Dolly (5 July 1996 – 14 February 2003) was a female domestic sheep , and the first mammal to be cloned from an adult somatic cell , using the process of nuclear transfer . The production of Dolly showed that genes in the nucleus of such a mature differentiated somatic cell are still capable of reverting back to an embryonic totipotent state
13 4 applications of genetic engineering
13-4 Applications ofgenetic engineering Goal: modify cells to correct a defect or produce a desired product.
13-4 applications of geneticengineering• Transgenic engineering: • Transgenic bacterium • Transgenic animals: mice, transgenic livestock • Transgenic plants: with natural insecticide, producing human antibodies
• Eg: transgenic plants produce natural pesticide to resist to pest
Engineered Plants（转基因植物）• Cotton plants that display resistance to herbicide
Engineered Plants（转基因植物）• Tobacco plants that produce human proteins
Engineered Plants（转基因植物）• Mustard plant ( 芥菜 ) cells that produce biodegradable plastic
Engineered Mammals（转基因动物） Hi~~~ I’m ANDi, the world’s first genetically modified non- human primate
A monkey named ANDi, for "inserted DNA", in a picture released in January 2001. ANDi was born in October 2000 at the Oregon Health Science University after receiving an extra bit of genetic material to become the worlds first genetically modified non-human primate
Cloning Dolly• Sheep A: donate body cell nucleus• Sheep B: donate an egg cell without nucleus• Sheep C: surrogate mother A B C Dolly Who’s its mother?
Cloning Dolly1997 - A sheep cloned from an adultcell• Nucleus from body cell was inserted into an empty egg• Embryo implanted into surrogate mother• Sheep is genetic replica of animal from which body cell was taken
Ethical Issues• Who decides what should be “corrected” through genetic engineering?• Should animals be modified to provide organs for human transplants?• Should humans be cloned?