Parasitic computing

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Parasitic Computing is a latest concept that challenges the communication protocol used in internet by exploring its loopholes and uses others computer resources without letting them know for very complex computational task. No, its not hacking.. it doesn't harm u, but...

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Parasitic computing

  1. 1. Parasitic Computing<br />Aritra Mukherjee<br />
  2. 2.
  3. 3.
  4. 4. If you’re one in a billion in INTERNET..<br />
  5. 5. …..there are millions of people like you.<br />
  6. 6. Who Are Being Used..<br />
  7. 7. In the world of internet, millions of peopleJust like you…<br />And You Will Never Know<br />
  8. 8. Someone else is using your computer<br />
  9. 9. He is slowing your Connection Speed for his own purpose..<br />
  10. 10. No, Its Not Cracking…<br />
  11. 11. You are a victim of Parasitic Computing..<br />
  12. 12. What is Parasitic Computing?<br />
  13. 13. First Reported in journal ‘Nature’ in 2001 by Barabasi, Freech, feong and Brockman<br /> A form of Distributed Computer Architecture<br /> Used for solving Complex <br />Computational Problems<br /> Target could never know<br /> Exploit Standard set of communication protocol in internet.<br /> Potential standard protocols are TCP, HTTP, IP<br />
  14. 14. To know how it works we need to know something first….<br />
  15. 15. How The Communication through Internet is done?<br />
  16. 16. When a user selects a URL….<br />Actions at Sender<br /> Open a TCP connection to web server<br /> Issues a HTTP request over TCP connection<br /> TCP message is carried via IP<br />
  17. 17. Establishing TCP Connection<br />SYN<br />Time-><br />SYN+ACK<br />ACK<br />Connection Established<br />Initiator Node<br />Acceptor Node<br />
  18. 18. When a user selects a URL….<br />Actions at receiver<br />Recieve message through IP<br /> Validate checksum at TCP<br /> Validated pushed to HTTP<br /> Not validated discard the packet<br />
  19. 19. Internet Communication<br />HTTP > TCP > IP > TCP > HTTP<br />
  20. 20. Implementation<br /> Implementation takes place at many layers in internet<br /> Several protocols may be exploited to perform parasitic computing<br /> Implementation made using TCP or higher levels<br />
  21. 21. Implementation Using TCP<br /> TCP Checksum<br />Provide enough logic to compute any Boolean function.<br /> HTTP Service<br />Protocol always send a response to any message received.<br />
  22. 22. TCP Checksum<br />
  23. 23. The Proof of Concept..<br /> Solved 3 SAT problem<br /> Solved other NP- Complete Problems..<br />
  24. 24. How it works…<br />
  25. 25. A Single home parasite node initiates the computation<br /> Sends a specially created TCP packet containing a possible solution.<br /> If the possible solution is correct, the HTTP server returns an error message.<br /> If the solution is wrong, then packet is dropped at TCP Layer<br />
  26. 26. Creating Parasitic Message<br /> The problem is constructed as the data part<br /> TCP checksum sent is a representation of expected answer<br /> Parasitic checksum and the variable string are sent to the remote machine for verification<br />
  27. 27. Algorithm<br />S= create TCP segments (x1, x2, x3, x4……….x15)<br />S.checksum = checksum<br />for eachx<br />S.data = pad with zeros (x)<br />send S<br />receive answer<br /> if answer = true<br />write x as a solution<br />
  28. 28. Prototype of Parasitic Computing<br />
  29. 29. Problem for Parasite<br /> Several computational cycles are taken to process the solutions<br /> Possibility of false negative<br /> Possibility of false positive<br />
  30. 30. Problem for Servers<br /> Delay due to the parasitic message could cause a denial of service<br /> Almost impossible to prevent<br /> Removing or changing the exploited functions would cause the server unable to communicate.<br />
  31. 31. Ethics in Parasitic computing<br />
  32. 32. Future…<br /> Computation to communication ratio must increase.<br /> Exploiting HTTP or encryption / decryption could execute in an efficient manner.<br /> The ethical dilemma could lead it to a vulnerable future..<br />
  33. 33.
  34. 34. Parasitic Computing logically moves computation onto the communication infrastructure of internet, blurring the distance between computation and communication<br />
  35. 35. References<br />Barabasi et.al. Parasitic Computing, NATURE 412, 30 Aug 2001.<br /> <br />Barabasi et.al. Supplement material for Parasitic Computing: http://www.nd.edu/~parasite/<br /> <br />Barger N. Robert & Crowell R. Charles, The ethics of Parasitic Computing, Sept 2003 : www.nd.edu/~ccrowell/Parasitic%20Computing.pdf<br />Ivars Peterson, Sneaky Calculations, Science News 160, 17 Nov 2001.<br /> <br />www.hindu.com/thehindu/2001/09/13/stories/08130001.htm<br />

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