMPACTION METHOD- Preliminaries Site Clearing & Demolition Works ROAD ONLY Stripping Of Topsoil Soil Sampling Trial Embankment Excavation Of Cut/Fill Area Filling/Backfilling Materials 1) Carry out soil investigation by using Replacement Of Unsuitable Materials Backfilling To Unsuitable Area Mackintosh Probe to the required depth/ Embankment Filling penetration per blow. Rock Blasting Rock Filled Embankment 2) Carry out setting out and joint survey Sub Grade to demarcate limits and depth of unsuitable material. 5) In presence of access pore 3) Carry out trial pits to determine soil water pressure, dewatering classification using Alterberg 's limit or continuously and provide proper by cone penetrometer test to confirm drainage to prevent ingress of the recommended depth below the surface water runoff. original ground level and method of 6) Excavate the unsuitable backfill used. material to the extent of required depth and profiles.
  26. 26. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF FIELD COMPACTION METHOD- Preliminaries Site Clearing & Demolition Works ROAD ONLY Stripping Of Topsoil Soil Sampling Trial Embankment Excavation Of Cut/Fill Area Filling/Backfilling Materials 1) Upon completion of joint measurement Replacement Of Unsuitable Materials Backfilling To Unsuitable Area for the excavation area, carry out Embankment Filling backfilling with granular material (sand). Rock Blasting Rock Filled Embankment 2) Sewn geotextile will be laid flat on the Sub Grade intended work area (if required). 3) If found that ground water level develop above the 500mm sand thickness. Further sand fill to attain 5) When backfilling at the edge 300mm clearance above standing water. of ground having slope, cut the 4) Where ground water level is high, it slope edge into benches to would be expected that seepage would approximately the same as the effect the first layer of earth filling. Place fill level to obtain uniform a slightly thicker first layer of sand fill. compaction over the fill area.
  27. 27. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF FIELD COMPACTION METHOD- Preliminaries Site Clearing & Demolition Works ROAD ONLY Stripping Of Topsoil Soil Sampling Trial Embankment Excavation Of Cut/Fill Area Filling/Backfilling Materials 1) Surface preparation to receive layer Replacement Of Unsuitable Materials Backfilling To Unsuitable Area of fill. Area to be filled cleared from Embankment Filling (1) existing structures and services. Rock Blasting Rock Filled Embankment 2) Control deposition of earth fill, Sub Grade spread, levelled and compacted in layers less than 300mm loose depth using 5) Secure a team for Field suitable plants and equipments. Density Test to determine the degree of compaction at any time. 3) Form embankment with suitable cross Field Density Test shall be done fall to avoid water ponding. While if the using Sand Replacement Method (in surface is too dry, provide water tanker accordance with BS1377: Part 2) or to control the moisture. by Core Cutter Method. If the 4) Loose fill levels are controlled by density is below the requirements, flagged top levels of fill to ensure further compaction will be carried compacted fill thickness is achieved out.
  28. 28. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF FIELD COMPACTION METHOD- Preliminaries Site Clearing & Demolition Works ROAD ONLY Stripping Of Topsoil Soil Sampling Trial Embankment Excavation Of Cut/Fill Area Filling/Backfilling Materials If the moisture content is high, fill materials Replacement Of Unsuitable Materials Backfilling To Unsuitable Area will be scarified, dried and compacted for Embankment Filling (2) retesting. Rock Blasting If FDT passed - proceed to the next layer. Rock Filled Embankment Sub Grade If FDT failed - proceed with ratification and retest. 5) Maintain existing and new 6) In presence of water ponding, remove and drainage to ensure surface water run-off scarify the top 100mm and blend it with the in proper discharge. new embankment fill, compact and continue with normal backfilling. 6) When backfilling at edge of embankment, each compacted layer to 7) If backfilling on slope against existing be extended by 600mm and trim back to embankment or on ground with existing the required slope angle. slope, excavate the foundation in horizontal and vertical to form contiguous width in benches and use the excavated material as fill material for embankment.
  29. 29. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF FIELD COMPACTION METHOD- Preliminaries Site Clearing & Demolition Works ROAD ONLY Stripping Of Topsoil Soil Sampling Trial Embankment Excavation Of Cut/Fill Area Filling/Backfilling Materials 1) Carry out joint survey with consultant Replacement Of Unsuitable Materials Backfilling To Unsuitable Area to determine the extent of rock Embankment Filling formation. Rock Blasting Rock Filled Embankment 2) Request permission from relevant Sub Grade authorities including the police to monitor the blasting works. 3) Carry out the blasting work to the required formation level. 4) Carry out joint survey to calculate the quantities of blasted rock.
  30. 30. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF FIELD COMPACTION METHOD- Preliminaries Site Clearing & Demolition Works ROAD ONLY Stripping Of Topsoil Soil Sampling Trial Embankment Excavation Of Cut/Fill Area 1) Rock shall be defined as a material that Filling/Backfilling Materials cannot be ripped by a drawnripper having Replacement Of Unsuitable Materials weight of 20 tonnes with a nett horse power Backfilling To Unsuitable Area not less than 200 brake. Embankment Filling Rock Blasting 2) Rock fill embankment shall not more than Rock Filled Embankment 400mm so that it can be deposited in Sub Grade horizontal layers, each not exceeding 500mm in compacted depth and extending over the full width of the embankment. 5) Place uniformly graded material ( 6mm - 150mm ) at least 300mm 3) Spread, level and compact using crawler thick between the top 300mm of sub tractor weighing not less than 15 tonnes. grade and the rock fill. 4) Fill void using fine graded material and 6) Fill any void with blinded and through blind uniformly before proceed to the regulate the rock surface to next layer. formation levels
  31. 31. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF FIELD COMPACTION METHOD- Preliminaries Site Clearing & Demolition Works ROAD ONLY Stripping Of Topsoil Soil Sampling Trial Embankment Excavation Of Cut/Fill Area 1) Lay, spread and compact uniformly Filling/Backfilling Materials the top 300mm and carry out FDT 95% Replacement Of Unsuitable Materials Backfilling To Unsuitable Area maximum dry density (for cohesive soil) Embankment Filling or 100% maximum dry density (for Rock Blasting cohesiveness soil) relative to Proctor Rock Filled Embankment Sub Grade Test (4.5 kg rammer) as per BS 1377. 2) If the compaction achieve below the Wearing Course requirement, scarify the surface, leave it Tack Coat to dry recompact and retest. If it is still unpractical, remove the top sub grade Binder Course layer and replace with suitable material Prime Coat and compact to the required density. Sub grade 3) Tolerance for sub grade finish layer Sand Blanding shall be within + 10mm to 30mm of the required gradient and level. Sub base
  32. 32. COMPACTION-MACHINERIES
  33. 33. COMPACTION-MACHINERIES
  34. 34. COMPACTION-MACHINERIES
  35. 35. COMPACTION-MACHINERIES
  36. 36. COMPACTION-MACHINERIES
  37. 37. COMPACTION-MACHINERIES
  38. 38. COMPACTION-MACHINERIES
  39. 39. COMPACTION-MACHINERIES
  40. 40. COMPACTION-MACHINERIES Rammers deliver a high impact force ( high amplitude) making them an excellent choice for cohesive and semi-cohesive soils. Frequency range is 500 to 750 blows per minute. Rammers get compaction force from a small gasoline or diesel engine powering a large piston set with two sets of springs. The rammer is inclined at a forward angle to allow forward travel as the machine jumps. Rammers cover three types of compaction: impact, vibration and kneading.
  41. 41. COMPACTION-MACHINERIES Vibratory plates are low amplitude and high frequency, designed to compact granular soils and asphalt. Gasoline or diesel engines drive one or two eccentric weights at a high speed to develop compaction force. The resulting vibrations cause forward motion. The engine and handle are vibration-isolated from the vibrating plate. The heavier the plate, the more compaction force it generates. Frequency range is usually 2500 vpm to 6000 vpm. Plates used for asphalt have a water tank and sprinkler system to prevent asphalt from sticking to the bottom of the base plate. Vibration is the one principal compaction effect.
  42. 42. COMPACTION-MACHINERIES Reversible Vibratory Plates In addition to some of the standard vibratory plate features, reversible plates have two eccentric weights that allow smooth transition for forward or reverse travel, plus increased compaction force as the result of dual weights. Due to their weight and force, reversible plates are ideal for semi-cohesive soils. A reversible is possible the best compaction buy dollar for dollar. Unlike standard plates, the reversible forward travel may be stopped and the machine will maintain its force for quot;spotquot; compaction.
  43. 43. COMPACTION-MACHINERIES Rollers Rollers are available in several categories: walk-behind and ride-on, which are available as smooth drum, padded drum, and rubber-tired models; and are further divided into static and vibratory sub-categories.
  44. 44. COMPACTION-MACHINERIES Rollers Rollers are available in several categories: walk-behind and ride-on, which are available as smooth drum, padded drum, and rubber-tired models; and are further divided into static and vibratory sub-categories.
  45. 45. COMPACTION-MACHINERIES
  46. 46. COMPACTION-MACHINERIES
  47. 47. COMPACTION & CLIMATE Although compaction may not change the water content of a soil, the maximum density obtainable does depend on the amount of water present in the soil mass. Because the individual particles in a course grained soil are chemically inert, there is a little interaction between the solid and liquid fraction of a soil mass. The effects of water in the deposit is largely through the formation of capillary tensions, with result in the particles being tightly bound in a matrix that resist rearrangement. As a degree of saturation increases, the capillary forces are destroyed and compaction energy becomes more effective in densifying the soil. For most cases, the optimum water content yielding the greatest density of the solid fraction (dry density) can be identified. At water content at both below and above the optimum, the same compaction effort in result lower soil density.
  48. 48. COMPACTION & CLIMATE Source: Encyclopedia of Soil Science, R.Lal, William E Wolfe, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA, 2006
  49. 49. COMPACTION & CLIMATE Example of Test Results:
  50. 50. COMPACTION & CLIMATE Example of Test Results: OPTIMUM MOISTURE CONTENT
  51. 51. COMPACTION & CLIMATE
  52. 52. COMPACTION & CLIMATE Since the Moisture Content, W is much depending on the weight of water, Wd, it is obvious that the climate condition will effect the quality of compaction in any area of compaction. It is important to know the Optimum Moisture Content for the soil so that the energy used for saturation process is also at optimum and resulting in the quality of compaction works. There will be some amount of moisture needed in compaction process, the compaction is not recommended to be done either in a too dry or too wet condition to achieve the good and quality compacting results.
  53. 53. COMPACTION & CLIMATE The response of soil to moisture is very important, as the soil must carry the load year-round. Rain, for example, may transform soil into a plastic state or even into a liquid. In this state, soil has very little or no load-bearing ability.
  54. 54. COMPACTION: CONCLUSION Soil Compaction is very critical for any development. Failure to make sure the effectiveness of an entire process may cause disaster in future. Generally there are 13 steps on doing compaction based on Malaysia’s methods and technologies. These steps must be carried out professionally according to the highest specifications and international standards that available without compromise. Developers, consultants, local authorities and the contractor must aware the bad consequences that probably happen if neglecting any aspect in the process and should be responsible to the scope of works that delegated to them by the users. Hopefully this short presentation will benefits to the viewers in understanding the basic principles in Soil Compaction theory that can be useful in their career. THANK YOU… Muhammad Arkam B Che Munaaim 30 March 2009, USM, PENANG.

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