Biochips Seminar


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A seminar presentation on Biochips

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Biochips Seminar

  1. 1. Biochips Seminar Guide: Mr. Naresh Kumar Assistant Professor, UIET, Panjab University Seminar delivered by: ARIJIT GOSWAMI ECE; 7th semester UE 105016
  2. 2. Contents Applications Limitations Advantages Components and working principle Introduction
  3. 3. Introduction
  4. 4. What are biosensors? • The IUPAC (1997) defines biosensors as: “A device that uses specific biochemical reactions mediated by isolated enzymes, immunosystems, tissues, organelles or whole cells to detect chemical compounds usually by electrical, thermal or optical signals”. • A biosensor according to IUPAC recommendations 1999, is an independently integrated receptor transducer device, which is capable of providing selective quantitative or semi-quantitative analytical information using a biological recognition element.
  5. 5. Classification of biosensors
  6. 6. What are biochips? • In molecular biology, biochips are essentially miniaturized laboratories that can perform hundreds or thousands of simultaneous biochemical reactions. Biochips enable researchers to quickly screen large numbers of biological analytes for a variety of purposes, from disease diagnosis to detection of bioterrorism agents. • One of the first commercial biochips was introduced by Affymetrix. Their "GeneChip" products contain thousands of individual DNA sensors for use in sensing defects. Make-up of a typical biochip platform
  7. 7. History Year Invention 1956 Leland Clark published a paper on an oxygen sensing electrode (Clark, 1956_41). This device became the basis for a glucose sensor 1969 Guilbalt and Montalvo described the first potentiometric enzyme electrode, based on the use of urease. 1975 Yellow Spring Instrument Co. launched glucose biosensor 1976 Biostator was invented 1982 1st needle type enzyme electrode for subcutaneous implantation of glucose biosensors is reported. 1987 MediSense launched a pen-sized meter for home blood-glucose monitoring 1992 Glass pH electrode, invented in 1922 by Hughes
  8. 8. Components and working principle
  9. 9. Components • The biochip-transponder consists of four parts; computer microchip, antenna coil, capacitor and the glass capsule. • The transponder: The transponder is the actual biochip implant. It is a passive transponder it contains no battery or energy of it's own. In comparison, an active transponder would provide its own energy source, normally a small battery. Because the passive biochip contains no battery, or nothing to wear out, it has a very long life, up to 99 years, and no maintenance overheads.
  10. 10. Components • Computer Microchip – The microchip stores a unique identification number from 10 to 15 digits long. The storage capacity of the current microchips is limited, capable of storing only a single ID number. AVID (American Veterinary Identification Devices), claims their chips, using a nnn-nnn-nnn format, has the capability of over 70 trillion unique numbers. The unique ID number is etched or encoded via a laser onto the surface of the microchip before assembly. Once the number is 14 encoded it is impossible to alter. The microchip also contains the electronic circuitry necessary to transmit the ID number to the reader. • Antenna Coil – This is normally a simple, coil of copper wire around a ferrite or iron core. This tiny, primitive, radio antenna receives and sends signals from the reader or scanner.
  11. 11. Components • Tuning Capacitor – The capacitor stores the small electrical charge (less than 1/1000 of a watt) sent by the reader or scanner, which triggers the transponder. This activation allows the transponder to send back the ID number encoded in the computer chip. As radio waves are utilized to communicate between the transponder and reader, the capacitor is tuned to the same frequency as the reader. • Glass Capsule – The glass capsule holds the microchip, antenna coil and capacitor. It is a small capsule, the smallest measuring 11 mm in length and 2 mm in diameter, about the size of an uncooked grain of rice as shown in figure 2 and 3. The capsule is made of biocompatible material such as soda lime glass. After assembly, the capsule is hermetically (air-tight) sealed, so no bodily fluids can touch the electronics inside.
  12. 12. The reader • The reader – The reader consists of an "exciter" coil which creates an electromagnetic field that, via radio signals, provides the necessary energy (less than 1/1000 of a watt) to "excite" or "activate" the implanted biochip. The reader also carries a receiving coil that receives the transmitted code or ID number sent back from the "activated" implanted biochip. This all takes place very fast, in milliseconds. The reader also contains the software and components to decode the received code and display the result in an LCD display.
  13. 13. How Near-field Communication works in biochips ??
  14. 14. Electronic Product Code Header - Tag version number EPC Manager - Manufacturer ID Object class - Manufacturer’s product ID Serial Number - Unit ID With 96 bit code, 268 million companies can each categorize 16 million different products where each product category contains up to 687 billion individual units
  15. 15. Advantages
  16. 16. • Viability of the living cells is favored since the "biochip" transistor does not need to heat up, as a vacuum tube does, and it responds instantly. • It can operate on a tiny amount of power -- about one tenth of that used by an ordinary flashlight bulb and be locally modulated by biomembrane potentials which can approach 1,000,000 volts/cm. • Biochips can be made almost vanishingly small. The present experimental crystal adducts of germanium and bacteria produced by us are only about 5 micrometers on a side. • The ability to detect multiple viral agents in parallel. • Increase speed of diagnosis of unknown pathogens ("future proofed" surveillance tools). • Miniaturization: Biochips are extremely small in size. The following figure gives an idea about its size.
  17. 17. Limitations
  18. 18. • These methods have problems that a DNA chip cannot be fabricated at high density and mass production is limited. • The Lock: A chip implant would contain a person’s financial world, medical history, health care — it would contain his electronic life". If cash no longer existed and if the world’s economy was totally chip oriented; — there would be a huge "black-market" for chips! Since there is no cash and no other bartering system, criminals would cut off hands and heads, stealing "rich-folks" chips. • A key challenge to the biochip industry is standardization. Both the assays and the ancillary instrumentation need to be interfaced so that the data can be easily integrated into existing equipment..
  19. 19. Applications
  20. 20. Genomics • Genomics is the study of gene sequences in living organisms and being able to read and interpret them. The human genome has been the biggest project undertaken to date but there are many research projects around the world trying to map the gene sequences of other organisms.
  21. 21. Proteomics • Proteome analysis or Proteomics is the investigation of all the proteins present in a cell, tissue or organism. • The use of Biochip facilitate: – High throughput proteomic analysis – Multi-dimensional microseparations (pre LC/MS) to achieve high plate number – Electrokinetic sample injection for fast, reproducible, samples
  22. 22. Cellomics • Every living creature is made up of cells, the basic building blocks of life. Cells are used widely by for several applications including study of drug cell interactions for drug discovery, as well as in biosensing.
  23. 23. Bio-diagnostics • Biodiagnostics or biosensing is the field of sensing biological molecules based on electrochemical, biochemical, optical, luminometric methods. The use of biochip facilitates development of sensors which involves optimization of the platform, reduction in detection time and improving the signal-tonoise ratio.
  24. 24. References • Biochip Technology –A Gigantic Innovation; Prof. T.Venkat Narayana Rao, Sai Sukruthi.G, Gloria Raj, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hyderabad Institute of Technology; SSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 3, March 2012. • Biochip Technology and Applications; Mr. Chaithanya Kadari, Mr. Saidulu Yalagandula, Miss. Padma Koutarapu; International Journal of Biometrics and Bioinformatics (IJBB), Volume (5): Issue (2): May / June 2011. • Advances in biosensors: principle, architecture and applications; Veeradasan Perumal, Uda Hashim Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering (INEE), University Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Perlis, Malaysia. • The making of microarray; Peter Gwynne, Gary Heebner; DNA and BioChips • Invention of the Baier, 13Dec99 • Biochip implantation - When humans get tagged; Renjith VP, SiliconIndia ( et_tagged-nid-74531-cid-2.html) • Nature Biotechnology 18, IT43 - IT44 (2000); doi:10.1038/80082 "Biochip": True Semiconductor-to-Life Symbioses; R.E.
  25. 25. Thank you !!