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Arkam ViVa

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Arkam ViVa

  1. 1. THE POTENTIAL OF FIBRE OPTIC DAYLIGHTING FOR INTERIOR ILLUMINATION IN TROPICAL CLIMATE Candidate: Muhammad Arkam Bin Che Munaaim Supervisors: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd. Rodzi Bin Ismail Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ar. Abdul Malek Bin Abdul Rahman School of Housing, Building & Planning Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia 4th March 2014 1
  2. 2. PRESENTATION CONTENT 1. Introduction 2. Problem Statement 3. Research Questions 4. Research Objectives 5. Literature Review 6. Research Methodology 7. Results and Analysis 8. Significant of Research 9. Limitation of Research 10. Conclusion 2
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION
  4. 4. PROBLEM STATEMENTS Maximum Demand (MD) of electricity in Peninsular Malaysia increasing from 14,245 MW in 2009, 15,072 MW in 2010 and 15,476 MW in 2011 with the limited generation capacity cropped at 21,817 MW. On average, an increment of more than 2% is recorded annually to balance the increasing of electric energy demand from all sectors throughout Malaysia. (Energy Commission, 2011) Lighting consumption from total building energy usage is ranging between 13% - 43% (USEIA, 2011; Yudelson, 2011; IIEJ, 2011; Griffiths, 2010; Saidur, 2009; Waide, 2006; Chen, 2010, Crisp et al., 1988; Lam and Chan, 1995; Ramatha, 1994) Artificial lighting is second major sources of electrical energy costs in office buildings (Energy Commission, 2011). 4
  5. 5. RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1) What is the minimum, maximum and average lux level can be obtained from a fibre optic daylighting system? 2) What is the potential of fibre optic daylighting system for tropical climate? 3) Will the fibre optic daylighting system significantly effect on internal building relative humidity level? 4) Is there any heat introduced to inside the building by the fibre optic daylighting system? 5) How many savings in terms of electrical energy and environmental benefits contributed by fibre optic daylighting system? 5
  6. 6. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES In order to assess the optimum approach for fibre optic daylighting strategy, below specific objectives were outlined: 1)To examine the illumination level obtained by fibre optic daylighting system in full scale experiment for various tropical climate conditions related to solar radiation. 2)To investigate the effects of fibre optic daylighting system in building for relative humidity and heat parameters. 3)To evaluate the potential of saving on electricity energy and CO2 resulting from fibre optic daylighting system in tropical climate. 6
  7. 7. LITERATURE REVIEW 7 Research Field Of Studies Hayman (1990), GB Fibre optic photocells using model for daylighting. Grise and Patrick (2002), USA Potential of solar lighting by using fibre optic cable with consideration of the basic principle and method of light concentration. Kandili and Ulgen (2007), Turkey Modelling system of transmission concentrated solar energy via optical cable. Sansoni et al. (2008), Italy Internal lighting by solar collector and fibre optic. Han and Kim (2009), Korea High density daylight for interior illumination by using fibre optic cable with solar tracking and concentrator. Christopher (2009), USA Design and application of fibre optic daylighting system. Chen et al. (2010), Malaysia Fibre optic and solar concentrator and test for its indoor illumination. Hamzah and Chen (2010a), Malaysia Reviewed on the limitation in current daylighting in solar concentrated devices with solar tube and fibre optic cable. Patrick et al. (2011), Canada Improving passive solar concentrator for fibre optic lighting. Irfan and Seoyong (2012), Korea Fibre optic-based daylighting system with uniform illumination based on heat problem. Wong and Yang (2012), Hong Kong Remote sources lighting system to illuminate enclosed lift lobbies using fibre optic cables. Research Field Of Studies Research MethodH C T D Hayman (1990), GB. Modeling/ Simulation Grise and Patrick (2002), USA Simulation Kandilli and Ulgen (2007), Turkey Mathe matical Modeling Sansoni et al. (2008). Italy Computer Simulation Han and Kim (2009), Korea Empirical Chen et al. (2010), Malaysia Modeling/ Mathe matical Hamzah and Chen (2010b), Malaysia Literatures Patrick et al. (2011), Canada Modeling/ Empirical Irfan and Seoyong (2012), Korea Modeling/ Simulation Seung et al. (2013), Korea Modeling/ Empirical Sapia (2013), Italy Computer Simulation
  8. 8. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 8 The FOC Daylighting components is based on the recommendation made by Stiles et al. (1998), Andre and Schade (2002), Grise (2002), Hansen and Edmonds (2003), Ghisi and Tinker (2006), Kandilli and Ulgen (2007), Sansoni et al. (2008), Hammam et al. (2007), Jeong et al. (2009), Hamzah et al. (2010), Irfan and Seoyong (2012) and Seung et al. (2013) which comprises: Receiver (Fresnel Lens) Solar receiver with sun tracking system as also selected by Ono and Cuello (2003), Kandilli and Ulgen (2007), Sansoni et al. (2008) and Couture et al. (2011) in their research. Fresnel lens is widely used because it gives the good performance at a low cost (Irfan and Seoyong, 2012). Fibre Optic Cable (Plastic Acrylic) Using 6 x 10m plastic acrylic type of cable for transmit the light from the receiver as it most commonly used in fibre optic lighting in terms of tolerable losses at reasonable cost as also applied by Cariou et al (1982), Jaramillo et al. (1998 and 1999), Ciamberlini et al. (2003) and Ono and Cuello (2003). Diffusers (Plastic Acrylic) is chosen due to 2 materials compatibility that connecting the cables- diffusers. However, very few research in light diffusing system for fibre optic cable daylighting where started in 2003 by Sapia (Italy) and in 2011 by Patrick et al. (Canada).
  9. 9. 9 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
  10. 10. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS 10 Based on the consideration on solar radiation and external lux intensity in data analysis also been conducted by A.Zain et al. (2002a), Irfan and Seoyong (2012) for internal-external lux comparative analysis. Simplified comparative analysis method was implemented by A.Zain et al. (2002a), Hein and Chirarattananon (2007) and and Mazran (2010) for heat analysis. Meanwhile Tsoutsos et al. (2005) who investigated the environmental impact from solar energy followed by Ghisi and Tinker (2006) when outlined the value of saving per kWh as per concluded earlier than that by Lancashire and Fox in 1996.
  11. 11. RESULTS-ILLUMINATION LEVEL 11
  12. 12. RESULTS-HEAT 12 Comparison of average surface temperature for fibre optic light diffuser during system ON and OFF Comparison of average internal temperature during system ON and OFF
  13. 13. RESULTS-HUMIDITY 13 [Left Axis: Relative Humidity, RH (%), Right Axis: Solar Radiation (W/m2 )] (22nd May 2013-ON) [Left Axis: Relative Humidity, RH (%), Right Axis: Solar Radiation (W/m2 )] (7th June 2013-OFF)
  14. 14. RESULTS-Energy and CO2 Saving 14 351 watt is an amount of electrical energy required to illuminate the room in achieving GBI and MS1525:2007 recommendation of minimum 300 lux based on simulation. Estimated daily energy required, E = 351 Watt X 8 hour = 2,808 Watt hour. = 2.8 kWh x 33.54 cent/kWh = USD 0.29 / day, 8 hours of operation. On environmental savings*, as suggested by Lancashire and Fox (1996) and Ghisi and Tinker (2006): *Saving from the installation per operation day Environmental Benefits 680 gram 1,904 gram Carbon Dioxide (CO2) 5.67 gram 15.88 gram Sulphur Dioxide (SOx) 2.27 gram 6.36 gram Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) Above saving is obtainable by the condition of the system is working well in suitable weather condition.
  15. 15. SIGNIFICANT OF RESEARCH 15 This research related to the encouragement on energy studies especially to meet MS1525:2007 which focussed on the Renewable Energy (RE) and Energy- Efficiency (EE) aspect in building design. This research will conclude the possibility of using fibre optic cable as a light medium mainly in light distribution strategies thus creating an opportunity for maximizing the solar daylighting system in illuminating the interior building core daily. This research will provide an empirical results of fibre optic as a medium of daylighting distribution since will cover the most basic parameters especially in lighting level and human comfort in a building. This method also will create an awareness among users in taking an advantage from available daylighting in tropical climate.
  16. 16. LIMITATION OF RESEARCH 16 Normal tropical data is collected for 17 days and perception of weather condition is based on observation only. Since the research is aiming on the potential of fibre optic daylighting in tropical climate, the engineering part especially related to construction, development of the overall system consist of the receiver, light transmission and diffusers will not be covered in detail under this research. The benefits of FOC daylighting system is to illuminate interior spaces where there is no sunlight penetration is possible, research will only consider the total dark room for test bed. In addition, the building materials engineering related to the roof, walls, floors and any other aspect which is not related to research objectives and research questions above will not be elaborated in this research.
  17. 17. LIST OF PUBLICATION (UPDATED) 17 Muhammad Arkam, C.M., Karam, M.O., Ismail, M.R. and Abdul Malek, A.R. (2013). The Potential of Fiber Optic Daylighting System In Tropical Malaysia. Indoor and Built Environment. Accepted 2nd March 2014. (Submitted 29th August 2013. Scopus-ISI- Impact Factor 1.0. Muhammad Arkam, C.M., Karam, M.O., Ismail, M.R. and Abdul Malek, A.R. (2013). An Empirical Study of Heat Gain Impact In Tropical Building Interiors from Fiber Optic Daylighting System. Energy Efficiency. Under review (Submitted 18th September 2013) Scopus-ISI-Impact Factor 1.0. Muhammad Arkam, C.M., Karam, M.O., Ismail, M.R. and Abdul Malek, A.R. (2014). A Review Study on the Application of the Fiber Optic Daylighting System in Malaysian Buildings. Journal of Sustainable Building Technology & Urban Development. Accepted with corrections (re-Submitted 13th Jan 2014) Taylor and Francis.
  18. 18. LIST OF EXHIBITIONS 18 Muhammad Arkam Che Munaaim. The Potential of Light Transmission Using Fibre Optic Cable For Interior Illumination In Malaysia. In: Ekspo Rekacipta dan Pameran Penyelidikan UniMAP 2011. Awarded of Bronze Prize. 11th Januari 2012. Dewan Pauh Putra, Perlis. Muhammad Arkam Che Munaaim and Norain Ali (2012). Light Transmission Using Light Tube For Interior Illumination In Malaysia. In: Ekspo Rekacipta dan Pameran Penyelidikan UniMAP 2011. 11th Januari 2012. Dewan Pauh Putra, Perlis. Muhammad Arkam Che Munaaim and Norazlina Ismail (2012). The Potential of Light Transmission Using Fibre Optic Cable For Interior Illumination In Malaysia. International Engineering Invention and Innovation Exhibition (i-ENVEX) and Malaysian International Young Inventors Olympiad (MIYIO) 2012. 26th -29th April 2012. 2020 Hall, Kangar, Perlis.
  19. 19. LIST OF PRESENTATIONS 19 The Institute of Engineers and Technology’s (United Kingdom) in CEng Professional Review, Staff House, University of Manchester, United Kingdom, 29th November 2013. Muhammad Arkam Che Munaaim (2014), in Research Seminar Series, Faculty of Natural and Built Environment, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield UK, 12th February 2014.
  20. 20. VISIT TO HBP-USM DAYLIGHTING RESOURCE CENTRE 20 Below arrangements to visit was conducted during installation and data collection. Ir. Ahmad Izdihar, PEng, GBIF. Visit to site on behalf of GBI Malaysia and Exergy Malaysia Sdn Bhd for Proposed Prime Minister’s Office Platinum GBI Certification Potential (Innovation) on 29th August 2013. Ir. Amran Mahzan, KFM Project Sdn Bhd on behalf of PMC, PMO’s GBI Platinum Certification Potential (Innovation) on 29th August 2013. Cypark Berhad (En Shahrul Azad), Technical Visit for explore Solar Lighting Equipment‘s potential, 20th May 2013. Mega Jati Consult Sdn Bhd (En Mohd Hilmi Ir. Abd Mokhti), Technical Visit for explore Solar Lighting Equipment‘s potential, 20th May 2013. Application to Visits: Green Technology Ptd. Ltd, Hong Kong (June 2013) for Fibre Optic Daylighting Strategy via email. Postponed due to unpublished results. Application to Visits: Sri Lanka’s Green Energy Consultant (April 2013) for Fibre Optic Daylighting Mock Up via email. Postponed due to unpublished results. Application to Visits: Singapore’s Green Mark Consultant (April 2013) for Fibre Optic Daylighting System via email. Postponed due to unpublished results.
  21. 21. CONCLUSION 21 This research was outlined about the potential of fibre optic daylighting for interior illumination in tropical climate. To conclude the potential and restriction of the system, sequencing experiments were conducted started with the literature survey and designing the empirical data collection method to satisfy the research objectives and research questions. Based on results of analysis that explained, it is trusted that the experiments conducted in field study achieving the comprehension in understanding and contributed to the fullfilling the gap of knowledge of the potential of fibre optic daylighting for interior illumination in tropical climate. Thank You.

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