Drought meet

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breeding for drought tolerance in rice

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Drought meet

  1. 1. Drought-tolerant and aerobic riceMaking rice less thirsty: progress at IRRI germplasm options for lowland rice environments in Southeast Asia Planning meeting Improving the livelihoods and overcoming poverty in the drought-prone lowlands in South Asia 21 April, 2011 M. Swamy B.P. Mallikarjuna Swamy April 19, 2011
  2. 2. “Drought” may mean physical water scarcity• constrains growth or development process• affects the normal crop management practices Is there any CURE for my problem?
  3. 3. Objectives• Appraisal of the status of research and developmentactivities in the drought-prone lowlands of selected countries of South east Asia•Identify areas for research and development in drought areas• Out scaling, up scaling of the technologies• Identify possible linkages
  4. 4. Rice facts of South East AsiaCURE: A Dream platform for those “Left Behind” by the green Revolution
  5. 5. Grain yield of popular rice varieties under severe drought stressDonor Yield Yield Yield of cultivar (kg ha-1) Stress Non-stress 7000 6000 5000 kg ha-1 4000 3000MTU1001 312 5825 2000Madhuri line 9 312 4957 1000Nidhi 356 4963 0 Severe Control ModerateIR64 278 4685 stress levelMahamaya 318 4344 MahamayaSwarna 312 5822 Sambha Mahsuri
  6. 6. Genetic management optionsWithout seeds nothing is possible and withoutplant breeding, no new seeds will come forth - Gelia T, CastilloWealth of germplasm and science basedproven technologies provide hope for thefuture of farmers in rain fed drought proneareas of South Asia
  7. 7. Drought at which stage? • Drought can appear at any stage of the rice crop- seedling, vegetative, reproductive; • One at reproductive stage is highly damaging, highly prevalent 57 64 69 73 78 85 90 95 Control Lafitte, unpublishedO’Toole 1982
  8. 8. What it takes to develop a drought tolerant variety?• High yield under normal situation• Tolerance to drought at reproductive stage• Tolerance to drought at seedling and vegetative stage• Tolerant to blast, brown spot, bacterial leaf blight• Ability to withstand delayed transplanting conditions• Ability to yield well under low-moderate fertilizer management• Ability to be grown under direct seeded situation in case of unavailability of water for transplanting• Good grain quality/quality maintenance under drought• High framers’ preference• National system support• Efficient dissemination support
  9. 9. What new now that can make difference?Earlier At presentSecondary trait based Selection for grain yield itselfselection Combine yield potential with drought toleranceTraditional donors Improved donors with good combining abilityVariable phenotyping Standardized phenotyping 65-85% yield reductionSecondary traits QTLs Yield QTLsAdvanced tools for MB not in Advanced MB tools availablehandAdvance generations testing Early generations testing under droughtunder droughtLess drought occurrence-less Water scarcity realized- efforts enhancedsincere effortsLess Funding, commitment Increased funding and commitment
  10. 10. Drought Research at IRRI: StrategyConventional approaches• Use improved pre-breeding lines as donors• Direct selection for grain yield• Combine high yield potential with good yield under drought• Confirm performance in multi location testing in target environment-Drought breeding networkMolecular approaches• Use traditional/wild donors in mapping populations• Identify major drought yield QTLs• Introgress QTLs in improved drought susceptible varieties• Physiological and molecular mechanism of QTLs drought tolerance aim is to produce more crop per drop of water
  11. 11. Conventional breeding• Use of improved drought tolerant pre-breeding lines, direct selection for grain yield under drought in early generations have Rewa, India resulted in development of breeding lines with 0.8-1.2 t ha -1 yield advantage under drought while successfully maintaining the high yield under normal situation Ranchi, India
  12. 12. DROUGHT BREEDING NETWORK IRRI BMGF BMZ JAPAN BREEDINGBANGLADESH NEPAL INDIA TANZANIA MOZAMBIQUE LAOS PHILIPPINES AfricaRiceR G R N B N C T U C I D I R P B R N G A I C H R F D R iA A R U A U A A A S A C l R R R U R M R RJ Z S A U R U S I i F C C c T S e Joint managed-stress screening (300-400 lines - OYT > AYT) Replicated MET under managed stress and full irrigation National testing On farm testing Targeted Dissemination
  13. 13. Some initial success• During 2009-11, 6 varieties: Sahbhagi dhan-IR74371-70-1-1 in India, Tarharra 1 -IR 80411-B-49-1, Sukha dhan 1- IR74371-46-1-1, Sukha dhan 2- IR74371-54-1-1, Sukha dhan 3- IR74371-70-1-1 in Nepal and Sahod Ulan 1 - IR74371-54-1-1 in Philippines released.• Release of IR74371-70-1-1 in Bangladesh under process.• These provide 0.8-1.2 t ha -1 yield advantage under moderate to severe Sahbhagi dhan in India drought while maintaining high yield under normal rainfall situation. Tarharra 1 in Nepal Sahod Ulan 1 in Philippines
  14. 14. Lowland drought: promising linesDESIGNATION PARENTAGE GYNS GYS % IMPIR 84859-B-94-2-3 IR 70181-3-PMI 1--/IR 72667-16-1-B-B-3 6308 2233 93IR 83894-B-B-46-4 IR 70213-10-CPA 4-2-2-2/IRRI 122 6175 2213 92IR 84878-B-60-4-1 IR 71700-247-1-1/IRRI 123 6137 2419 109IR 84850-B-27-1-1 IR 70181-32-PMI 1-/IR 71700-247-1-1 6091 2364 105IR 84850-B-27-1-2 IR 70181-32-PMI 1-/IR 71700-247-1-1 6075 2299 99IR 83383-B-B-129-4 IR 72022-46-2-/IR 57514-PMI 5 5761 2167 88IR 83383-B-B-141-1 IR 72022-46-2-/IR 57514-PMI 5 5689 2417 109SWARNA VASISTHA/MAHSURI 6179 672 -42SAMBHA MAHSURI SAMBHA MAHSURI 5581 272 -76PSBRc 80 IR 50401-77-2-1-3/IR 42068-22-3-3-1-3 4669 1155SED 540 298
  15. 15. New promising lines for lowlandDESIGNATION PARENTAGE ProjectIR 83388-B-B-108-3 IR 72022-46-2-3-3-2/SWARNA DBNIR 83381-B-B-137-1 IR 72022-46-2-3-3-2/IR 77080-B-34-1-1 DBNIR 83377-B-B-48-3 IR 71700-247-1-1-2/SAMBHA MAHSURI DBNIR 83383-B-B-129-3 IR 72022-46-2-3-3-2/IR 57514-PMI 5-B-1-2 DBNIR 83383-B-B-141-2 IR 72022-46-2-3-3-2/IR 57514-PMI 5-B-1-2 DBNIR 83376-B-B-71-1 IR 71700-247-1-1-2/IR 77080-B-34-1-1 DBNIR 80461-B-79-3 IR 77080-B-34-3/IR 00A103 DBNIR 82870-48 IR 82851-16/IR 82855-9 DBNIR 83383-B-B-129-4 IR 72022-46-2-3-3-2/IR 57514-PMI 5-B-1-2 DBNIR 83388-B-B-8-3 IR 72022-46-2-3-3-2/SWARNA DBNIR 80411-B-49-1 IR 70181-26-PMI 2-9-1-1/IRRI 105 DBNIR 78875-207-B-3 IRRI 132/IR 64 DBNIR 83873-B-B-47-4 IR 00A107/IR 72176-140-1-2-2-3 DBNIR 83376-B-B-130-2 IR 71700-247-1-1-2/IR 77080-B-34-1-1 PVSIR 83377-B-B-93-3 IR 71700-247-1-1-2/SAMBHA MAHSURI PVSIR 82589-B-B-84-3 IRRI 132/IRRI 148 URSBNIR 82635-B-B-143-1 IR 78875-176-B-2/IR 78875-207-B-3 URSBNIR 82589-B-B-2-2 IRRI 132/IRRI 148 URSBNIR 82635-B-B-75-2 IR 78875-176-B-2/IR 78875-207-B-3 URSBNIR 82635-B-B-145-1 IR 78875-176-B-2/IR 78875-207-B-3 URSBN
  16. 16. Molecular breeding approachIdentification of major effect QTLsValidation of major effect QTLsIntrogression of QTLs in populardrought susceptible varieties
  17. 17. Major drought yield QTLs in background of improved popular varieties Genetic AdditiveBackground QTLs Ecosystem effect % mean Vandna DTY12.1 Upland 47 IR64 DTY1.1 Lowland 32 IR64 DTY9.1 Lowland 27 IR64 DTY10.1 Lowland 22 IR64 DTY2.1 Lowland 13 IR64 DTY4.1 Lowland 14 Swarna DTY1.1 Lowland 25 Swarna DTY2.1 Lowland 19 Swarna DTY3.1 Lowland 25 Swarna DTY8.1 Lowland 16 MTU1010 DTY1.1 Lowland 17
  18. 18. Improved IR64 introgression lines Line GS QTLs GY Drought GY Control (%) DS09 DS10 DS09 WS10IR 87729-69-B-B-B DTY9.1, DTY2.1, DTY10.1, DTY4.1 2006 2011 6936 4627 94.4IR 87728-102-B-B DTY9.1, DTY10.1,DTY4.1 2440 1160 6059 5462 92.9IR 87707-186-B-B-B DTY2.1, DTY10.1,DTY4.1 3200 2068 6289 6737 96.9IR 87707-446-B-B-B DTY2.1, DTY4.1 3624 2556 6005 6076 97.0IR 87707-445-B-B-B DTY2.1, DTY4.1 3639 2555 8006 5565 96.9IR 87707-118-B-B-B DTY2.1, DTY4.1 3264 2273 6096 4617 95.8IR 87705-21-13-B DTY2.1 2223 4785 6231 95.8IR 87705-6-8-B DTY4.1 2152 5399 5576 95.5IR 87728-395-B-B DTY9.1 1122 5500 5457 93.4IR 87705-36-3-B DTY10.1 2062 5052 7211 95.3IR64 567 636 4151 5811 M. Swamy, IRRI
  19. 19. Quality traits of IR64 introgression linesLINES QTLs DTF PH AC GT MP CSIR 87729-69-B-B-B DTY9.1, DTY2.1, DTY10.1, DTY4.1 86 98 20.7 I 1 1IR 87728-102-B-B DTY9.1, DTY10.1,DTY4.1 86 101 20.1 I 1 1IR 87707-186-B-B-B DTY2.1, DTY10.1,DTY4.1 82 107 21.6 I 2 1IR 87707-446-B-B-B DTY2.1, DTY4.1 81 106 22.2 I 1 1IR 87707-445-B-B-B DTY2.1, DTY4.1 83 111 22.3 I 1 1IR 87707-118-B-B-B DTY2.1, DTY4.1 83 108 20.7 I 1 1IR 87705-21-13-B DTY2.1 82 86 21 I 2 1IR 87705-6-8-B DTY4.1 80 85 21 I/L 2 1IR 87728-395-B-B DTY9.1 86 100 20.2 I 1 2IR 87705-36-3-B DTY10.1 87 84 20.3 I 1 1IR64 82 105 21.8 I/L 1 1 M. Swamy, IRRI
  20. 20. IR 64 introgression lines with DTY QTLs + QTL - QTL IR64 IR64+DTY QTLs Parents- 2007 Introgressions under drought- 2010 DTY IR 64 introgressed lineSimilar to IR64 grain quality traits of Product - 2011introgressed lines
  21. 21. Line 1 Line 2
  22. 22. + QTL IR64
  23. 23. DTY3.1, DTY2.1 in Swarna, Swarna sub1 Swarna lLs (DTY +Sub1)Swarna M. Swamy, IRRI
  24. 24. DTY 3.1 from Apo/Swarna populationDTY3.1+ line DTY QTLs introgression in improved background: back cross population
  25. 25. DTY1.1, DTY3.1, DTY2.1 in Swarna, Swarna sub1 BC4F1 Swarna lines (three QTLs +Sub1)* 2 in 1 rice for drought and submergence prone areas
  26. 26. Development of improved Vandana with DTY12.1 Grain yield (Kgha-1) % Lines Generation DTF PHT USS UMS UNS BGA IR 84984-83-15-110-B BC2F2:4 299 1514 4855 54 124 92.4 IR 84984-83-15-481-B BC2F2:4 175 1300 4196 55 120 94.1 IR 84984-83-15-862-B BC2F2:4 238 1114 4018 58 121 94.1 Vandana 72 825 3556 54 120 Way Rarem 11 212 1610 81 122B IR 90019:17-156-B BC3F2:3 522 1487 4712 61 106 98.3 IR 90019:17-159-B BC3F2:3 461 1930 5236 62 103 97.5 IR 90019:17-15-B BC3F2:3 565 2341 4534 65 107 98.3 IR 90020:22-265-B BC3F2:3 446 2090 4233 60 115 96.6 IR 90020:22-283-B BC3F2:3 415 1224 5950 58 100 94.9 Vandana 179 1049 4061 56 104 Way Rarem 0.1 500 2878 81 103 Dixit, Shalabh, IRRI
  27. 27. Differences in grain type of donor parent (Way Rarem), Recipient parent (Vandana), NIL (IR90019:17-156-B) and pre NIL (IR90019:17-15-B)
  28. 28. Effect of DTY12.1 at pre flowering and reproductive stage under severe upland stressand grain types of improved Vandana NILs Vegetative stage Reproductive stage -DTY12.1 +DTY12.1 -DTY12.1 +DTY12.1
  29. 29. Development of improved Way Rarem lines: Indonesia RM1367- RM3212 on Chr 2, RM327- RM475 on Chr 2 and and RM421- RM334 on Chr 5 3 QTLs introgressed in way Rarem Grain yield (Kgha-1) DESIGNATION USS UMS UMiS UNS DTF PHT IR 84996-50-4-B 172 1091 1859 4987 78 142 IR 84996-50-5-B 196 1310 1645 4813 79 136 IR 84996-50-6-B 148 1187 2254 5381 80 133 IR 84996-50-8-B 142 1308 2381 5115 79 138 IR 84996-50-1-B 251 1428 2319 4957 81 137 Vandana 284 1535 4105 57 123 Way Rarem 58 601 1224 3271 81 130 Dixit, Shalabh, IRRI
  30. 30. New promising lines for uplandDESIGNATION DTF HT GY-NS BLASTIR 82589-B-B-14-2 73 107 4,035 0IR 82589-B-B-149-4 74 115 3,054 0IR 82589-B-B-2-3 74 107 3,420 0IR 82589-B-B-7-3 76 117 3,056 0IR 82635-B-B-145-1 72 112 3,520 0IR 82635-B-B-47-1 72 124 4,754 2IR 82635-B-B-47-2 77 112 4,943 0IR 82635-B-B-59-2 78 100 4,759 0IR 82635-B-B-88-2 78 106 5,151 0IR 82639-B-B-118-3 79 115 4,965 0IR 82639-B-B-3-3 73 125 3,521IR 83747-B-B-115-4 82 105 4,778 0IR 83928-B-B-81-2 81 105 5,046 0IR 82589-B-B-114-4 69 115 4,231 0IR 82589-B-B-51-4 70 114 3,970 0IR 82635-B-B-23-1 69 117 3,842IR 82635-B-B-82-2 68 112 3,818IR 83926-B-B-80-4 70 115 3,490 0IR 83928-B-B-28-3 70 115 3,123 0IR 83928-B-B-56-3 70 115 3,273 0IR 83929-B-B-100-2 70 110 3,241 5
  31. 31. Promising lines for Laos: Glutinous/non- glutinousDesignation Parentage BlastIR 82051-99-4-3-1-1 THADOKKHAM 24/NIAW UBON 2 1IR 82051-99-4-3-2-1 THADOKKHAM 24/NIAW UBON 2 1IR 82051-99-4-3-2-2 THADOKKHAM 24/NIAW UBON 2 1IR 82051-99-4-3-2-3 THADOKKHAM 24/NIAW UBON 2 1IR 82051-99-4-3-2-4 THADOKKHAM 24/NIAW UBON 2 1IR 82051-99-4-3-2-5 THADOKKHAM 24/NIAW UBON 2 1IR 82055-39-1-2-1-1 THADOKKHAM 130/NIAW UBON 2 1IR 82055-39-1-2-4-1 THADOKKHAM 130/NIAW UBON 2 1IR 82045-15-1-3-1-1 NIAW UBON 2/THADOKKHAM 8 1IR 82045-15-1-3-1-2 NIAW UBON 2/THADOKKHAM 8 1IR 82045-15-1-3-1-3 NIAW UBON 2/THADOKKHAM 8 1IR 82045-15-1-3-1-4 NIAW UBON 2/THADOKKHAM 8 1
  32. 32. Summary• Eight drought tolerant released varieties• Drought tolerant improved lines in the background of IR64, Vandana, WayRarem and TDK24• Many improved and drought tolerant breeding lines• Well characterized donors for drought, blast,blb and GQ• Improved drought tolerant donors• Development of drought tolerant Swarna and SM•Combining drought and submergence in Swarna (2 in1)
  33. 33. Final path of the promising lines• Number of lines are tested, many found promising, but very few are released for cultivation by farmers• Enough support is available for seed production and dissemination• We should put in place a clear path how do we make sure that promising lines are released by respective partners for farmers cultivation
  34. 34. PartnersBangladesh Philippines – PhilRiceBRRI, Gazipur Laos – NAFRIRRS, Rajshahi Mozambique-IIAM, Chokwe Tanzania –DASRC, MorogoroIndia Malaysia – UKM and MARDIAAU, Anand RDA, KoreaBAU, RanchiBF, HyderabadCRRI, CuttackCRURRS, HazaribagDRR, HyderabadICAR-NEH, Tripura DonorsIGAU, Raipur Rockefeller FoundationJNKVV, Jabalpur Bill and Melinda Gates FoundationNDUAT, FaizabadOUAT, Bhubaneshwar Generation Challenge programTNAU, Coimbatore Asian Development BankUAS, Bangalore DevgenNepal RDA, Korea BMZ, GermanyNRRP, HardinathRARS, Nepalganj Univ. Kebangsaan Malaysia, BangiRARS, Tarharra MARDI, Malaysia

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