I have always been extremely interested in America History throughout high school and Valley Forge’s close proximity to us and the tremendous amounts of history that lies in that area is what made this the perfect topic for my Senior Graduation Project. I am not only interested in the area for its history but also for the great things that are taking place to help preserve the park.
So, why should you care about Valley Forge? Valley Forge is easily the most historic place around this area. Though most of us probably know the simple facts about Valley Forge, like its importance in the Revolutionary War there is still a lot to learn about this area. From its scenic beauty to its roots in America history Valley Forge truly has something for everyone.
The Revolutionary War lasted from 1775 to 1783. It is known as the American Revolutionary War and also as the American War of Independence It was a war. Was fought between Great Britain and the 13 colonies in North America, Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia, Connecticut, Massachusetts, South Carolina, New Hampshire, Virginia, New York, North Carolina, and Rhode Island. Started when those colonists rejected the legitimacy of the Parliament of Great Britain to rule over them without representation. Claiming that this went against their given rights.
Colonists living in British North America were divided over which side to supports in the war. About 40 - 45% of the population supported the struggle for independence. These people were known as the Patriots. 15-20% of the colonists supported the British during the war known as the Loyalists British army consisted of roughly 36,000 men European Nations helped both sides. Britain hired 30,000 German mercenaries, this made up a third of their entire army in North America. By 1779 their army grew to 60,000 strong France, the Netherlands and Spain entered against the British. In order to dilute Britain’s “super power” status. African Americans, both slaves and freed, served on both sides of the war. British recruited slaves because of man power shortages.
The complete history of the British Army spans over three and a half centuries. In the revolutionary war British involment had its origins in the military occupation of Boston in 1768. Tensions between the British army and the local contributed to the Boston Massacre of 1770. Warfare however did not start until 1775.
Formed May 10th 1775 by the colonies to combat British Rule. Local militias supplemented the Continental Army. Throughout its existence the army was troubled by inadequate training, short term enlistments, interstate rivalries, and Congress’ inability to compel states to provide food, money, and supplies. Non-unified colonies made it hard to be efficient. Able to increase effectiveness in later years, often at human cost. Instrumental leaders played a key part in preserving unity, learning and adapting, and ensuring discipline throughout the eight years of the war. Disbanded in 1783 after the Treaty of Paris ended the war. Remaining soldiers formed the start of the United States Army.
George Washington was one of those instrumental leaders throughout the war. He was able to keep the morale of the badly ill and injured in the army up. Washington was later rewarded for all his efforts in the war, becoming the first president of the United States of America. The Electoral College Elected Washington unanimously in 1789 and again in the 1792 election. He remains the only president to capture 100% of all the electoral votes.
Born in Germany, Steuben entered the Seven Years War as a military staff member of Fredrick the Great. Von Stuben went to Paris to meet America’s foreign commissioner, Benjamin Franklin, and offered him his military services. The Continental Congress, much impressed by Von Steuben’s title and his refusal to accept any salary while in service, immediately sent him to George Washington at Valley Forge. Though he spoke no English, Von Stueben systematically trained the amateur American troops in military discipline and battle-readiness.
Most of the battles between the British and Continental Army was for Philadelphia. The capital city for the Colonists.
After the battle of White Marsh, Washington moved his troops from White Marsh to a more secure area. Though Several areas were proposed Washington selected Valley Forge. As the Continental Army would later realize, it was an excellent choice. Named after an Iron forge located on Valley Creek. Valley Forge was close enough to the British to keep their raiding parties out of interior Pennsylvania, but far enough away to halt the threat of a surprise attack. The high grounds of both Mount Joy and Mount Misery along with the Schuylkill River made the area easily defendable. On December 11th, the Continental Army left White Marsh for Valley Forge. It took the soldiers eight days to make the 13 mile journey.
On December 19, 1777, Washington and his 12,000 poorly fed, ill-equipped army arrived in Valley Forge. Camp grounds were selected, and defensive lines were being planned and constructed. Construction of more than a thousand huts provided shelter for the soldiers, but is did little to offset the critical shortages that plagued the army.
Supplies of meat and bread were irregular. A lot of soldiers relied on “fire cake” for their only nourishment. Fire cake is a tasteless mixture of flour and water. Conditions sometimes were so severe that the army had to starve some of the weaker soldiers in order to maintain food throughout the whole winter. An estimated 35,000 pounds of meat and 168 barrels of flour were needed per day to feed the army Animal fared no better, hundreds of horses starved or died of exhaustion and the cold winter weather did not help either. Clothing was also inadequate. The long marches soldiers took destroyed their shoes. Blankets and garments were scarce and hardly ever replaced. At one point in the winter almost 4,000 men were listed as unfit for duty.
Undernourished and poorly clothed, living in crowded, damp quarters, the army was ravaged by sickness and disease. Jaundice, dysentery, and pneumonia were among the top killing diseases that plagued as many as 2,000 men that winter in Valley Forge.
Dysentery is an inflammatory disorder of the intestine, in particular the colon. Result in severe diarrhea with fever and abdominal pain. Spread through raw/uncooked food and poor hygiene.
Pneumonia is an inflammatory disorder of the lungs. In Valley Forge pneumonia was an ongoing problem. It is caused by Bacteria, Viruses, Fungus. Symptoms include chest pains, chills, vomiting, nausea
Jaundice occurs when their is a blockage in the intestines. Causes discoloration of skin and eyes. Very prevalent in Valley Forge because of the bad food that was given
transmitted by the ingestion of food or water contaminated with the feces of an infected person. Symptoms include Diarrhea, Rose Spots, Sweating Rose spots are red bumps that form around the upper chest area More severe symptoms include intestinal bleeding, and the inflammation of the Gall Bladder
Word spread around the Valley Forge camp of a British Departure, that brought a frenzy of activity from the higher ranks of the Continental Army. On June 19, 1778, six months after their arrival, the army marched out of Valley Forge in pursuit of the British, who were advancing towards New York.
The war would last another five years, but for Washington, his men, and the nation to which they sought to give birth, a decisive victory had been won. Not a battle of weapons but a battle of will. The Continental Army struggled through the rough weather of the winter but were able to come away from it stronger.
Has been very well preserved hundreds of years after the war. Became a National Park July 4th 1976 Park features historical and recreated buildings, structures, and memorials. Other park amenities include biking trails, walking trails, theatre. 1000’s of deer
“ Naked and starving as they are, we cannot enough admire the incomparable patience and fidelity of the soldiery”
September 24 2004 85 White supremacists and neo-Nazis chanted racist slogans between hate speeches at a 90 minute rally in valley forge. Aryan Nations, KKK, and members of the national socialist movement (NSM) gathered 10 members of the new black panther party, a racist and anti semitic black militant group also came. Counter protesters also came such as the Anti Racist Action Organization, Despite heavy police presence and the distance between the hate groups and counter protesters a few confrontations occured at the entrance to the park.
In 1999 plans were made to build a museum at Valley Forge, highlighting its significance in the American Revolutionary War. In 2008, ARC (American Revolution Center), took over the development process, Under this group, the complex would contain not just a museum but also a hotel, tavern, restaurant, campground, and a convention center. All of this being built on top of the historic site of Washington's Encampment. Park Service retirees called on top Interior Department and Park Service officials to speak out against the project, which has taken on commercial overtones after being promoted as &quot;the first museum dedicated to interpreting, honoring and celebrating the complete story of the entire American Revolution.&quot;
This is one of the major problems that is effecting the park and the area as a whole. These plants are generally introduced by accident, with the person bringing the plant not aware of the effects that the plant might have in a foreign environment. Include Flowers, shrubs, grasses, vines, trees PA alone has one of the highest populations of invasive plants This area especially
This is one of the major problems that is effecting the park and the area as a whole. Invasive plants are plants which grow quickly and aggressively, spreading and displacing other plants. Invasives are usually introduced by people accidently, into a region far from their native habitat.
Introduced into Tennessee around 1919, stilt grass may have accidentally escaped as a result of its use as a packing material for porcelain. Individual plants may produce 100 to 1,000 seeds that fall close to the parent plant. Seed may be carried further by water currents during heavy rains or moved in contaminated hay, soil, or potted plants, and on footwear. Stilt grass appears to prefer moist, acidic to neutral soils that are high in nitrogen. Stilt grass spreads to form extensive patches, displacing native species that are not able to compete with it.
Loosestrife plants grow from four to ten feet high Native Area: Japan, Manchuria China, southeast Asia and northern India Flowers have five to seven petals. Mature plants can have from 30 to 50 stems arising from a single rootstock. outcompetes and replaces native grasses Introduced for medicinal uses
Native Area: China and the Islands from Japan Also known as Devil’s tail tear thumb because of the shape of the leaf Grows rapidly over shrubs and other vegetation Large infestations of mile-a-minute weed eventually reduce native plant species in natural areas. First found in Maryland in 1973 During storm events the potential spread of this plant is greatly increased throughout watersheds.
Native Area: Japan and Europe Grow 2 to 8 ft high Introduce in New England in 1875 Barberry produces large numbers of seeds Transported to new locations with the help of birds and small mammals which eat it.
Rapid growth of white-tailed deer herd threatens many other species such as birds and native plants Greater than 18-20 deer per square mile 14 times greater than the state’s recommended deer density to maintain forest regeneration. Average of 100 vehicle accidents occur at the park per year Valley Forge is currently reviewing a Deer Management Plan. The plan has 4 options. A. No action B. A combination of non-lethal actions, including fencing and reproductive control to gradually reduce the heard. C. Professional Hunters, skilled in sharpshooting D. Combination of 2 and 3 (NPS preferred way) Idea that has been abandoned: -Giving birth control -Birth control not effective on free ranging deer -
displace native crayfish reduce the amount and kinds of aquatic plants Decrease the variety of invertebrates reduce some fish populations Found in alsos
Park Management is currently reviewing a Environmental plan to protect the parks natural resources and maintain a high level of safety for visitors. Promoting a mix of native plants and reducing the competitive advantage of invasive non-native plant species. Reducing the deer herd to allow for the restoration of habitat for nesting birds. Chemical Bleach that eliminates Rusty Crayfish populations.
For my application component I visited Valley Forge 3 times to help with an organized trail clean-up.
I attended 3 trips this year to Valley Forge National Park to help with trail clean up
9-12 AM Things done: - Removing invasive plants, so of which were covered early in the presentation - Trash Removal - Clearing draining features - Cutting back overgrown brush
Whole park cleanup ran by Steve Mulligan Helped me a great deal with a lot of the information about the invasive species in the Valley Forge Area.
Valley forge sgp
valley forge National park <ul><li>Arjun Madhavan </li></ul>
Overview <ul><li>Power Point </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revolutionary War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>History of Valley Forge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Valley Forge Today </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Park and Conservation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>My Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Class Activity </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
Thesis <ul><li>Valley Forge National Park serves as a peaceful reminder of freedom won by sacrifices long ago. Its 3,600 acres of picturesque, rolling hills serve as an example of the importance of environment conservation. </li></ul>
Personal Relevance <ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>Biology </li></ul><ul><li>Proximity </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation </li></ul>
Relevance of Valley Forge <ul><li>Most historic place around our area </li></ul><ul><li>Scenic beauty </li></ul><ul><li>Importance in Revolutionary War </li></ul><ul><li>Education (false information) </li></ul>http://interfacelift.com/wallpaper_beta/D35ebee6/01773_valleyforge_1280x800.jpg
The revolutionary war <ul><li>1775-1783 </li></ul><ul><li>“ The American Revolutionary War” or “American War of Independence” </li></ul><ul><li>War between Great Britain and 13 former British Colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Colonists Rebel </li></ul>http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ed/United_States_Northern_Command_emblem.png
combatants <ul><li>Colonists divided on support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Patriots & Loyalists </li></ul></ul><ul><li>British </li></ul><ul><li>European Nations </li></ul><ul><li>African Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Native Americans </li></ul>http://www.thecaptainsmemos.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/Revolutionary-War.jpg
British Army <ul><li>Spans over three and a half centuries </li></ul><ul><li>Occupies Boston in 1786 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boston Massacre of 1770 </li></ul></ul>http://www.navycs.com/gallery2/d/9417-2/british-army-flag.jpg
American continental army <ul><li>Formed May 10th, 1775 </li></ul><ul><li>Local Militias </li></ul><ul><li>Disbanded in 1783 </li></ul>http://files.myopera.com/SiBrunk/albums/691571/revolutionary-war-soldiers.jpg http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~njobtdar/images/ValleyForge.gif
George Washington <ul><li>Commander-in-Chief </li></ul><ul><li>Morale Booster </li></ul><ul><li>Becomes First President </li></ul>http://www.learnnc.org/lp/media/uploads/2009/04/george-washington-gilbert-stuart.jpg http://www.wicknet.org/history/jvanatta/gallery/General%20George%20Washington%20Resigning%20his%20Commission%20%28John%20Trumbull,%201824%29.jpg
Baron von Steuben <ul><li>Born in Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Meets with Ben Franklin </li></ul><ul><li>Washington sends him to Valley Forge </li></ul><ul><li>Spoke no English </li></ul><ul><li>Systematically trained American Soldiers </li></ul>http://www.steubencony.org/hallfame/Steuben,%20Baren%20Von.jpg teachers.ewrsd.k12.nj.us/gray/Von_Steuben.jpg
Battles around the area <ul><li>Philadelphia </li></ul><ul><li>Paoli, Brandywine, Germantown, Morristown, White Marsh </li></ul>
Why valley forge <ul><li>Rest over the Winter of ’77 </li></ul><ul><li>Close but not too close </li></ul><ul><li>Mount Joy Mount Misery </li></ul>http://www.arago.si.edu/media/000/027/882/27882_lg.jpg
December 19, 1777 <ul><li>12,000 arrive </li></ul><ul><li>Camp grounds selected </li></ul><ul><li>Construction of 2,000 of huts </li></ul>http://www.freespiritart.com/images/winter-valley-forge.jpg
Food and clothing shortages <ul><li>Irregular meat and bread supplies </li></ul><ul><li>Fire Cake </li></ul><ul><li>Starvation </li></ul><ul><li>Animal </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing </li></ul>http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/17/Revolutionary_War_Cemetery,_Salem,_NY.jpg/300px-Revolutionary_War_Cemetery,_Salem,_NY.jpg http://www.valley.forge.national-park.com/images/winterartillerqy.jpeg
Jaundice <ul><li>Blockage of Intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Discoloration of eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Discoloration of skin </li></ul>www.mdconsult.com/.../0/0/10041/19512_en.jpg
Typhoid <ul><li>Contaminated Food & Water </li></ul><ul><li>Diarrhea, Rose Spots, Sweating </li></ul><ul><li>Intestinal Bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>Inflammation of Gall Bladder </li></ul>http://www.vivaxim.ca/Images/vivaxim_cons_risk_map_en.gif
The Departure <ul><li>June 19, 1778 </li></ul><ul><li>British advance to NY </li></ul>http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_QGqu4ZDNdHw/ShG3MC2vnfI/AAAAAAAAAAk/IttbYwz-w1s/s320/revolutionary-war-007.jpg http://oathkeepers.org/oath/wp-content/uploads/Washington-at-Valley-Forge.jpg
After Valley forge <ul><li>5 Years of Battle </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty of Paris </li></ul><ul><li>British leave New York </li></ul><ul><li>US Constitution </li></ul>http://oathkeepers.org/oath/wp-content/uploads/Washington-at-Valley-Forg2e.jpg
Work Cited <ul><li>EyeWitness to History. "The Continental Army at Valley Forge, 1777." </li></ul><ul><li> EyeWitness History . N.p., 2006. Web. 10 May 2010. </li></ul><ul><li> < http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/valleyforge.htm > </li></ul><ul><li>Bodyle, Wayne K. The Valley Forge Winter: Civilians and Soldiers in War . </li></ul><ul><li> University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2002. Print. </li></ul><ul><li>Kaufman, Wallace, and Sylvan Ramsey Kaufman. Invasive Plants: A Guide to </li></ul><ul><li> Identification, Impacts, and Control of Common North American Species . </li></ul><ul><li> Mechanicsburgh PA: Stackpole Books, 2007. Print. </li></ul><ul><li>NPCA. "Valley Forge National Historical Park." NPCA . National Parks Conservation </li></ul><ul><li> Association, 2010. Web. 10 May 2010. < http://www.npca.org/mid_atlantic/ </li></ul><ul><li> valley-forge.html >. </li></ul><ul><li>Ostrander, Stephen J. Great Natural Areas in Eastern Pennsylvania . </li></ul><ul><li> Mechanicsburgh PA: Stackpole Books, 1996. Print. </li></ul><ul><li>Radosevich, Steven R., Jodie S. Holt, and Claudio M. Ghersa. Ecology of weeds </li></ul><ul><li> and invasive plants . Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2007. Print. </li></ul><ul><li>Reese, Lorett. Valley Forge: Making and Remaking a National Symbol . University </li></ul><ul><li> Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995. Print. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emerson. "Valley Forge Convention & Visitor Center." Valley Forge . N.p., 2010. </li></ul></ul><ul><li> Web. 15 May 2010. < http://www.valleyforge.org/nationalpark/ >. </li></ul><ul><li>Hillclimb Media. "Valley Forge National Historical Park." National Parks . Media </li></ul><ul><li> Knowledge, 2007. Web. 18 May 2010. </li></ul><ul><li> < http://www.valley.forge.national-park.com/ >. </li></ul><ul><li>Multieducator. "Revolutinary War." History Centeral . Multieducator, 1998. Web. </li></ul><ul><li> 18 May 2010. < http://www.historycentral.com/Revolt/ >. </li></ul><ul><li>C unneen, Parker. "Revolutionary War." 42 Explore 2 . 42 Explore 2, 2010. Web. 16 </li></ul><ul><li> May 2010. < http://www.42explore2.com/revolt.htm >. </li></ul><ul><li>Hayes Weston. “Invasive Plants.” Ecolog y and Managment of Invasive Species . EMIS , 2007. Web. 16 </li></ul><ul><ul><li> May 2010. < http://www.invasiveplants.net/ >. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NPCA. "Valley Forge National Historical Park." NPCA . National Parks Conservation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Association, 2010. Web. 10 May 2010. < http://www.npca.org/mid_atlantic/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> valley-forge.html >. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mealin, Andrew. "Plant Biology Index." North Carolina State University . NCSU, </li></ul><ul><li> 2010. Web. 18 May 2010. < http://ww w.cals.ncsu.edu/plantbiology/ >. </li></ul>