International Online eJournal

Vol.-III, Issue-6
August 2011

ISSN 0975 - 7929
Vol - III, Issue – 6
August 2011
Bi-annual
...
International Online eJournal
ToC

Vol.-III, Issue-6
August 2011

Published & Edited by:
Chief Editor:
Dr. Bipin Parmar
Co...
International Online eJournal
ToC

Vol.-III, Issue-6
August 2011

Editorial
In the era of fast globalization the rapidly c...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-III, Issue-6
August 2011

ToC

Aims & Scope
Spark International Online eJournal (ISSN ...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-III, Issue-6
August 2011

ToC

Our Patrons

Shri J. G. Bhuva
Director
Shri Shardagram
...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-III, Issue-6
August 2011

ToC

Advisory Board

•

Dr. Jaydipsinh Dodiya : Reader, Dept...
International Online eJournal
ToC

•

Vol.-III, Issue-6
August 2011

Panel of Experts / Reviewers

Prof. Dr. Kamal Mehta :...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-III, Issue-6
August 2011

•

Dr. Jiwan Bakhshi

: Ph.D. (English Literature) Critic,
P...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-III, Issue-6
August 2011

ToC

Disclaimer
Dear Reader/s:
The articles in Spark Interna...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-III, Issue-6
August 2011

Communication Links

ToC

publication@sparkejournal.com

Edi...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-III, Issue-6
August 2011

ToC

Dear Editors
Spark Int’l Online eJournal
I am greatly p...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-III, Issue-6
August 2011

ToC

Dear Editors
Spark Int’l Online eJournal
I am highly pl...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-III, Issue-6
August 2011

ToC

Dear Friends,
It gives me immense pleasure to learn tha...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-III, Issue-6
August 2011

ToC

The Editors
Spark Int’l Online eJournal
It fills my hea...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-III, Issue-6
August 2011

multidisciplinary research studies. As this journal includes...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-III, Issue-6
August 2011

Table of Content
Sr.
No.

Article Title & Author

Page
No.

...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-III, Issue-6
August 2011

Table of Content Contd…
Sr.
No.

Article Title & Author

Pag...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-III, Issue - 6
August 2011

Article-1: Multicultural Diversity, Ethnic Conflicts and S...
International Online eJournal

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August 2011

Therefore, as DaveWeely (History of Community Cohesion 2)s...
International Online eJournal

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August 2011

This means that change is a continuous occurrence—although...
International Online eJournal

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August 2011

This issue was brought up, for instance, by ethnic clashes...
International Online eJournal

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August 2011

In his conversation with Spenser, Field presents the accou...
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Cultural nationalists hold that a democratic society could...
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Michel Walzer (Spheres of Justice) ascribes these two acti...
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Such sort of multicultural diversity turns into a non-tole...
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Plural societies should therefore be promoted culturally, ...
International Online eJournal

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Such questions of universal respect and egalitarian recipr...
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Hence, the communication between different cultural groups...
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International Online eJournal
Works cited:

1. SeylaBenhabib,“The claims of culture: Equa...
International Online eJournal

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10. Charles Taylor,The Politics of Recognition,In;Multicul...
International Online eJournal
•

•

Vol.-III, Issue - 6
August 2011

A Grant of 1200 $US, received from The Center for Pov...
International Online eJournal

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Article-2: Dhruv Bhatta’s Modern Aranyaks: Theorising Indi...
International Online eJournal

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Dhruv Bhatt is an established contemporary Gujarati writer...
International Online eJournal

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August 2011

(Meghani) Dhruv Bhatt draws on the Brihad Aranyak Upnishad...
International Online eJournal

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August 2011

What then is ecocriticism? Simply put, ecocriticism is the...
International Online eJournal

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August 2011

dwelling , Animals(relation with human) to conclude with F...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-III, Issue - 6
August 2011

The shift to the discourse of ecocriticism is in realistic...
International Online eJournal

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August 2011

Thousands of activities were organized worldwide, with bea...
International Online eJournal

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August 2011

The intervention of the writer through usually an anonymou...
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August 2011

and the whole universe can vibrate with the little word th...
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August 2011

and what would ultimately be written. The connection is dr...
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I could hear an unknown voice beckoning me, now I belived ...
International Online eJournal

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illegal mining, biodiversity , coastal regulations, soil e...
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And yet does anyone have the time to say khamma to the ear...
International Online eJournal

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August 2011

celebrated by Ravaata in order to give a feast to people a...
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when she asks for lift on the motorcycle from the narrator...
International Online eJournal

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One of them gave substantiated saying, ‘This too is Gyar. ...
International Online eJournal

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and if moved away the issues of soil erosion and ecologica...
International Online eJournal

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August 2011

At one the massage is through and the fisher folk wow not ...
International Online eJournal

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August 2011

Also turning to the beginning of this paper it is a fictio...
International Online eJournal

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August 2011

Note on Author:
R.B.Zala is a Senior Associate Professor, ...
International Online eJournal

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August 2011

Article-3: Comparative Overview of the Forms of Storytelli...
International Online eJournal

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flurry gave shorter forms like novella, one-act plays and ...
International Online eJournal

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At the heart of literature is telling story, and its succe...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-III, Issue - 6
August 2011

Coming to the 18th century, the century where in new forms...
International Online eJournal

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August 2011

a component or two by the time Samuel Richardson (1689-176...
International Online eJournal

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feminine methods of approaching the social life to the lat...
International Online eJournal

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In the modern times, industrialization & growth of factori...
International Online eJournal

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August 2011

fragmented art of telling story. In fact, there is no stor...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-III, Issue - 6
August 2011

Branes’s The History of the World in 10 ½ Chapters has a n...
International Online eJournal

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August 2011

rather than its content. The "book" consists of a first an...
International Online eJournal

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century is marked by the IT revolution. The time in which ...
International Online eJournal

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telling story initiated by Richardson in ‘Pamela’ found it...
International Online eJournal

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or radical change in the social order. Cyberpunk works are...
International Online eJournal

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August 2011

and tries to connect with with the literature. Let me quot...
International Online eJournal

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defines the words included in dictionaries, faculty fights...
International Online eJournal

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August 2011

with authors and your friends through social media all on ...
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videos that flesh out the plot.
Some publishers say this k...
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International Online eJournal

devices remain largely faithful to the traditional idea of...
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“For Oliver, who found the whole idea deeply embarrassing?...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-III, Issue - 6
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cognitive receptivity deadens the creative grey cells of h...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-III, Issue - 6
August 2011

was porno-writer, T.S. Eliot was not understood to the Mod...
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Spark international online e journal august 2011

  1. 1. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue-6 August 2011 ISSN 0975 - 7929 Vol - III, Issue – 6 August 2011 Bi-annual International Online eJournal Multi – disciplinary Multi – lingual Multi - media (A Refereed and Indexed eJournal) “The illiterate are not those who CAN’T read and write, but those who DON’T read and write” Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal
  2. 2. International Online eJournal ToC Vol.-III, Issue-6 August 2011 Published & Edited by: Chief Editor: Dr. Bipin Parmar Co-Editors: Dr. Firoz Shaikh Dr. Nayan Tank Sanjay Bhut In Collaboration with: Managed by: (Shri Bharat Sarasvati Mandir Sansad - Shardagram) Shri M.N.Kampani Arts & Shri A.K.Shah Commerce College- Mangrol, Gujarat - India (Affiliated to Saurashtra University- Rajkot) Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal i
  3. 3. International Online eJournal ToC Vol.-III, Issue-6 August 2011 Editorial In the era of fast globalization the rapidly changing fields of information, communication and technology–a dominant intellectual and political discourse of the last several decades-is one of the most outstanding developments of the past century. It has radically altered the politico-economic scenario. National territorial frontiers hold little significance in many spheres, which have affected peoples and societies across the world. It is true to say that, the arrival of information technology has made whole communication process easy and economical. It has also opened up floodgates of knowledge for all h through digital boom-internet. Since the technology is freely available to the developing countries, they are getting exposure to new ways as never before. Keeping this backdrop in mind, our humble attempt is to provide opportunity to the scholars of various subjects for sharing their novel ideas and thoughts through the medium of our online journal. The present issue contains multi-dimensional thoughts and information as well as ideas and analysis based on language, literature, commerce, technology etc. It is hoped that this issue will certainly lead scholars and colleagues think ahead. Bi-annual The Editors, Spark International Online eJournal (ISSN 0975-7929) Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal ii
  4. 4. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue-6 August 2011 ToC Aims & Scope Spark International Online eJournal (ISSN – 0975 – 7929) is unique of its kind that provides a forum for the discussion on recent topics and issues in the various disciplines which have an immediate bearing upon thought and practice in human life. Articles drawn from the motley disciplines, well-documented and well-communicated addressing our present curriculum, pedagogy, evaluation in education, the challenges and opportunities around us will find their place in the Journal. It would certainly ‘spark’ interest and passion among the aspirants, researchers, explorers, critics and others desirous of research, invention and contributing something to their respective area and to self, societal and national development. Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal iii
  5. 5. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue-6 August 2011 ToC Our Patrons Shri J. G. Bhuva Director Shri Shardagram (Guj.) India Dr. Hamirsinh Zankat Principal Shri M.N. Kampani Arts & Shri A.K. Shah Commerce College, Mangrol (Shardagram) Guj. Acknowledgements The College Staff & Alumni of Shri M.N. Kampani Arts & Shri A.K. Shah Commerce College, Mangrol (Shardagram) Gujarat-India Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal iv
  6. 6. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue-6 August 2011 ToC Advisory Board • Dr. Jaydipsinh Dodiya : Reader, Dept. of English & Comparative Studies, Sau. Uni.- Rajkot, Gujarat (India) • Dr. Dilip Bhatt : Head, Dept. of English, Shri V.D. Kanakia Arts & Shri M.R. Sanghavi Commerce College, Savarkundla, Gujarat • Dr. Dilip Barad : Associate Professor & Head, Dept. of English, Bhavnagar Uni., Bhavnagar, Gujarat • Dr. Farook Salat : Head, Dept. of English, M.S. Uni., Baroda, Gujarat Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal v
  7. 7. International Online eJournal ToC • Vol.-III, Issue-6 August 2011 Panel of Experts / Reviewers Prof. Dr. Kamal Mehta : Director – CDC & Head, Dept. of English & Comparative Studies, Sau. Uni. – Rajkot, Gujarat • Dr. Rajendrasinh Jadeja : Principal & Director, H.M. Patel Institute, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat - India • Prof. Dr.Hemixaben Rao : Hon’ble Vice Chancellor, Hemchandracharya North Gujarat University, Patan (Gujarat) • Prof. Dr. Daxaben Gohil : Head & Prof., Dept. of Commerce, Sau. Uni. - Rajkot, Gujarat • Ms. Latha Krishnamurthy: Director, Bansilal Ramnath Agarwal Charitable Trusts’ Vishwakarma Institute of Languages (VIL) – PUNE, Maharashtra • Dr. Ramesh Mehta : Asso. Prof. & Head, Gujarati Dept., Shri M.N.Kampani Arts & Shri A.K. Shah Commerce College – Mangrol, Gujarat • Atul Patil : Coordinator & Faculty, English Language Teaching, Institute of Symbiosis (ELTIS) & Symbiosis Institute of Foreign and Indian Languages (SIFIL) – PUNE, Maharashtra Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal vi
  8. 8. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue-6 August 2011 • Dr. Jiwan Bakhshi : Ph.D. (English Literature) Critic, Playwright , Poet, State Punjabi Literature (Drama) Awardee, Govt. P.G. College, Jind, Haryana, India • Dr. H.S. Joshi : Asso. Prof.,Dept. of Chemistry, Sau.Uni., Rajkot, Gujarat ToC Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal vii
  9. 9. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue-6 August 2011 ToC Disclaimer Dear Reader/s: The articles in Spark International Online eJournal (ISSN – 0975 – 7929) are edited and published by the permission of the concerned author/s. The editors/publishers do not agree/conform to the views, opinions, theories expressed in the articles in any way. Authors are required to seek relevant approvals for any copyright material they may use in their contributions to Spark eJournal. The eJournal will not be responsible in any way for copyright infringements. Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal viii
  10. 10. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue-6 August 2011 Communication Links ToC publication@sparkejournal.com Editors Chief Editor: Dr. Bipin Parmar Shri M.N. Kampani Arts & Shri A.K. Shah Commerce College, Mangrol (Shardagram), Gujarat – India E-mail: br_parmar444@yahoo.co.in Co-Editors: Dr. Firoz Shaikh Lt. Shri N. R. Boricha Edu.Trust Sanchalit Arts & Commerce College, Mendarda, Dist.-Junagadh, Gujarat – India E-mail: firozjunagadh@gmail.com Blog: http//firozmendarda.blogspot.com Sanjay Bhut Mahila Arts & Commerce College, Veraval (Somnath) Dist.-Junagadh, Gujarat – India E-mail: sanjay.bhut@yahoo.com Dr. Nayan Tank Gurukul Mahila Arts & Commerce College,Jubilee Porbandar, Dist.-Porbandar, Gujarat – India E-mail: nayandtank@gmail.com Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal ix
  11. 11. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue-6 August 2011 ToC Dear Editors Spark Int’l Online eJournal I am greatly pleased to know that Spark eJournal is indexed in Cabell’s Directory U.S.A. I congratulate its Editorial Board for such a praiseworthy and substantive work. Its inclusion in the highly-acclaimed Cabell’s Directory of Journals in the USA is an indeed another feather in the cap. I praise vociferously the entire team of the Spark Online e-Journal. It is a great pleasure to see and go through the latest number of Spark Online e-Journal. Its content and outlook are attention-arresting. It will be useful to a larger teaching and learning communities since it is multilingual and rich with multimedia. I wish for its growth and development in all directions of higher education. I also wish that more and more higher educational institutes may take note of this eJournal as a research work and join it by actively participating in it. With kind regards. Dr. Hemixa Rao Vice-Chancellor H.N.G.University PATAN (North Gujarat) India Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal x
  12. 12. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue-6 August 2011 ToC Dear Editors Spark Int’l Online eJournal I am highly pleased to know that Spark eJournal is indexed in esteemed directory named Cabell’s Directory,U.S.A. It is, indeed, a phenomenon thing for all of us. I congratulate entire committed team of Spark eJournal. Education assumes utmost significance in human life. In the present time, it is deemed as the potent means of empowering the humanity along with enhancing process of civilization. Higher education contributes to them by way of creating and disseminating ideas and knowledge. Such journals serve as a forum for sharing and disseminating ideas and knowledge. Spark is at its best in making accessible them to scholars and colleagues across the world. Once again, I convey my sincere congratulation to spark Pariwar. Prof. Dr. Kamal Mehta Director – CDC & Head, Dept. of English & Comparative Studies, Sau. Uni. – Rajkot, Gujarat Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal xi
  13. 13. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue-6 August 2011 ToC Dear Friends, It gives me immense pleasure to learn that Spark International eJournal is listed in Cabell’s Directory U.S.A. It is a prestigious Directory of manuscripts and the journal’s inclusion in it underscores the high quality of the journal. After a span of three years, Spark International eJournal has matured and is doing commendable work in the academic field. I am very pleased that Spark International eJournal is following all the parameters of a quality research journal. I will not hesitate to say that Spark is one of the most noteworthy Journals of Gujarat. Wish the entire team of Spark the very best for future issues. Dr. Farook Salat Head, Dept. of English, M.S. Uni., Baroda, Gujarat, India Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal xii
  14. 14. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue-6 August 2011 ToC The Editors Spark Int’l Online eJournal It fills my heart with joy unspeakable to know that Spark eJournal is indexed in international directory. I feel privileged to announce this prestigious news that Cabell Publishing Inc. has selected Spark eJournal for indexing among renowned and internationally reputed journals of the world. It read on Cabell Publishing official website that – “In 1978, Cabell Publishing, Inc. was founded to help professors, graduate students, and researchers publish their manuscripts in academic journals.” They have almost a dozen of directories for academic journal and Spark eJournal is indexed in the directory for Educational Journals. This journal will be accessible from any corner of the world which is connected through internet. The Cabell’s Directory will help in systematic dissemination of creative & innovative ideas and in sharing & collaborating information which in turn will lead us towards knowledge society. This eJournal has been quite unique from the idea of its inception. It is one of the morning voices in the arena of interdisciplinary and Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal xiii
  15. 15. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue-6 August 2011 multidisciplinary research studies. As this journal includes all the subjects of Humanities, Social Sciences & other branches of knowledge, the readers get variety of knowledge to keep them abreast with latest happenings in the academic research. The multilingual feature of this journal is something that all journals published in country like India should adhere to. It provides opportunity to regional writers to contribute at international level. It gives ample opportunity to the peripheral view points to challenge the centre. It helps in giving ears to the unheard melodies. I wish for its growth and wide spread in academia in and out of India. I heartily congratulate to the young team of editors and all those who are actively involved with this journal for this grand success. Without your help, guidance & insights this journal would have not been so successful. Let this eJournal be borderless in terms of identity, language, nation, knowledge & wisdom! Dr. Dilip Barad Associate Prof. & Head, Department of English, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Campus, Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar - Gujarat (India) ToC Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal xiv
  16. 16. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue-6 August 2011 Table of Content Sr. No. Article Title & Author Page No. 01 Multicultural Diversity, Ethnic Conflicts and Social Dialogue: Towards Community Cohesion in Plural Societies --Dr. Motaleb Azari 1-14 02 Dhruv Bhatta’s Modern Aranyaks: Theorising Indian Ecocriticism --R. B. Zala 15-34 03 Comparative Overview of the Forms of Storytelling with Reference to the Digital Age -- Dr. Dilip Barad 35-61 04 History and the Individual in Manju Kapoor’s Married Woman --Dr. Firoz Shaikh 62-76 05 Waste Elimination Method of 5S: A Review --Er. Rajesh Kumar Mehta; Dr. Naveen K. Mehta; Dr. D Mehta 77-85 06 Tagore's Portrayal of Feminine Characters: Manifesting the Bengali Society -- Dr. Richa Tewari 86-100 07 Creating Teaching Learning Value Chain with Modern-Age Paradigms -- Ms. Nishrin Pathan 101-127 08 Social thinking in Modern Sanskrit literature --Prema Sharma; Hemant Bamoriya 128-138 Contd… Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal xv
  17. 17. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue-6 August 2011 Table of Content Contd… Sr. No. Article Title & Author Page No. 09 Representation of Upper Class in Oscar Wilde’s ‘The Importance of Being Earnest’ -- Ms. Kavita Vansia 139-166 10 Cartoon Analysis : A technique for Classroom Interaction -- Shamsha Emanuel 167-174 11 We, Technology and Puppets: Who’s Who? -- Ms. Jelam Hardik 175-180 12 Social thinking in Modern Sanskrit literature -- Dr. Sanjay Pandya 181-197 13 Creative Writing and Multimedia -- R. Janaky 198-214 14 Law and Order: The Story of the Rulers and the Ruled --Siddharth Chaturvedi 215-234 15 English Proficiency -A Step towards Sustainable Community Development in small cities -- Ms. Ritu R. Agarwal 235-245 16 Marketing Ethics: Issues & Problems --Dr. Kailashben P. Damor 246-280 ToC Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal xvi
  18. 18. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Article-1: Multicultural Diversity, Ethnic Conflicts and Social Dialogue: Towards Community Cohesion in Plural Societies ToC Dr. Motaleb Azari Assistance Professor and Chairman of Department of Studies in English, Payame Noor University of Chenaran, Iran. “Difference is of the essence of humanity. Difference is an accident of birth and it should therefore never be the source of hatred or conflict. The answer to difference is to respect it. Therein lays a most fundamental principle of peace: respect for diversity.” (John Hume, Nobel Lecture1998) Abstract Community cohesion goes further than ideas of racial equality and social inclusion. It includes issues of class, gender, sexuality, etc. and is more about the dynamic relationships between and within communities in a society. Explaining the concept of community cohesion in simple, meaningful and direct terms underpins many challenging issues. In this regard, to achieve community cohesion it is necessary to consider a broad range of concerns including social inequalities, socio-cultural diversity and even modernisation in terms of access to communication and information technologies. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 1
  19. 19. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Therefore, as DaveWeely (History of Community Cohesion 2)suggests, a cohesive society is one which creates a common vision and a sense of belonging among all communities wherein the diversity of individuals’ backgrounds and circumstances are “appreciated and positively valued”. In fact, this cohesion provides the situation for those from different backgrounds to have similar life opportunities. In this sense, strong and positive relationships will be developed among people from different backgrounds and society will achieve a sustainable socio-cultural development. It is important to understand the root causes and implications of particular incidents of any social disorder. Hence, the main emphasis must be on improving community cohesion among various ethnic groups and removing collective tensions. Before exploring the causes and influences of any crosscultural conflict due to such tensions, however, an attempt will be made here to provide a clear understanding of the concept of cultural diversity and the nature of ethnic conflict in plural societies. When we use the word “social” we are referring to society and to individuals that make up the society. Every society is constantly in transition as long as these individuals inter-mingle with one another. But social dynamism, or the rate of social change, may vary from one society to another and alterations within a society’s social organization, within its social institutions, and its social structure contribute to this social dynamism and change. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 2
  20. 20. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 This means that change is a continuous occurrence—although in most cases the cultural and social entities would persist in such changes. Sociocultural changes come about when members of a society are confronted with cultural practices that differ from those that they have learned to accept and new customs are likely to be adopted more readily if they are viewed as being socially desirable and useful (Datin&Bujang 1). The issue of multicultural diversity has been broadly discussed on both scientific and public levels. During past decades, a “multiculturalist” perspective has been adopted by public policy framework in order to deal with cultural diversity. The idea of multicultural society has its roots in nation-states, throughout their histories, when confronted with international migration such as in Canada, The United States and Australia. These states are conventionally referred to as examples of various forms of multicultural society, accommodated through nation states’ public policies (Neumannova 1-2). Still, the issue includes a variety of challenges, which take new shapes according to the different political circumstances wherever they are manifested. Western European countries lately recognized the need to react to the cultural diversity brought in by immigrants as a consequence of their immigration and integration policies. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 3
  21. 21. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 This issue was brought up, for instance, by ethnic clashes in Yugoslavia and Eastern Europe after the fall of communism, and by the crisis of the traditional nation-state in Western Europe, determined by non-European immigration into this area. Due to these and other events, multicultural diversity has been considered the root of possible international ethnic conflicts and discords. In this regard, most of the scientists and researchers identified the problem of multicultural diversity as a challenge to liberal democratic system and to civil society (2). Even some contemporary intellectuals such as the Canadian social scientist, John Ralston Saul tackles these challenges in hisThe Next Best Thing and The Paradise Eater. The main figures in these works are mainly of Canadian and European origins who have, temporarily or permanently, selected Thailand— another multicultural society—as their homeland. The question to be addressed here is to what extent can a plural society like Thailand include Western immigrants, who do not accept that society’s principles, without disintegrating itself? On the other side, how can such a society integrate immigrants, who have completely different ethnic origins, cultural principles and religion? Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 4
  22. 22. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 In his conversation with Spenser, Field presents the accounts on how various immigrants from USA, Canada and Europe have come and settled in Thailand; “A lot of us came here to get away. That wasn’t how we put it. We thought we’d come because of Vietnam, but that was just an excuse. … There [are] lots of Brits, Australians, French, everything”. These immigrants with “lots of stories” contribute to disintegrating Thai society (Paradise 22- 23; ch. 2). Giovanni Sartori (10) suggests that in more recent times the issue of multicultural diversity in plural societies has been very closely related to the question of “liberal society” and “liberal nation-states”. Liberal society, according to its definition, is there to guarantee individuals’ universal rights for freedom and autonomy. Modern nation states have so far been inclined towards promoting unifying and inclusive policies, and their aim still is to promote equality among citizens in regard to their civil rights in social and political life. In practice, these political demands have usually manifested themselves into acculturation policies meant to safeguard integration of diverse cultural groups. In this sense, recognition of an individual on a national level, acknowledged through a set of given cultural and linguistic stereotypes and political symbols, has been considered an essential step towards the acquisition of a citizenship in such plural societies. However, achieving equality in accessing civil rights—as the main focus on this theory—often meant for individuals from different cultural groups to gain equal opportunities. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 5
  23. 23. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Cultural nationalists hold that a democratic society could solve such problems of inequality only through a shared national culture.Even increasing cultural diversity, which we can observe in modern plural societies since the beginning of the nineties of the last century, has focused our attention to the promotion of rights for different cultural groups. This is the reason why cultural diversity is often taken for granted by multiculturalists, in order to give an answer to ethnic conflicts or clashes in plural societies. Charles Taylor’s “politics of recognition” has also its roots in “communitarian liberalism” (25-74). Its central notion is that the recognition of cultural rights of communities should be guaranteed equally to each community, because “all cultures have an equal value”. However, this theory is not interested in affirmative action, reducing the inequalities and redefining equal opportunities for all; its goal is rather the formation of “differentiated individuals”, and of a state with sensibility for a difference. The main issue of policies designed under the influence of the politics of recognition is that they lead to divisions among citizens. In both cases, either affirmative action or politics of recognition lead to a reaction, where discriminated groups claim the same advantages given to other groups, while those groups with strong cultural identity claim more privileges at the expense of non-supported cultural groups. Such backlashes keep alive a discriminative behavior of disadvantaged groups or groups which are not accepted, or which are denied by a community. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 6
  24. 24. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Michel Walzer (Spheres of Justice) ascribes these two actions to different types of liberalism. One type of liberalism is mostly concerned with liberal rights of individuals, in this way wishing to create a neutral state. A second kind of liberalismpermits one or more nations to flourish on account of other nations, while the rights of citizens, who are engaged in civil life, are, preserved. Therefore, multicultural diversity in a democracy provides a situation for individuals to be identified enough with their culture, in order to be recognized as politically or socially equal. The question of moral relevance for cultural rights as observed in the multicultural theories of Will Kymlicka or Charles Taylor, in order to justify other political or social actions, makes out of cultural recognition a matter of universal human rights and, consequently, the possible goal of political struggle to reach equal representation. It is to be observed that the multicultural diversity as suggested by some social scientists, does not propose any solution towards a conciliation of cultural differences with political institutions, but it would rather create distance and increase the political relevance of these differences. Therefore, multicultural diversity according to such a mindset would not bring unity of different cultural groups in one state, but rather social dissolution and further differentiation. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 7
  25. 25. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Such sort of multicultural diversity turns into a non-tolerant policy, denying mutual recognition and integration, and it leads to what is called, the “balkanization” of societies. The cultural diversities of various ethnic groups in these states, would be therefore, radicalized into political programs, and society is politically and socially increasingly polarized. In The Next Best Thing(40- 41; ch. 3), there is a conversation between Gordon and Spenser which refers to the fragility of such societies: The society of man is the most delicate of flowering plants. Mistreated, ignored, grown foolish or over ambitious or too weak or too strong it does not wither but explodes in a mere second and disappears so completely it might never have existed. Its survival depends not on the good reading of warnings but on the correct actions of the society itself. A seed of imbalance appears at first to be nothing. But then it swells and germinates and flourishes into blossom. And no matter how beautiful the flower, its seeds will destroy the garden. The creative genius that you and I worship is a minor by-product that dies with the rest. The idea that economic development would help liberate individuals from their fixed roles and responsibilities,may perhaps explain why modern liberal theories inclined to ignore the question of morality, especially when it comes to reinforcing cultural diversity in a plural society (Neumannova3-5). Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 8
  26. 26. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Plural societies should therefore be promoted culturally, but it is not specified how to build their social unity, when dealing with various cultural identities various ethnic groups. The general presuppositions are that the principle of citizenship will guarantee the equality among citizens, both in civil rights and responsibilities. Such principle of citizenship expects such societies to show neutrality towards cultural differences. The danger in integration of citizens who do not see this responsibility towards a state and towards other citizens implies that we can create differentiated citizenship based on a refusal of a state, which does not recognize cultural or ethnic differences. This is why many plural societies turn to fight for independence from the existing majorities. Citizenship in this sense is presented less as a system for attributing rights and more as a political field. However, we can ask a question as to whether all the political and social movements, really aim for socio-cultural recognition. In other words, this paper is led to the point of asking whether we really need a political strategy to manage cultural diversity, when culture is capable in its autonomy to accommodate differences without restrictions. Or whether the demand for recognition of cultural differences is really connected to existing cultural diversity in a multicultural society, or whether it only represents the will of cultural groups for adjusting social and political inequalities? Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 9
  27. 27. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Such questions of universal respect and egalitarian reciprocity seem to be central nowadays to the discussion on multicultural diversity. Different groups in a multicultural society may fight for equality of moral values and demand to be ethnically and culturally recognized in a classificatory taxonomy of a state’s structures. “Often cultural differences are understood as cultural hierarchies rather than cultural variations” (Neumannova 7). For cultural relativists, cultural claims are important issues about equality. Therefore, cultural relativismperceives the contextual nature of equality under the influence of a constructive discourse. On the whole, the risk of multicultural diversity failing in its propositions of cultural relativism lays in the premise that every ethnic group has its own and distinct but equal values and cultural patterns. Therefore, no one could validly object to beliefs or interests of any ethnic group, because these interests and beliefs reflect their worldview. Consequently, the moral equality among various groups, and the presupposition that all groups possess their own sovereign perspective on right and wrong, have been the most criticized points of cultural relativism. Referring to this, Benhabib (34-35) suggests that some aspects of cultural relativism are true derivatives from certain features of modern world, and also from knowledge that the variability of human cultures is as old as human culture itself. In this sense, our increasing knowledge of other cultures multiplies our sense of relativity. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 10
  28. 28. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Hence, the communication between different cultural groups and attempts to understand each other is only an interpretation and a process of making sense of meanings. The central insight that meaning must be first interpreted and understood from a standpoint of its producers, takes us to important moral implications. There is still very little research done on cultural relativism and equality of moral values. But, for example, studies from Brubaker (1992) or Ireland (1994) show how different national forms of participatory mechanisms shape political activities of immigrants, and such studies have proven to be very productive in understanding moral values of both immigrants and host society. Both, Brubaker and Ireland,arrived at similar results; they tried to prove that culturally similar groups of immigrants mobilize differently in different countries. This opened a discussion whether cultural recognition is really the main reason for political claims of culturally different groups, and it led to reconsidering cultural diversity as a problematic category. Such assumptions consequently affirm the idea that multicultural diversity does not use culture as an end but as the means to solve moral inequities in contemporary society. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 11
  29. 29. Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 International Online eJournal Works cited: 1. SeylaBenhabib,“The claims of culture: Equality and diversity in the Global era”, Princeton: Princeton University Press. 2002. 34-35. 2. Roger Brubaker, Citizenship and Nationhood in France and Germany, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1992. 3. Datin and RahmahBujang, “Cultural Diversity: Social Inclusion or Exclusion?” World Youth Foundation Dialogue.(June-July 2007): 1. 4. John Hume, “Nobel Lecture.” Oslo. (December 10, 1998).Web. 04. 03. 2008. 5. Patrick Ireland, “The Policy Challenge of Ethnic Diversity: Immigrant Politics in France and Switzerland”, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1994. 6. RadkaNeumannova, “Multiculturalism and Cultural Diversity in Modern Nation State.”A paper presented to Conference Turin University of Economics, Prague Czech Republic.(2007): 1- 10, 09. 08. 2009. 7. Giovanni Sartori, “Pluralismus, Multikulturalismus a Pristěhovalci. Dokoran”, 2005, 10. In; Neumannova, Radka. “Multiculturalism and cultural diversity in modern nation state”. A paper presented to Conference Turin University of Economics, Prague Czech Republic. 2007. 8. John Ralston Saul, The Next Best Thing, Ontario: Collins, 1986. 9. ---. The Paradise Eater, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1988. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 12
  30. 30. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 10. Charles Taylor,The Politics of Recognition,In;Multiculturalism: Examining the Politics of Recognition, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1992.25-74. 04. 11. 2007. 11. Michael Walzer, Spheres of Justice: A Defense of Pluralism and Equality, New York: Basic Books,1983, xiv. 11. 05. 2010. 12. Dave Weeley, “History of Community Cohesion.” Community Cohesion – LGA,(2001): 2. Note on the Author: Presently living in Bangalore, Motaleb Azari (b. 1978) is a Lecturer (Azad University of Quchan), PhD Scholar (Dos in English, University of Mysore, India). He has participated and presented many research papers at the national and international seminars and conferences in India and abroad including Kolkata, Varanasi, Mysore, Kerala, Malaysia, Turkey, Canada, and a lot more. Hi papers/articles have been published in ‘Sarasa Dhvanyavaloka’, ‘Indian Journal of Post Colonial Studies’, etc. Grants and Awards: • “Bonyad Shahid Fellowship for Ph.D. scholars abroad” (2007 to present) • University of Mysore, Registration under “Scheme A” for outstanding foreign MA candidates. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 13
  31. 31. International Online eJournal • • Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 A Grant of 1200 $US, received from The Center for Poverty and Development Studies(CPDS), for a research contribution in the International Islamic Conference, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Winner of the Grant prize (Umrah), in “Quran Festival for Iranian Students Abroad”, 2009 for the selected paper entitled; “Quran and Globalization of Cultures”. Honors Received: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. “The Outstanding Ph.D. Scholars’ Honor” Received from the Iran Embassy, India (2008). “The Outstanding Ph.D. Scholars’ Honor” Received from “The Union of Iranian Students’ Islamic Association in India for the years 2007-08. “The Outstanding MA Students’ Honor” Received from the Iran Embassy, India for Years; 2005 & 2006. “The Outstanding MA Students’ Honor” Received from The Union of Iranian Students’ Islamic Association in India. (2005). Honor received from Guilan University, Rasht, Iran, for securing the 4th place of outstanding Young Scholars in English Literature (2001). ToC Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 14
  32. 32. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Article-2: Dhruv Bhatta’s Modern Aranyaks: Theorising Indian Ecocriticism ToC R. B. Zala Senior Associate Professor, Department of English & CLS, Saurashtra University Rajkot (Gujarat) Abstract Dhruv Bhatta’s Modern Aranyaks: Theorising Indian Ecocriticism ॐ पू र् णमदः पू र् णमि दम् पू र् णा त् पू र् णमु दच् यते | पू र् णस् य पू र् णमा दा य पू र् णमे वा वशि ष् यते || ॐ शा न् ति ः शा न् ति ः शा न् ति ः || oṃ pūrṇamadaḥ pūrṇamidam pūrṇāt pūrṇamudacyate pūrṇasya pūrṇamādāya pūrṇamevāvaśiṣyate oṃ śāntiḥ śāntiḥ śāntiḥ Om ! That (Brahman) is infinite, and this (universe) is infinite. The infinite proceeds from the infinite. (Then) taking the infinitude of the infinite (universe), It remains as the infinite (Brahman) alone. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 15
  33. 33. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Dhruv Bhatt is an established contemporary Gujarati writer, who is engaged in fictionalizing the basic environment issues, since last three decades, of ecology and traditional wisdom of the people dwelling in and around wilderness that present the environment issues discussed locally as well as globally. His first hand real experience of the life is well merged with the seemingly fantastic mythical narration in abode natural habitats of endangered species and human life in locales of Gujarat. His works are more than travelogues in creating a fictional word out of his real life wanderings in rapidly erasing eco system to interweave the environmental issues that are raised at the global forums to confront with the solutions at local level in the most natural and cohesive way. The issues as save whales and lions incorporated from two different terrains of thorny forest of Gir and the western coastal region ‘Ghed’ are interwoven without being slightest burden to the narrative is the focus of my study of Samudrantike(1993), Tatvamasi (1998), and Akoopar (2010). Greg Garrard’s Ecocriticism (2004) is the text for reference to speak of western ecocriticism to extend the theoretical perspective in Indian context through the contemporary Gujarati fictions by Dhruv Bhatt based on ‘a quest for fine balance between a traditional, non-scientific, faith driven society and cynical, profit driven economy.’ Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 16
  34. 34. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 (Meghani) Dhruv Bhatt draws on the Brihad Aranyak Upnishad to contextualize the Indian ecocritical perspective to appreciate the newly emerging discourse of ‘Ecology and Literature’. In Introduction to The Ecocriticism Reader, Cheryl Glotfelty and Harold Fromm, define "ecocriticism as the study of the relationship between literature and the physical environment….takes an earth-centered approach to literary studies’ The ecocritics have moved on to Ecocriticism that takes as its subject the interconnections between nature and culture, specifically the cultural artifacts of languages and literature, As a critical stance, it has one foot in literature and the other on land; as a theoretical discourse, it negotiates between the human and the non-human. But here the western notion of seeing diversity or binary opposition ‘human and the non-human’ while India can contribute with the wisdom of oneness to evaluate and study the writers as Dhruv Bhatt to speak of the interdisciplinary study that ecocriticism envisages to take in the cultural and environmental engagements in literature. Greg Garrard to elucidate the term ‘ecocriticism’ in Ecocriticism commence with ‘Begings: Pollution’ the reference to Carson’s Silent Sping(1962) to take a lead from scientific material that may well be amable to more ‘literary’ or ‘cultural’ analysis. Sighting Glotfelty with the fundamental question What is ecocriticism? : Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 17
  35. 35. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 What then is ecocriticism? Simply put, ecocriticism is the study is the study of the relationship between literature and the physical environment. Just as feminist criticism examins language and literature from the gender-conscious perspective, and Maxist criticism brings an awareness of modes of production and economic class to its reading of texts, ecocriticism takes an earth-centered approachto literary studies.(3) Approaching ahead from study of nature or wilderness from romantics in the early phase AND environmental crisis Garrald broadly defines ecocriticism as, Indeed , wider definition of the ecocriticism is the study of relationship of the human and non-human, throughout human cultural history and entailing critical analysis of the term ‘human’ itself. (5) The theorisation proceed to look into the ‘Positions’ as cornucopia (exaggerated threats), environmentalism (Concerned about environment issues but are not for radical change), Deep Ecology (flourishing of human- non human life has value but with smaller human population / Duality of human and nature), ecofeminism(association of woman with nature) social ecology and eco-marxism(rational-political) and (Difference between mere material existence and revelation of being/ extraordinary in ordinary). He goes on to elaborate on the key concerns/ trops for ecocriticsi.e. pastorals, wilderness(uncontaminated state of nature by civilisation) apocalypse narratives(prophetic) and troubles with apocalypse narratives, Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 18
  36. 36. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 dwelling , Animals(relation with human) to conclude with Future direction ‘The Earth’- earth/ dying image from space-monoculturing minds with homogenization through globalization and simulations by VR programmes (Biosphere 2 (1991) AND Thd EadenProject: cornwell (2000) )and Gaia (the ancient Greek Earthgoddess) to discuss the future challenges that ecocriticism of relation between globalization and ecocriticism end with a final futuristic comment as, It ought not to be too pious or too implausible, to associate with ecocriticism of the future with Eden’s inflection of the Earth: attuned to environment justice, but not dismissive of claims of commerce and technology; shaped by knowledge of long-term environment problems, ecological insight; and commitment to preservation of biological diversity of the planet for all its habitants. It is a long way from the pastoral we started with, and it is a great-souled vision with its feet planted solidly on the ground.(Garrard 182) Expending the argument with the western ‘vision’ with the wisdom to Indian ‘vision’ we shift to Dhruv Bhatt and his drawing from the Upnishad to contextualize the Indian ecocritical perspective to appreciate the newly emerging discourse of ‘Ecology and Literature’. The title themselves clearly are suggestive of his drawing from the tradition of the past and assimilating the present through the living spaces that that survive eternally in the abode of nature as Gir , Ghed, river banks and sea shores. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 19
  37. 37. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 The shift to the discourse of ecocriticism is in realistic presentation of the topology as a living text as Gir or Ghed as ground zero (‘feet planted on the ground’)against the mythical and prophetic tools that the western mind strive to bank on. Gaia to Gir is the striking difference between the sources of context that speaks of dead and alive respectively. The spaces narrated are not utopian nor pastoral nostalgia. Neither pastoral nor wilderness. It is no virtual or artificial simulater that is manmade reality based on sophisticated technology. Today if final solution is sought in unmeditated earth it is in these text that represent the surviving unmapped scapes in the mindscapes of people and landscapes of Gir and Ghed. To speak of theory to practice of ecocritics and activist against homogeniziing the indigenous ways of life is highly under the takeover of the project globalization which is run by the economically and politically powerful corporate houses and global brands. The global events by global forums are directionless and powerless to toil against the so called progress and developments that are compulsions for poverty-stricken nations of third world. The global ecological concerns can be viewed with the theme of 2010 Earth Day ‘One Planet. One Future'. It celebrated the incredible diversity of life on Earth as part of the 2010 International Year of Biodiversity. This year's global host, Rwanda – a country of exceptional biodiversity that has made huge strides on environmental protection – leaded the celebrations with three days of keynote events. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 20
  38. 38. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Thousands of activities were organized worldwide, with beach cleanups, concerts, exhibits, film festivals, community events and much more. Pittsburgh, was selected as the North American host city by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to join World Environment Day-2010. " Highlighting theme "Biodiversity- Ecosystem Management and the Green Economy". Slogans as ‘Save Whales/Panda/Tigers/ Trees’ with national and international organizations and activists speak of the damage done to the environment in order to put forward the issues that have to a greater extent brought about an awareness towards the devastating effects of over use of natural resources by human population to lead us on the edge of dooms day. The reasons for the catastrophe need no further study but the solutions seem to be out of reach due to non commitment to resolve the crises at local as well as global level. ‘Global worming’ to the issues of the local tribes are worsening as the clock ticks on. Dhruv Bhatts’ works are modern Arayanks which he has written through his wanderings and dwelling in the forests or by the sea shores and river sides. It unfolds the secret knowledge of the age old seers to communicate in the modern language and novel form to the contemporary world. The canvass he uses is painted with the background distorted landscapes of the surviving natural habitats to speak of the physical environmental problems. He speaks out the mindscapes through the surviving wisdom with the people and their culture in these spaces. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 21
  39. 39. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 The intervention of the writer through usually an anonymous narrator is the understanding one can reach if the knowledge of decoded with self affiliation to the environment. The exoteric actions reveal the mind that contemplating on esoteric as Sri Swami Krishnananda in his introduction to Brihad Aranyak Upanishad as, The Upaniṣhad is a revelation of the inner principles of life as manifest in actions of a variegated nature. The ritual of the is contemplated in the Upaniṣhads. The Vedic sacrifice, or, for the matter of that, any kind of religious performance, is a symbol, ultimately, which is the point of departure in all esoteric approaches to religion. External religion is symbolic of an internal principle which is true religion, towards which the Upaniṣhad drives our minds. This departure is to be found in every religion in the world. The symbolic character of human activity and religious performance is brought out in a study of esoteric principles, which is the philosophy of life. The activities of human life are symbolic in the sense that they are not representative of the whole Truth, but manifest only certain aspects of Truth. Every action is involved in cosmic relations of which very few are brought to the surface of one’s notice when the action is really performed. We always think that an action is motivated by an individual or a group of individuals towards a particular relative end which is visible to the eye and conceivable by the mind, but never do we imagine for a moment that there can be farther reaches of the tentacles of this action, beyond the reach of the human eye and mind and our little action can really be a cosmic deed, that God can see what we do, Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 22
  40. 40. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 and the whole universe can vibrate with the little word that difficult thing for us to understand; and the Upaniṣhad explains it to bring to the purview of our consciousness these inward secrets of outward action, telling us that the outward sacrifice is symbolic of an inward contemplation of Universal Reality. (13) Dhruv Bhatt fictionalizes the life of people dwelling in and around the natural abodes of Gujarat to incorporate the issues and solutions at hand. His realistic presentation of life and locals in Samudrantike (southern most coast of Saurashtra), Tatvamasi (on/along the banks of river Narmada) and Akoopar (Gir forest) are result of his wanderings and dwelling with the people as a seeker of knowledge with faith in the deep rooted culture that survives withs age old living vedic tradition. I would focus on Akoopar that unfolds not just the geographic space that is the wild life sanctuary of the few surviving Asiatic lions that are under the threat of extinction but the surviving tradition of the people that can be a solution to all our anxiety at the local, national and the global level. To begin with, the writer’s explanatory note: ‘About the Title’ Akoopar, states that he ‘decided’ to write on Gir and Ghed (a coastal region north to Gir ) regions rather than any characters or theme. The characters evolve as it were in a given space. He further refers to the word ‘Akoopar’(Tortoise), suggested as the title by a friend with its meaning, was referred to Bhagavat Gomandal and the myth of Akoopar from Mahabharat was kown to the writer but it was confusing to connect it to what he was planning to write Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 23
  41. 41. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 and what would ultimately be written. The connection is drawn from the two incidences of his meeting of an old man whose utterance while narrating the calamity of the cyclone in 1882 and the half flat forest ‘…I thought that it was the end of the lifespan of Gir. But when I look at it today my dear has started to laugh. Now I can beat my breast (undoubtedly) and say that what the forefathers were saying is not wrong. Gir is my mother, eternal.’ And another incident in Ghed someone during the discussions on sky watching and revolution of Earth they spoke of the early belief that the earth is balanced on the hood of Shesh Nag and the back of the tortoise at that time someone commented that, ‘if that was the case then the point on which the support was would be exactly under Gir.’ This speaks of the centrality of the thorny Gir forest in the text and faith of the writer in the continuing tradition of wisdom for which he employs the title metaphorically to present the text as the witness to eternal ethos of life just as the mythical Akoopar of Mahabharat. The writers design of the text speaks of his design to blend the temporal with eternal. Akoopar gives the geographical map of the region just before it opens and gives space to the original myth of Akoopar after the narration ends. Symbolically the fiction is presented/held/planted by two palms with all the consciousness of real concrete geographical space and the long past. In between is the unfolding of living wisdom that links the two. Title Tatvamasi need no explaination nor does Samudrantike (translated as Oceanside Blues Mahendra Meghani) where the recurring revelation/ epiphany through the calls of legendry river Narmada and the earth respectively as: Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 24
  42. 42. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 I could hear an unknown voice beckoning me, now I belived that the earth indeed called out … The communion between nature and man was an established phenomenon that had stood the taste of time. Beyond doubt there exist in the universe a secret code by which the animate and the inanimate are able to interact.(Meghani 183) The writer keeping with the tradition creates a narrator who is an unnamed painter on a assignment to paint the element of ‘earth’ among five basic elements for the interior decoration under a big project. The artist is the outsider who gradually unfolds the inner world of Gir. The wide range of characters from Maldharis (cattle rearers)who live within the forest, to forest officers and guards, villagers, wildlife activist, fishermen, characters dead and alive present the life of Gir and Ghed regions. It is a modern Aranyak Upnishad where the narrator sits at the feet of the Gir dwellers to attain wisdom. The painting of the ‘Earth’ element for a modern artist is more of an imagination while for the traditional artist as Iemma. The environment concerns interwoven in the text are numerable to take account of them exhaustively. To take note of a few are, human-wildlife conflict, lion poaching, encroachment on forest lands, stakeholders of forestry management, livelihood concerns in forest areas, recognizing access to forest resources for survival , fears of extinction of lion among wildlife conservationists, relocate some of the lions from Gir national park, Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 25
  43. 43. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 illegal mining, biodiversity , coastal regulations, soil erosion, afforestation, hill ecology , endangered species , ecological balance and many more. The solutions lie in immunity that the characters inherit from traditional way of life and the values they live with. Iieyma, Sansai and her forefather Ravaata along with other characters reveal the secret wisdom of the local people that is spellbinding. The opening of the novel with a colloquial expression “Khamma” by Iema (Akoopar), ‘Appi de- le(Give –take )(Tatvamasi) or is so gudh that the meaning unfolds suspendedly in the very end to resolve all the conflicts environmental as well as of life as a whole to end the work with the same blessing address. The contemplative urben artist narrator reveals the knowledge from usage ‘khamma’ used by Iema the local traditional artist. In her reply to a question during her painting exhibition in Ahmedabad that , ‘Do you like to stay there in jungle more than here in Amdavad?’ And some one else also spoke, ‘To go outing is fine;but to stay!without facilities, among the lions and leopards, fear of being killed or will be killed.What to live where there no safety of life?’ … ‘My boys, all of you understand that no one is going to livefor ever staying in this pakka house. I have never heard that lion-leopard or scorpions ever killed the number people killed by the cars and trucks and motorcycles on the roads would be ‘We read daily in papers that don’t people die in quarreling for nothing? Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 26
  44. 44. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 And yet does anyone have the time to say khamma to the earth?’ The exposition on the part if the narrator that almost merges with the writer is that ‘She does not just say khamma to the departed soul. To her pain of passing away of one soul is the sorrow of the whole universe. And that is why in her khamma the life on this beautiful planet has the strength to bear the shock and bloom on with the blessings and confidence that is heard.’(135) Just as incase of usages the recognition of lions by names as well as regarding them handsome ( rupalo ) not just the beast but also, as in case the forest guide Mustaffa points at various hills by their names and speaking of one among them as the most handsome speaks of the mutualism in the true sense. The doha (a folk metrical composition in oral tradition) Ghantalo paene ghantaline, ‘ne anvar vahadhor Hiran, Meghal Janadiu ne gyerma jakamjol (33) The couplet comes up with a long story to tell of blind and legendary Ravaata that bring together the threads of the complex mosaic plot to speak of interconnected whole and realization that, ‘and that invisible voice that said,‘Gir, our land one time…’. I accept it too. Neither is it ghost nor illution. It is the one within me lac, crore or more years old .me. yes myself.’(284) Ravaata on whom the doha is written speaks of a seemingly fantastic a ceremonial marriage of two hills Ghantla and Ghantly Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 27
  45. 45. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 celebrated by Ravaata in order to give a feast to people as he being blind had wowed not to marry but promised to feed the people and he did this by adopting Ghantala while Ghantli was adopted by the Divan of Junagadh Nawab! This is unbelievable and unimaginable that a person could think of marrying the hills but the reality is that the legend is alive with third generation to capture their imagination for whom there is Iema to paint the scenes of the story and according to her she paints what she believes in. Sansai as is the returning fact with all his works is all powerful female character. She mistorically moves around the scene to present the essence of Gir, She is at once an enchanting Charan Kanya, a Jogmaya, the life soul, a devi,shakti incarnated, Shakti the power herself. She is Gir, a lioness with the trait of courage and concerns that she has inherited from Rawaata her great grand-father. She is omnipresent to carry forward and give unity to the plot. She is projected as self confident and out spoken and one who can not tolerate unjust word or action in the space. In the begning she might read as a new bold and rustic woman portrayal but as and when we come to know the legendary success of Rawaata to stop the English Lords’ hunting of lions by walking all the way to Junagadh and persude the Lordsahib. This results in Nawabs order to ban hunting lions. Rawaata’s commitment and large-heartedness that Sansai inherits- she is her own master like the lions. She cannot tolerate interference in her life and the life of Gir. and is very straightforward to say for instance Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 28
  46. 46. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 when she asks for lift on the motorcycle from the narrator and Vikram they pull her leg by asking whether she knew where they were going for which she replies, ‘Why are you asking me whether where you are going? I should ask myself where I want to go’. (271) Her intervention in the discussion of students and forest officer on the wildlife issues of new home for lions to save lion king in Madhya Pradesh arouses Sansai to speak out to herself as a crude joke when she mutters: ‘Where the lion should live and where not should be decided by us or by the lions?’ (152). Again the debate of lions and other wild animals found in the human dwellings around Gir is well brought up. Sansai and the narrator campaigned to trace the lion hunters they call meetings in the villages around the mapped gir forest. During their expidation the villagers come up to discuss the issues as ‘This village is not in the territory of forest. According to the map it is not part of Gyar(Gir). Earlier the lions never came here but now as their number has grown they have started coming out.’(119) Sansai has the spontaneous answer: ‘We don’t want the mapped Gyar. Let that be so for the tourist. For us Gir is where ever the lion walks. Let it be even it reaches the sea of Ghed or Bayda mountain.’ And then she questioned with fury, ‘and in the name of Gyar you sell your mangos, in the name of Gyar you sell ghee at that time you don’t remember that this Gyar is not its part?’ Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 29
  47. 47. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 One of them gave substantiated saying, ‘This too is Gyar. Who says that there never were lions here? In the real times I have heard that lions were found far up to Dwarka and that way in Gohilwar up to the bushes of Shihor’ Sansai replied, ‘The number of lions have increased is the myth created by newspapers. How does an outsider know whether how far the Gyar extends? The fact is that we have started living in Gyar; yet the animals of Gyar kept our respect. As their space was encroached they went in, then whether it is lion or other lives, where would they go?’. (119-120) Further when on of the villager confesses that they fence their farms with live electric current to guard their crops from roz deer not to kill lions she rebukes, ‘ So you don’t consider roz as living beings. The day since you started differentiating a lion from a roz the troubles have set.’(120) It is a master solution to all the environment debates possible - possible to be uttered only by one who find no duality in the animate and inanimate world. The mountains are married and lions are to decide where they want to live! It is she who is the company of the narrator with his first encounter and introduction of lions in wilderness and her restlessness after the lion poaching incident. The mutual respect ‘amanya’ is also a code that is decoded to respect not just lion the King but also for the grass that is demanded by Rawaata from all not to graze cattle on the hills. It is the wisdom of commenalism or co-existance Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 30
  48. 48. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 and if moved away the issues of soil erosion and ecological balance is alarming. It is the alarm sounded by Sansai on the weed that is fast spreading in the gir useless even for grazing herds. The stray incidents of attacks by lions and leopard are marked to bring home the reality that even the beast respect the humans especially in case of Dhannu. Writer comprehensively presents Ghed region with a different terrain and life that is indigenous to a landscape in between the water logged land during monsoon and the western most shores of India. Here too it is once again Rani the young widow Sarpanch who replaces Sansai and deals with the Global issue of saving whale. The whale that has been accepted as the Mascot in the space can be read in recent TOI report of Jan.26,2011 where its head lines read: ‘Mangarol adopts whale shark as mascot’. .(3) The issue is conservation of whale shark that are found on the western coast as they come to lay eggs during monsoon. They are hunted for the oil and meat and fins. The awareness to save whale is a success according to the said report but the same is resolved by the writer with the help of writers incorporating the seizer of a local boat by Pakistani coast guards with a young pregnant woman never to return and the pregnant whale shark hunted for the water proofing of their boats is well done through Rani who could bring the point home by correlating the incident in a statement as, ‘How is it when our daughters are coming home carrying a child in their womb is caught?(224) Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 31
  49. 49. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 At one the massage is through and the fisher folk wow not to hunt ‘bale’. The writers contemplative novel also has a recurring circular narrative pattern. The works end at the point where they begin. This is to draw to the point that everything is interconnected. The loose threads in the plot are so well inter connected at the end it seemingly episodic narration turns out to e a master plot. This is keeping with the aspect of circularity of time in nature. Noting can exist or be on its own it has the design. Often repeated usage Kak hai to kak aave(‘if something thing is some thing takes form’) The wonder stuck artist recognizes the unity as, ‘I think both the aspects are interrelated . Yes some unknown equation that influences the whole universe. One day or the other I shall find that universal equation.’(198) To conclude with the lines quoted in the dedication page of the Akoopar with true offering of the text to Earth poetically: The one Create of fire Formed in space Appeared from water And Breathed life from air And holds All four Even now. To that, form of matter Earth.(Trans. mine) Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 32
  50. 50. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Also turning to the beginning of this paper it is a fiction that represent the life and wisdom sought in Aranyakas as ‘I am Thou’ and at micro level and encompasses the wisdom of the sages of the Vedic period meditating on the basic inquiry of evolution of life on earth. The idea of integration of five elements fire, space, water, air and matter that is earth where Earth has integrated the other four. This wisdom or realization of oneness in all innate is the solution with the locals living in Aranyaks striving to keep alive the traditional knowledge. The world needs to go back to Upnishadas meaning literally to seat at the feet of Rawaata, Sansai, Suparia, Aval,Ieyma, Puria,Ganesh Shashtri, Bitubanga, Noorbhaai, and others to save earth not to imbalance it on the back of Akoopar the earth bearer the eternal witness to evolution of this eternal life. The paper was presented at the Tenth CLAI International Conference , CUG, Gandhinar (3-6 March,2011) References Garrard, Greg.Ecocriticism,the Ne Critical Idiom,London: Routledge,1994 Meghani,Mahendra. Tran. Oceanside Blues DhruvBhatt,New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi,2001. Bhatt,Dhruv. Akopopar. Amdavad:Gurjjar Granthratna Karyalaya,2010. ---. Samudrantike Amdavad: Gurjjar Granthratna Karyalaya, 1993. ---.Tatvamasi Amdavad: Gurjjar Granthratna Karyalaya, 1998. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 33
  51. 51. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Note on Author: R.B.Zala is a Senior Associate Professor, Department of English & CLS, Saurashtra University Rajkot (Gujarat) since 2002. Formerly he worked at Choksi Arts and Commerce College (Somnath College), Veraval (1991-2002). He has done doctoral in the area of Compative Studies with ‘Pre-independence Gujarati and Indian English Shor Story: A Comparative Study’.He is the co-editor of Gujarati Short Story in Translation published Under UGC SAP. His other areas of interest are ecocriticism, Drama and Indian Literatures. ToC Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 34
  52. 52. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Article-3: Comparative Overview of the Forms of Storytelling with Reference to the Digital Age ToC Dr. Dilip Barad, Associate Prof. & Head, Dept. of English, Bhavnagar University Bhavnagar (Guj.) India Abstract At the heart of literature is telling story, and its success depends on how well the story is told. How well it is told, however, depends largely on the pleasure it gives to readers. This pleasure, if it is conditioned by ‘the law of poetic truth and poetic beauty, elevates the story to the height of a classic. Over the ages the form of storytelling has undergone significant changes. The Sanskrit and Greek masters were happy in telling their stories in form of verse letters, plays and epics; in the 18th century ‘Novel’ was seen as the most suitable form for storytelling. In the 20th century, the fragmented life found its expression in theatre of absurd, problem plays and the life full of hurry and Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 35
  53. 53. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 flurry gave shorter forms like novella, one-act plays and short stories. At the fagend of the first decade of the 21st century, some forms have emerged to cater the needs of techno-savvy netizens. The Epistolary form of telling story initiated by Richardson in ‘Pamela’ found its new manifestation in Matt Beaumont’s novel ‘e’ in 2000. Matt has experimented with the epistolary form by replacing letters by emails among the characters. The advent of e-novels is seen as yet another step further in the evolution of new forms of telling story, and yet another form to mesmerize the world with its synergism of words and videos is in the buds. This new form of storytelling is ‘vook’ – a word coined for ‘video-book’. This paper attempts to compare the changing forms of storytelling, and also aims to examine the connection between at the forms of literature, changing times and tastes of the reading audience. ________________________________________________________________________ “Over all [the scholar’s work] should rule a searching intelligence, asking that fundamental question of the septic: just what do you mean by that? And if the question is asked with a real desire to know and understand . . . the work is done.” - G.R. Elton, The Practice of History (New York, 1967) 141. (Altic 1993) Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 36
  54. 54. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 At the heart of literature is telling story, and its success depends on how well the story is told. How well it is told, however, depends largely on the pleasure it gives to readers. This pleasure, if it is conditioned by ‘the law of poetic truth and poetic beauty’ (Arnold 2001), elevates the story to the height of a classic. The pleasure quenched by the reader from the truth and beauty of literature is also governed by the race, milieu and the moment. I mean to say, the taste of the reader and the time in which it is written also has its own aesthetic influence on the art of telling story. The poor peasants and brave warriors of Greece and Mahabharata found dramas and epics better forms of story telling to quench their thirst for aesthetic life. Reaching to this point in the history of narrating story for aesthetic pleasure and to teach moral lessons on niti-shastra, it has undergone important changes. Slowly and steadily, the oral tradition metamorphosed into written and from there into performing art. The Aesop’s fables (Long 2011) in the West and Panchatantra & Hitopadesha in East had its beginning in oral story telling (Wikipedia). Later on they were found in written form. From here on wards, I would rather concentrate on the literary tradition in Literature in English than on world literature, because by speaking on changing art of story telling of world literature, I would display my ignorance than knowledge. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 37
  55. 55. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Coming to the 18th century, the century where in new forms of telling stories are experimented and invented, we find that the fire, fine feelings, enthusiasm, the glow of the Renaissance and the moral earnestness of Puritanism (Long 2004) is lost from their art of telling story. Renaissance was the time of fiery passion, hunger to grow, unlimited enthusiasm to achieve the unachievable and never ending passion for life. Thus the classical form of telling story i.e. Drama, found its new format in Christopher Marlow. Though, still it is drama and poetry only, yet the performance of drama is quite different than that of classical Greek & Latin masters. Use of Blank verse, breaking of unities and mixture of tragicomedies gave new style to the old art of telling story. Shakespeare polished all the gems that were invented by Marlowe in such a shining state that none can make it more polished there after. It was John Dryden (1668) Who said this to enumerate the phenomenon in ‘Of Dramatik Poesie, An Essay: “Those beauties of the French poesy are such ... it where it is not: they are indeed the beauties of a statue but not of a man”. The plays written by Shakespeare and University with all deformities of plot construction and characterization were still true representation of human soul and nature. During renaissance and reformation, we had the tradition of telling story in prose form also. The University Wits and thereafter John Bunyan, Daniel Defoe, Addison and Steele carried on this tradition and went on adding Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 38
  56. 56. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 a component or two by the time Samuel Richardson (1689-1761) and Henry Fielding (1707-1754) turned it into the new form of telling story – well-known today as NOVEL. (Watt 1957) The spread of education led to more readers. The way technique of making papers migrated from China to Europe and Gutenberg’s printing press encouraged more writing, similarly education helped in the spread of more magazines and prose writing. Thus 18th century has more number of magazines and novels to cater the needs of the reading public. The education to females in 18th century gave rise to more number of female readers. (Compton-Rickett) The coarseness of Fielding, Smollett and Stern did not satisfy the aesthetic urge of these female readers. Thus we have women novelist in abundance in the same years. Thus we can perceive that the time, the moment, the philosophies and thoughts of the era has tremendous impact on the art of telling story. Compton- Ricket has rightly noted in The History of English Literature (1946) that the masculine qualities comprehend a broad grasp of general principles, a logical constructive power of a faulty for dealing largely and sanely with the big issues of life. The feminine qualities on the other hand, lie in subtlety rather than vigor of perception, an intuitive insight into the delicate complexities of character and an intensity and tenacity of passion. As illustrations of the masculine and Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 39
  57. 57. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 feminine methods of approaching the social life to the late 18th century we have Fielding and Jane Austen, each of them essentially a painter of manners, concerned in the difference between town and country, satirical in treatment, eschewing sentiment as far as possible. Between the, we have a wonderful picture of the time, and the one complements the other, for the difference are rather sexual than purely literal – the one, bold, dashing, painting strong, vivid colours; the other, delicate, subtle, avoiding violent contrasts, and dealing rather in nuances. This proves the point how art of story telling differed from man to woman. The education and experience of Fielding, the man on the roads, and Austen, the woman of the house, reflects the moments lived by the society in their predefined horizons. The increasing number of readers gave rise to NOVEL as the most sought after form of telling story. The Victorians found in Novel what Elizabethans sought in plays. The rise of magazines contributed to the rise of short story also. (Watson 1994). Short stories were a staple of early-19th-century magazines and often led to fame and novel-length projects for their authors, similar to one-act plays. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 40
  58. 58. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 In the modern times, industrialization & growth of factories influenced the reading habits of people which in turn influenced creative writing also. (Ward 1978). The life became so fast that people were not able to spare more time to read long novels or see long plays. The short story and one-act plays were more suitable form of telling story for such an audience. Thus we find more numbers of such arts of telling stories in 19th and 20th century. But still we find that the art of telling story is not that experimentative. The path and faith breaking philosophies of 19th and 20th century has its own toll on the art of telling stories. Darwin’s proving that the world in not created by God (1860), Freud’s libidal interpretation of human relationship (1896c) and Nietzsche’s final declaration – God is death (1882), shattered the faith of creative genius. It is well said by Mahesh Bhatt (film maker) that artist as a creative person is abnormally and inhumanly sensitive – for him a touch is a blow, a sound is noise and ay misfortune a tragedy. (qt from The Times of India article – “Is M.F. Hussain a Victim?”) The influence of art of telling story does not require detailed mention here. The shattered faith fragmented the lives of people. The remaining work was done by two world wars. The witness of First World War and life under the thread of second was terrible for the sensitive creative mind. What we find in Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 41
  59. 59. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 fragmented art of telling story. In fact, there is no story at all. It is all rambling of thoughts, trying to say something, utterance fail to express their anguished anxiety. Thus, the stream of consciousness in novel, collage in poem of TS Eliot, Auden and Yeats, absurdity in plays took place of sanity in telling stories. Martin Esslin (1967) makes a working hypothesis of the traits of story-telling art of these decades in his famous book. ‘The Theatre of the Absurd’. The modernist art of telling story is the best example of how philosophical discourse can interpose its influence on it. The time it self was shattered and fragmented. Nothingness was the meaning and nihilism was their only optimism. The story tellers of the time faithfully reflected this in their art of telling stories. The post modernist era was the time of deconstructionist ideology. In the modernist art of telling story, thought the stories were fragmented and nothingness was the only thing, yet the centre hold the ground strongly. In post modernism, the centre is de-centered. There was an attempt to identify meaning in meaninglessness of modernist art of telling story; here the meaning is nothing but free play of difference and deffarance (Derrida 1966). The centre is at the periphery and the periphery is at the centre. Thus Coetzee’s (1986) art of telling story has the centre in Friday ( in novel , 1986) and not in Robinson (Defoe). Mahabharat is retold from Draupadi’s view point. (Vaidya Spivak) Julian Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 42
  60. 60. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Branes’s The History of the World in 10 ½ Chapters has a narration form woodworms angel and not from Noah’s. Derridian influence gave free play of experiment in telling stories. Derrida’s philosophical discourse impacted the art of story telling. Dattani’s plays have entre in eunuchs and HIV patients (Kumar T). Sarojini Sahoo’s feminist discourse undermines the western feminist discourse of Simon De Bouevier and gave rise to Indian feminism. Similarly, Dalit aestheticism is also on the high rise. Whatever may be the influencing force, the last decades of 20th century betrayed several experiments in the art of story telling. Thus, Author John Fowles’s novel The French Lieutenant’s Woman (1969) has three endings. This novel is a period novel inspired by the 1823 novel Ourika, by Claire de Duras, which Fowles translated to English during 1977 (and revised in 1994). Other interesting experiments in art of telling story were done by B S Johnson. The Unfortunates (1969) was published in a box with no binding (readers could assemble the book any way they liked) and House Mother Normal (1971) was written in purely chronological order such that the various characters' thoughts and experiences would cross each other and become intertwined, not just page by page, but sentence by sentence. B. S. Johnson's infamous book-in-a-box is, if remembered at all, notorious for its presentation Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 43
  61. 61. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 rather than its content. The "book" consists of a first and last section plus 25 other chapters, each one coming as a self-contained "pamphlet", that can be read in any order the reader likes. The subject matter concerns a journalist's day covering a football match in Nottingham, remembering previous times spent in the city with a lover now gone and a friend now dead. The innovative format permits Johnson to echo the random thought processes of his protagonist--the associations and reminiscences bubbling up in no fixed order as he walks through the city, watches and reports on the match and returns home afterwards. We have curios experiment in novel ‘A Void’ by Georges Perec (1995). A Void (translated from the original French La Disparition (literally, "The Disappearance") is a 300-page French lipogrammatic novel, written in 1969 by Georges Perec, entirely without using the letter e (except for the author's name), following Oulipo constraints. The website www.fantasticfiction.com has curious collection of such experimental novels written and published in later decades of 20th century. If all these ages were marked by some peculiar social, political, economical, philosophical, anthropological etc contemporary issues, the 21st Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 44
  62. 62. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 century is marked by the IT revolution. The time in which we live is known as the time of e-renaissance. Information and communication technology has brought in sweeping change in all walks of life. The technological tsunami began in wild waves in 80s and 90s. Today, as we enter second decade of 21st century, the world in deluged under the splurge of techno-tsunami waves. Now the question is has this revolution brought any change in art of telling story? Well, forget about the literary value of his novels for time being. Just see what is the moving fore in the plot in his novels: the mobiles, internet and call centers. Yes, Chetan Bhagat’s One Night @ Call Centre (2005) has technology at its centre. Now, the God does not say in thunder, but He rings and talks on your mobile phones. Now, too much of thinking or rash actions are not fatal flaws or hamartia. The fatal flaw is leaving your email account open without logging out/signing out before leaving PC/laptop. In Three Mistakes of My Life (2008), the mobile call from best friend’s sister during climax brings havoc in the life of protagonist. Today, it is unimaginable to think of the story where in mobile or internet is not an important part of the play and vital part to play. It is not only movers and shakers of plot, but the form of telling story is also affected. At the fag-end of the first decade of the 21st century, some forms have emerged to cater the needs of techno-savvy netizens. The Epistolary form of Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 45
  63. 63. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 telling story initiated by Richardson in ‘Pamela’ found its new manifestation in Matt Beaumont’s novel ‘e’ in 2007. Matt has experimented with the epistolary form by replacing letters by emails among the characters. Thus, the novel is a multiple-perspective narrative where events are seen through the eyes of various people working for the agency, from temporary workers to CEO. e (novel) centers around corporate business structures, leadership, creativity, headhunting for and firing people to keep up appearances, work efficiency, business ethics, and all kinds of human weaknesses which stall progress by having employees waste their time and energy on unimportant things and which eventually prevent success. The advent of e-novels is seen as yet another step further in the evolution of new forms of telling story. The characterization, situations, plots, etc are changing and finding new alterations. Even Sidney Sheldon type pulp fiction or J.K. Rowling type child fiction or Poe type detective fiction are affected by the digital wave. We have not Cyberpunk to replace traditional classical pulp fictions. Cyberpunk is a postmodern and science fiction genre noted for its focus on "high tech and low life." The name was originally coined by Bruce Bethke as the title of his short story "Cyberpunk," published in 1983 It features advanced science, such as information technologyand cybernetics, coupled with a degree of breakdown Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 46
  64. 64. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 or radical change in the social order. Cyberpunk works are well situated within postmodern literature.(Wikipedia Cyberpunk). Collaboration as against isolation is the key word in the digital age. Social media is nothing but collaborating. It seems that suddenly everybody want to ‘speak/write’. Listeners or readers are fast becoming rare species. Well, this trend of life is mirrored in Penguin project of WikiNovel. A Million Penguins, the wiki-novel experiment currently underway at Penguin Books is trying to find out if a self-organizing collective of writers can produce a credible novel on a live website. A dubious idea if you believe a novel is almost by definition the product of a singular inspiration, but praiseworthy nonetheless for its experimental bravado. Though the project has not succeed yet, nearly 1500 individuals have contributed to the writing and editing of A Million Penguins, contributing over 11,000 edits making this, in the words of Penguin’s Chief Executive, ‘not the most read, but possibly the most written novel in history‘. 75000 people have visited the site and there have been more than 280,000 page views.( Ettinghausen 2007) Such experiments in writing literature along lead one to think of the demise of literature. Kernan Alvin (1992) takes a critical look at the changing paradigm in society because of the influence of digital ways of life Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 47
  65. 65. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 and tries to connect with with the literature. Let me quote at length from the review of his book ‘The Death of Literature: “Kernan Alvin probes deeper, relating the death of literature to potent forces in our postindustrial world—most obviously, the technological revolution that is rapidly transforming a print to an electronic culture, replacing the authority of the written word with the authority of television, film, and computer screens. The turn taken by literary criticism itself, in deconstructing traditional literature and declaring it void of meaning in itself, and in focusing on what are described as its ideological biases against women and nonwhites, has speeded the disintegration. Recent legal debates about copyright, plagiarism, and political patronage of the arts have exposed the greed and self-interest at work under the old romantic images of the imaginative creative artist and the work of art as a perfect, unchanging icon. Kernan describes a number of the crossroads where literature and society have met and literature has failed to stand up. He discusses the high comedy of the obscenity trial in England against Lady Chatterley's Lover, in which the British literary establishment vainly tried to define literature. He takes alarmed looks at such agents of literary disintegration as schools where children who watch television eight hours a day can't read, decisions about who chooses and Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 48
  66. 66. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 defines the words included in dictionaries, faculty fights about the establishment of new departments and categories of study, and courtrooms where criminals try to profit from bestselling books about their crimes. According to Kernan, traditional literature is ceasing to be legitimate or useful in these changed social surroundings. What is needed, he says, if it is any longer possible in electronic culture, is a conception of literature that fits in some positive way with the new ethos of post-industrialism, plausibly claiming a place of importance both to individual lives and to society as a whole for the best kind of writing.” (Kernan yalepress.yale.edu) It is difficult to disagree with Kernan. The Gutenberg has tolled the death of printed poem or novels. As an alternative to this Apocalypse of print, some theorists, critics or artists have already found solutions of „escape”. New forms of literary practice access digital resources and force the boundaries of „literature” to expand to visual, cybernetic, hyper-textual territories. (Echinox Journal 2011). This experience of visual, cybernetic & hyper-textual is experimented in form of Vook. (www.vook.com). WHAT IS A VOOK? A vook is a new innovation in reading that blends a well-written book, high-quality video and the power of the Internet into a single, complete story. You can read your book, watch videos that enhance the story and connect Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 49
  67. 67. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 with authors and your friends through social media all on one screen, without switching between platforms. Vooks are available in two formats: As a web-based application you can read on your computer and a mobile application for reading on the go. With the web-based application you don't have to download programs or install software. Just open your favorite browser and start reading and watching in an exciting new way. You can also download and install the mobile applications through the Apple iTunes store and sync them with your Apple mobile device. Vook has a simple idea: put great filmmakers together with great authors and let them create a new kind of media. But for this to succeed, we need a talented filmmaker who can be imaginative, work with another creative vision and shoot and edit for an entirely new form. For more than 500 years the book has been a remarkably stable entity: a coherent string of connected words, printed on paper and bound between covers. (Vook) But in the age of the iPhone, Kindle and YouTube, the notion of the book is becoming increasingly elastic as publishers mash together text, video and Web features in a scramble to keep readers interested in an archaic form of entertainment. The readers are invited to log on to a Web site to watch brief Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 50
  68. 68. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 videos that flesh out the plot. Some publishers say this kind of multimedia hybrid is necessary to lure modern readers who crave something different. But reading experts question whether fiddling with the parameters of books ultimately degrades the act of reading. (Rich 2009) I would like to quote at length form what Moroko Rich reported in The New York Times (Oct 1, 2009 Pg A1) “There is no question that these new media are going to be superb at engaging and interesting the reader,” said Maryanne Wolf, a professor of child development at Tufts University and author of “Proust and the Squid: The Story and Science of the Reading Brain.” But, she added, “Can you any longer read Henry James or George Eliot? Do you have the patience?” The most obvious way technology has changed the literary world is with electronic books. Over the past year devices like Amazon’s Kindle and Sony’s Reader have gained in popularity. But the digital editions displayed on these Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 51
  69. 69. Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 International Online eJournal devices remain largely faithful to the traditional idea of a book by using words — and occasional pictures — to tell a story or explain a subject. Simon & Schuster is also releasing two digital novels combining text with videos a minute or 90 seconds long that supplement — and in some cases advance — the story line. “Everybody is trying to think about how books and information will best be put together in the 21st century,” said Judith Curr, publisher of Atria Books, the Simon & Schuster imprint that is releasing partnership the with electronic Vook, a editions in multimedia company. She added, “You can’t just be linear anymore with your text.” (Rich 2009) Well, the question may arise at the end of this paper reading that ‘what is the meaning of this comparative survey of art of telling story? I would end this paper with following stolen words – quoted randomly from ‘The Search is All?: The Pursuit of Meaning in Julian Barnes’s Flaubert’s Parrot, Staring at the Sun and A History of the World in 10 ½ Chapters’ written by Wojciech Drag. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 52
  70. 70. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 “For Oliver, who found the whole idea deeply embarrassing?” Originally used by Terry Eagleton to opens his recent book entitled The Meaning of Life (2007). What is more, in the preface he notes that writing about such a suspect concept as “the meaning of life” seems “fit for the crazed and the comic”. Why is the notion of “meaning” embarrassing to explore? Why are we so wary of it? Possible answers are many. One of them is that we have come to live in an age that distrusts “big words” and concepts which purport to account for the totality of human existence, which disregard variety and difference. The postmodern thought, which highlights the contingency of human life and announces the lack of any solid foundation to it calls into question the notion of absolute meaning and regards it as redolent of “an old-fashioned metaphysics”. The search for absolute meaning, I will argue, can also find its expression in a desire to establish a stable context of interpretation (such as religion or art) – a framework through which one can understand one’s own experience and make sense of it. It may also take the form of a longing for truth and authenticity, which would stand firm and intact in confrontation with the relativity, skepticism and moral chaos that appear implicit in the postmodern age marked by the demise of grand narratives. In the times when no new ideas are to be expressed, what we find is experiments with forms of expression. The end of Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 53
  71. 71. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 cognitive receptivity deadens the creative grey cells of human mind. Is it the absence of creativity that more importance is given to form of expression rather than the idea of expression? May be it is the urge for instant gratification or to satisfy sensual pleasure that these sort of mingling of words and videos are experimented. May be it is the habit of techno-savvy mind to go for multitasking – doing several things at a time – reading, viewing, listening, discussing on social network, interacting with author and other readers – that these forms are emerging. During Modernist era, Eliots, Pounds James Joyces and Beketts were in search of form of expression which can express the fragmented existed of world war worn generation. They found in stream of consciousness, absurd theatre and mythical technique. May be today’s writer wants synergism of words and videos for better expression of their ideas and to give what reader wants. Yes, the traditional ways of writing literature and reading literature is on death bed. In all ages past, we have experienced at each and every fin de siècle there is conflict between the new and the old. For the time being while the transition is happening, we find literature with the traits of the old and the new. It’s a different matter that such literature is hated by both, the old readers and the new readers. Shakespeare’s plays were compared with bedlam asylum. Wordsworth’s poems were considered childish, D.H. Lawrence Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 54
  72. 72. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 was porno-writer, T.S. Eliot was not understood to the Moderns. Today, they are all ‘classics’. In a new era of globalization and terrorism, Eagleton (2003) warns, the bundle of ideas known as post-modernism is essentially toothless. In this eloquent synthesis of a lifetime of learning, Eagleton challenges contemporary intellectuals to engage with a range of vital topics-love, evil, death, morality, religion, and revolution-that they've ignored over the past thirty years. In his cry for more holistic and humane way of "reading" the world, it becomes essential to see how art of storytelling is undergoing sweeping change under the influence of digital age. It would be interesting to watch how will comparative literature and literary theory respond to these new practices? Will the theorists and critics consider “old” theories fulfilled by the „empowerment of the reader”? Will they feel the need to forge new concepts and new methods? Or will they seek entirely new perspectives to which traditional methods can be adjusted? Alternative conceptual and methodological discourses emerge in present-day discourses on literature, springing from totally different points of view. The expansion of literature beyond the paper-written support and the expansion of digital media to the realms of literature engage writers and researchers of the literary field in a rethinking of their own creative identity and of their disciplinary approach. (Echinox Journal) Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 55

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