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Foundations of a curriculum

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Foundations of a curriculum
FOUNDATIONS OF
CURRICULUM
PHILOSOPHICAL
FOUNDATION
SOCIAL
FOUNDATION
HISTORICAL
FOUNDATION
PSYCHOLOGICAL
FOUNDATION
Foundations of a curriculum
Foundations of a curriculum
PERENNIALISM
Aim: To educate the rational person; cultivate
intellect
Role: Teachers assist students to think with
reason (critical thinking HOSTS)
Focus: Classical subjects, literary analysis.
Curriculum is enduring
Trends: Use of great books (Bible, Koran,
Classics) and Liberal Arts
ESSENTIALISM
Aim: To promote intellectual growth of learners
to become competent
Role: Teachers are sole authorities in the subject
area
Focus: Essential skills of 3R’s; essential subjects
Trends: Back to basics, Excellence in education,
cultural literacy

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Foundations of a curriculum

  • 5. PERENNIALISM Aim: To educate the rational person; cultivate intellect Role: Teachers assist students to think with reason (critical thinking HOSTS) Focus: Classical subjects, literary analysis. Curriculum is enduring Trends: Use of great books (Bible, Koran, Classics) and Liberal Arts
  • 6. ESSENTIALISM Aim: To promote intellectual growth of learners to become competent Role: Teachers are sole authorities in the subject area Focus: Essential skills of 3R’s; essential subjects Trends: Back to basics, Excellence in education, cultural literacy
  • 7. PROGRESSIVISM Aim: Promote democratic social living Role: Teacher leads for growth and development of lifelong learners Focus: Interdisciplinary subjects. Learner- centered. Outcomes-based. Trends: Equal opportunities for all, Contextualized curriculum, Humanistic education
  • 8. RECONSTRUCTIONISM Aim: To improve and reconstruct society. Education for change Role: Teacher acts as agent of change and reforms Focus: Present and future educational landscape Trends: School and curricular reform, Global education, Collaboration and Convergence, Standards and Competencies
  • 10. • He started the curriculum development movement. • Curriculum is a science that emphasizes students’ needs. • Curriculum prepares learners for adult life. • Objectives and activities should group together when tasks are clarified.
  • 11. • Like Bobbit, he posited that curriculum is science and emphasizes students’ needs. • Objectives and activities should match. Subject matter or content relates to objectives.
  • 12. • Curricula are purposeful activities which are child- centered. • The purpose of the curriculum is child development and growth. He introduced this project method where teacher and student plan the activities. • Curriculum develops social relationships and small group instruction.
  • 13. • Curriculum should develop the whole child. It is child-centered. • With the statement of objectives and related learning activities, curriculum should produce outcomes. • Emphasized social studies and suggested that the teacher plans curriculum in advance.
  • 14. • Curriculum is organized around social functions of themes organized knowledge and learner’s interest. • Curriculum, instruction and learning are interrelated. • Curriculum is a set of experiences. Subject matter is developed around social functions and learners’ interests.
  • 15. • Curriculum is a science and an extension of schools’ philosophy. It is based on students’ needs and interests. • Curriculum is always related to instruction. subject matter is organized in terms of knowledge, skills, and values. • The process emphasizes problem solving. Curriculum aims to educate generalists and not specialists.
  • 16. • She contributed to the theoretical and pedagogical foundations of concepts development and critical thinking in social studies curriculum. • She helped lay the foundation for diverse student population.
  • 17. • He described how curriculum change is a cooperative endeavor. • Teacchers and curriculum specialist constitute the professional core of planners. • Significant improvement is achieved through group activity.
  • 19. • He is the father of classical conditioning theory, the S-R theory. • The key to learning is early years of life is to train them what you want them to become. • S-R theory is a foundation of learning practice called indoctrination.
  • 20. • He championed the connectionism theory. • He proposed the three laws of learning: - Law of Readiness - Law of Exercise - Law of Effect • Specific stimulus has specific response.
  • 21. • He proposed the Hierarchical Learning Theory. Learning follows a hierarchy. • Behavior is based on prerequisite conditions. • He introduced tasking in the formulation of objectives.
  • 22. • Theories of Jean Piaget - Cognitive development has stages from birth to maturity: Sensory motor stage(0- 2), preoperational stage (2-7), concrete operation stage (7- 11)and formal operations (11- onwards) • Keys to learning - Assimilation - Accommodation - Equilibration
  • 23. • Theories of Lev Vygotsky - Cultural transmission and development - Learning precedes development - Sociocultural development theory • Keys to Learning - Pedagogy creates learning processes that lead to development - The child is an active agent in his or her educational process
  • 24. • Gardner’s multiple intelligences - Humans have several different ways of processing information and this ways are relatively independent of one another - There are eight intelligences: Linguistic, logico- mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily or kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic.
  • 25. • Emotion contains the power to affect action. -he called this emotional qoutient.
  • 27. • Gestalt Theory - Learning is explained in terms of “wholeness” of the problem - Human beings do not respond to isolated stimuli but to an organization or pattern of stimuli. • Keys to Learning - Learning is complex and abstract - Learners analyze the problem, discriminate between essential and nonessential data, and perceive relationships. - Learners will perceive something in relation to the whole. What or how they perceive is related to their previous experiences.
  • 28. • He advanced the self- actualization theory and classic theory of human needs. • A child whose basic needs are not met will not be interested in acquiring knowledge of the world. • He put importance to human emotions, based on love and trust. • Keys to Learning - Produce a healthy and happy learner who can accomplish, grow and actualize his or her human self.
  • 29. • Nondirective and Therapeutic Learning - he established counselling procedures and methods for facilitating learning. - Children’s perceptions, which are highly individualistic, influenced their learning and behavior in class. • Key to Learning - Curriculum is concerned with process, not product; personal needs, not subject matter, psychological meaning, not cognitive scores.
  • 31. • Society as a source of change • Schools as agents of change • Knowledge as an agent of change
  • 32. • Considered two fundamental elements- schools and civil society- to be major topics needing attention and reconstruction to encourage experimental intelligence and plurality.
  • 33. • Wrote the book Future Shock • Believed that knowledge should prepare students for the future. • Suggested that in the future, parents must have the resources to teach prescribe curriculum from home as a result of technology, not in spite of it.(Home Schooling) • Foresaw schools and students work creatively, collaboratively, and independent of their age.