An Analysis of Translation Procedures Of The Terms Usedin English Version of “Facebook” Social Networking Website         ...
ABSTRAKPaper ini berjudul An Analysis of Translation Procedures of The Terms Used in English Version of“Facebook” Social N...
ABSTRACTThis paper is entitled An Analysis of Translation Procedures of The Terms Used in English Versionof “Facebook” Soc...
TABLE OF CONTENTSABSTRAK ....................................................................................................
CHAPTER I                                      INTRODUCTION1.1. Background       Nowadays, it seems to be impossible to se...
Additionally, users can join networks organized by workplace, school, or college.Something that makes it acceptable and po...
that, "While translation methods relate to whole texts, translation procedures are used forsentences and the smaller units...
1.3 Aims of AnalysisThe aims of analysis in this Paper are formulated as follow:       a. To find and analyze kinds of kin...
Where: X = number of data in specified type of translation procedure        Y = Total number of data        N = Percentage...
CHAPTER II                            THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK2.1 Definition on Translation       The term “Translation” can ...
4. There are no complete synonyms within a language or between different languages,       but such a statement seems evide...
(3) Translation : the abstract concept that encompasses both the process of translating                     and the produc...
c. Literal Translation  Literal translation is a direct transfer of a SL text into a grammatically and  idiomatically appr...
f. Equivalent  This term is used to refer to cases where languages describe the same situation by  different stylistic or ...
CHAPTER III                                   DATA ANALYSISThe data collected from English Version and Bahasa Indonesia Ve...
18    privacy setting         pengaturan privasi             borrowing (LB) 19    application setting     pengaturan aplik...
6. “Privacy”               Privasi       “Privasi” is borrowed from SL “Privacy” with some change in writing system. The  ...
Table. 2                               Literal Translation                                                             TRA...
34      network                jaringan                          literal translation   35      notification           pemb...
(Compound)                                (A Phrase)    “Username” which is a compound (word level) in SL turning into a p...
42   x   100% = 64, 6 %         65 c.Transposition :          4 x 100% = 6, 2 %        65                                 ...
CHAPTER IV                                        CONCLUSIONHaving analysed the data on this paper, two conclusion can be ...
BIBLIOGRAPHYBell, Roger.T.1991.Translation and Translating.Longman.Singapurahttp://www.facebook.comhttp://en.wikipedia.org...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

An Analysis of Translation Procedures Of The Terms Used in English Version of “Facebook” Social Networking Website And Its Bahasa Indonesia Version

5,288 views

Published on

Published in: Education
3 Comments
4 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total views
5,288
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
4
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
227
Comments
3
Likes
4
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

An Analysis of Translation Procedures Of The Terms Used in English Version of “Facebook” Social Networking Website And Its Bahasa Indonesia Version

  1. 1. An Analysis of Translation Procedures Of The Terms Usedin English Version of “Facebook” Social Networking Website And Its Bahasa Indonesia Version By : NI MADE ARI LISTIANI, S.S. 1090161018 POSTGRADUATE PROGRAM OF LINGUISTICS (TRANSLATION) UDAYANA UNIVERSITY DENPASAR 2010
  2. 2. ABSTRAKPaper ini berjudul An Analysis of Translation Procedures of The Terms Used in English Version of“Facebook” Social Networking Website And Its Bahasa Indonesia Version. Paper ini menganalisaterjemahan dari istilah-istilah yang digunakan dalam Website “Facebook” Versi Bahasa Inggris kedalam Website Versi Bahasa Indonesia. Teori yang digunakan dalam menganalisis data adalah teori“Translation Procedures” yang dikemukakan oleh Vinay dan Dalbernet. Teori ini membagi metodepenerjemahan menjadi 2 (dua) bagian : (1). Terjemahan harfiah (literal translation) yang mencakup(a) borrowing, (b) calque, dan (c) literal translation, dan (2) terjemahan wajib (obliquetranslation) yang mencakup (d) transposisi, (e) modulasi, (f) Equivalence dan (g) adaptation.Dari hasil analisis didapatkan bahwa dari 7 (tujuh) prosedur penterjemahan yang ada, hanyaditemukan 3 (tiga) jenis prosedur pada data, yaitu (1) Borrowing, (2) Literal Translation dan (3)Transposition. Dan dari ketiga kategori tersebut, Borrowing yang paling banyak ditemukan.Kata Kunci : borrowing, calque, literal translation, transposisi, modulasi, equivalence dan adaptation.
  3. 3. ABSTRACTThis paper is entitled An Analysis of Translation Procedures of The Terms Used in English Versionof “Facebook” Social Networking Website Into Its Bahasa Indonesia Version. It analysed thetranslation of the terms used in English Version “Facebook” Website and its translation into BahasaIndonesia Version. The theory applied to analyse the data is Vinay and Dalbernet’s TranslationProcedures Theory. This theory divided the translation method into 2 (two), i.e : (1) LiteralTranslation that covers (a) borrowing, (b) calque, dan (c) literal translation and (2) ObliqueTranslation covering (d) transposition, (e) modulation, (f) Equivalence and (g) Adaptation.From the result of analysis, it is found that from 7 (seven) types of Translation Procedures, there areonly 3 (three) types procedures that occur in the analysed data. They are : (d) transposition, (e)modulation, (f) Equivalence dan (g) adaptation. And from the three types, Borrowing is the mostdominant type of translation procedures that occur in the analysed data.Key words : borrowing, calque, literal translation, transposisi, modulasi, equivalence dan adaptation.
  4. 4. TABLE OF CONTENTSABSTRAK .......................................................................................................... ……. iABSTRACT ................................................................................................................. iiCHAPTER I : INTRODUCTION .................................................................................. 11.1 Background ............................................................................................................. 11.2 Problems of Analysis ............................................................................................... 31.3 Aims of Analysis ..................................................................................................... 41.4 Research Method ..................................................................................................... 4CHAPTER II : THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK ......................................................... 62.1 Definition of Translation.......................................................................................... 62.2 Process, Product and Theory of Translation ............................................................. 72.3 Translation Procedures ............................................................................................ 8CHAPTER III : DATA ANALYSIS .............................................................................. 113.1 Analysis of Types of Translation Procedures ........................................................... 113.2 Analysis of The Dominant Type of Translation Procedures...................................... 16CHAPTER IV : CONCLUSION ................................................................................... 18BIBLIOGRAPHY
  5. 5. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION1.1. Background Nowadays, it seems to be impossible to separate our daily life from computer andInternet. In fact, internet becomes very important for us that it is really affecting society’slife. There is no distance when we are using internet service. People can get in touch withtheir family, colleages or friends even if they are separated thousand miles just in one clickand a second waiting. Most traditional communications media, such as telephone andtelevision services, are reformed or redefined using the technologies of the Internet,Newspaper publishing has been reshaped into Websites, Blogging and Web feeds. TheInternet has also enabled or accelerated the creation of new forms of human interactionsthrough Instant messaging, Internet forums and Social Networking sites. A social networking service usually focuses on building and reflecting of socialrelations among people. Social networking sites allow users to share ideas, activities, events,and interests within their individual networks. Web based social network services make itpossible to connect people who share interests and activities across political, economic, andgeographic borders. One of the most popular Social Networking services in the world is Facebook.Launched in February 2004 by Mark Zuckerberg, one of Harvard University students,Facebook has more than 500 million active users around the world. It has really become aphenomena all around the world. Anyone can sign up for Facebook and interact with thepeople they know in a trusted environment. Users can add people as friends and send themmessages, and update their personal profiles to notify friends about themselves.
  6. 6. Additionally, users can join networks organized by workplace, school, or college.Something that makes it acceptable and popular almost in all country in the world is becauseFacebook has already been translated into about 110 languages, including Bahasa Indonesia. In general, the purpose of translation is to reproduce various kinds of texts—includingreligious, literary, scientific, and philosophical texts—in another language and thus makingthem available to wider readers. As means of communication, translation is known as atechnique for learning foreign languages. According to Meetham and Hudson (1969) in Bell(1991:13), translation is: “The process or result o f converting information from one language into another. The aim is to reproduce as accurately as possible all grammatical and lexical features of the Source Language original by finding equivalents in the target language. At the same time all factual information in the original text must be retained in the translation”.Nida in Theory of Translation (http://www.pliegosdeyuste.eu/n4pliegos/eugeneanida.pdf),states that Translating is not a separate science, but it often does represent specialized skillsand can also require aesthetic sensitivity. Skilled translators must have a special capacity forsensing the closest natural equivalent of a text, whether oral or written. But translating isessentially a skill and depends largely on a series of disciplines, for example, linguistics,cultural anthropology, philology, psychology, and theories of communication. It is not always possible to translate the segments with equivalent structures. That isthe reason why translators often use several procedures in order to assure the translation of adetermined text. As depicted by Nida (1964), translation procedures are devided into two,namely Technical Procedure and Organizational Procedure. Newmark in Ordudari (2007)mentions the difference between translation methods and translation procedures. He writes
  7. 7. that, "While translation methods relate to whole texts, translation procedures are used forsentences and the smaller units of language". The first classification of translation techniques that had a clear methodologicalpurpose was presented by Vinay and Darbelnet (in Nur, 2008: pp 19-21). According to theirclassification, translation procedures were classified into two method covering sevenprocedures. They are “(i) direct translation, covering borrowing, calque and literaltranslation, and (ii) oblique translation which is transposition, modulation, equivalenceand adaptation” This Paper will use Vinay and Darbelnet’s theory of translation procedure to analyzethe terms used in Facebook Website of English and its Bahasa Indonesia Version as thetheory is simple and easy to understand. A research is done to prove whether the theorymentioned is exist or not in the data analyzed.1.2 Problems of AnalysisIn this paper, there are two problems of analysis which are discussed, i.e.: a. What kinds of translation procedures are found in the terms used in Bahasa Indonesia Version of Facebook Social Networking Website which is translated from the English Version? b. What is the most dominant translation procedures found in the terms used in Bahasa Indonesia Version of Facebook Social Networking Website which is translated from the English Version?
  8. 8. 1.3 Aims of AnalysisThe aims of analysis in this Paper are formulated as follow: a. To find and analyze kinds of kinds of translation procedures found in the terms used in Bahasa Indonesia Version of Facebook Social Networking Website which is translated from the English Version. b. To find out the dominant types of translation procedures found in the terms used in Bahasa Indonesia Version of Facebook Social Networking Website which is translated from the English Version.1.4. Research MethodResearch method in this Paper is divided into three points: how the data are collected, howthe data are analyzes and how the analysis is presented.a. Data CollectionThe data was collected from English Version and Bahasa Indonesia Version of FacebookSocial Networking Website to find out translation procedures by using Vinay andDalbernet’s theory. The web consists of three main pages, namely Home, Profile andAccount. Each page has its section. The data was collected from only the main menu of eachsection.b. Data AnalysisThe collected data was analyzed by using qualitative and quantitative methods. Qualitativemethod is used to analyze the Translation Procedures in the data. Whereas, quantitativemethod is used to find out the percentage of the most dominant types of translationprocedures, this paper will apply the following formula: X x 100% = N Y
  9. 9. Where: X = number of data in specified type of translation procedure Y = Total number of data N = Percentage of each type of translation procedure in the datac. Presenting the AnalysisThe data analysis is presented formally and informally, i.e. with the presentation ofstatistical features such as tables, symbols and abbreviation and also by using descriptivemethod. The result of the analysis is described words by words in order to make it clear andspecific and to ease the reader to understand the analysis.
  10. 10. CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK2.1 Definition on Translation The term “Translation” can be generally defined as the action of converting theinformation or the meaning of a source text, and production of the equivalence target textthat communicates the same information or message in another language. Based onhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Translation August, 22nd 2010; 11:27 AM, Translation isdefined as the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of anequivalent target-language text. According to Nida (http://www.pliegosdeyuste.eu/n4pliegos/eugeneanida.pdf), there are8 principles that can help new translators know how they can best initiate themselves intothe principles and procedures of translation: 1. A language is a series of verbal habits that represent aspects of a culture. Thus persons who wish to use the language of a different language community must learn how to use the words in a culturally acceptable manner. 2. The meaning of a verbal symbol is defined indirectly by all contrastive symbols. For example, the meaning of traffic symbols is defined by all the other symbols referring to the movement of vehicles on streets. Accordingly, it is not possible to have an absolute set of definitions. 3. Within any symbolic system the context normally contains more information than any focal term. This means that the different contexts are maximized and the functions of specific terms are minimized.
  11. 11. 4. There are no complete synonyms within a language or between different languages, but such a statement seems evidently incorrect because almost all dictionaries have extensive lists of synonyms, for example, sets such as rich/wealthy and run/race. But such sets of synonyms are normally limited to a restricted set of contexts. 5. All languages and cultures are continually in the process of change, and such changes occur on all levels of structure. 6. On all levels of American English, from sounds to discourse, important changes are occurring, but most speakers are largely unaware of what is happening. 7. One important aspect of languages and cultures is the fact that stylistic models have a very important role in communication, and proper adherence to such models is imperative, but highly creative writing is not always controlled by fixed rules. 8. Some universal models of discourse are very important for translators and interpreters. The four most important classes of discourse are narration description, argumentation, and conversation.2.2 Process, Product and Theory of Translation According to Bell (1991), the aim of translation is to reproduce as accurately as possible all grammatical and lexical features of the source language original by finding equivalents in the target language. At the same time all the factual information contained in the original text must be retained in the translation. He then suggests that there are three distinguishable meaning for the word. It can refer to: (1). Translating : The process (to translate, the activity rather than the tangible object) (2) A Translation : The Product of the process of the translation
  12. 12. (3) Translation : the abstract concept that encompasses both the process of translating and the product of the process2.3 Translation Procedures a. Borrowing Borrowing is the simplest of all translation methods. It refers to a case where a word or an expression is taken from the SL and used in the TL, but in a ‘naturalized’ form, that is, it is made to conform to the rules of grammar or pronunciation of the TL. It is usually used in terms of new technical or unknown concepts. Haugen in Sari (2009: 27) argued that there are some possibilities that may occur in this procedure: (1) borrowing with no change in form and meaning (pure loanwords). For examples: email email, internet internet, (2) borrowing with changes in form but without changes the meaning (mixed loanword). For examples: account akun, compensation kompensasi. and (3) borrowing when part of the terms is native and another is borrowed, but the meaning is fully borrowed (loan blends). For examples: internet provider penyedia layanan internet. b. Calque Calque, refers to the case where the translator imitates in his translation the structure or manner of expression of the ST. Calque may introduce a structure that is stranger from the TL. For instance, “photo studio” in English is still translated as photo studio in Bahasa Indonesia, although there is normally no such Modifier + Head construction in Bahasa Indonesia Noun Phrase.
  13. 13. c. Literal Translation Literal translation is a direct transfer of a SL text into a grammatically and idiomatically appropriate to TL text. Principally, literal translation is a unique solution in which is reversible and complete in itself. For examples, “black market” in English is translated to be pasar gelap in Bahasa Indonesia. Honey moon is translated to be bulan madu.d. Transposition Transposition involves replacing one word class with another without changing the meaning of the message. The method also involves a change in the grammatical change that occurs in translation from SL to TL (singular to plural, position of adjective, changing the word class or part of speech). For instance, a compound “keyword” in English is translated as Kata kunci (Phrase) in Bahasa Indonesia.e. Modulation Modulation is a change in point of view that allows us to express the same phenomenon in a different way. Modulation as a procedure of translation occurs when there is a change of perspective accompanied with a lexical change in the TL. There are two types of modulation, i.e. Free or Optional Modulation and Fixed or Obligatory Modulation. For instance, “He was killed in the war” in English is translated as Dia gugur dalam perang in Bahasa Indonesia. ‘Negated contrary’, which is a procedure that relies on changing the value of the ST in translation from negative to positive or vice versa, is also considered as fixed modulation. For example, “It isn’t expensive” is translated to be It’s cheap.
  14. 14. f. Equivalent This term is used to refer to cases where languages describe the same situation by different stylistic or structural means. For example, an interjection “Ouch!” in English can be translated to be Aduh or Aw in Bahasa Indonesia. An English idiom “Don’t cry over spoiled milk” may can be translated as Nasi sudah menjadi bubur in Bahasa Indonesia.g. Adaptation Adaptation is used in those cases where the type of situation being referred to by the SL message is unknown in the TL culture. In such case, the translators have to create a new situation that can be considered as being equivalent. For instance, “Take a bath” in English is translated into Mandi in Bahasa Indonesia.
  15. 15. CHAPTER III DATA ANALYSISThe data collected from English Version and Bahasa Indonesia Version of Facebookwebsite then analysed and listed based on the Translation Procedures, and finnaly eachgroup of data that its translation procedures has been analysed will be analysedquantitatively in order to get the most dominant type of translation procedure occurs in theanalysed data.3.1 Analysis of Types of Translation Procedurea. BorowingFrom 65 collected data, there are 19 borrowing cases found as follows : Table. 1 List of Borrowing Translation TRANSLATIONNO. SOURCE TARGET PROCEDURES 1 email Email borrowing (PL) 2 video Video borrowing (PL) 3 info Info borrowing (PL) 4 block Blokir borrowing (ML) 5 profile Profil borrowing (ML) 6 account Akun borrowing (ML) 7 photo Foto borrowing (ML) 8 careers Karier borrowing (ML) 9 privacy Privasi borrowing (ML) 10 accessibility Aksesibilitas borrowing (ML) 11 edit my profile sunting profil saya borrowing (LB) 12 linked account akun-akun tertaut borrowing (LB) 13 deactivate account nonaktifkan akun borrowing (LB) 14 account security keamanan akun borrowing (LB) 15 your email email anda borrowing (LB) 16 re-enter email masukkan kembali email borrowing (LB) 17 account setting pengaturan akun borrowing (LB)
  16. 16. 18 privacy setting pengaturan privasi borrowing (LB) 19 application setting pengaturan aplikasi borrowing (LB)a. Pure Borrowing :“Email”, “video”, and “info” are purely borrowed from the SL without any change in theTL writing system.b. Mixed Loanwords : 1. “Block” Blokir Blokir is borrowed from SL “Block” with some change in writing system. The letter “c” in SL is ommited and there is an addition of suffix “ir” at the end of TL word. 2. “Profile” Profil “Profil” is borrowed from SL “Profile” with some change in writing system. The letter “e” in SL is ommited in TL. 3. “Account” Akun “Akun” is borrowed from SL “Account” with some change in writing system. “cco” in SL is changed with letter “k” in TL and the ending letter “t” in SL is lost in TL. 4. “Photo” Foto “Foto” is borrowed from SL “Photo” with some change in writing system. The letters “ph” in SL is changed with letter “f” in TL. 5. “Career” Karier “Karier” is borrowed from SL “Career” with some change in writing system.The letter “c” inSlis replaced with letter “k” in TL, and the first letter “e” in SL is changed with “i” in TL
  17. 17. 6. “Privacy” Privasi “Privasi” is borrowed from SL “Privacy” with some change in writing system. The morpheme ”cy” in SL is replaced with morpheme “si” in TL.7. “Accesibility” Aksesibilitas “Aksesibilitas” is borrowed from SL “Accesibility” with some change in writing system. The letter ”cc” in SL is replaced with letters “ks” in TL, and the suffix “ty” is replaced with suffix “tas” in TL.c. Loan Blends 1. Sunting and saya is native while “profil” is borrowed from SL “profile”. 2. Both Tertaut and Nonaktifkan are native while “akun” is borrowed from SL “account”. 3. Keamanan is native while “akun” is borrowed from SL “account”. 4. Anda and masukkan kembali are native while “email” is purely borrowed from SL “email”. 5. Pengaturan is native while “akun”, “privasi” and “application” are borrowed from SL “account”, “privacy” and “application”.2. ChalqueThere is no Calque found in the data3. Literal TranslationThese following table shows the data that are categorized as Literal Translation where thetext in SL is translated word by word into TL by adopting TL structures.
  18. 18. Table. 2 Literal Translation TRANSLATIONNO. SOURCE TARGET PROCEDURES1 sign up Mendaftar literal translation2 first name nama depan literal translation3 last name nama belakang literal translation4 Birthday Ulang tahun literal translation5 Stay connected Tetaplah berhubungan literal translation6 home Beranda literal translation7 top news berita populer literal translation8 most recent paling baru literal translation9 news feed kabar berita literal translation10 message pesan literal translation11 event acara literal translation12 friend teman literal translation13 edit friends sunting teman literal translation14 help center pusat bantuan literal translation15 log out keluar literal translation siapa saja yang ada di16 whos on facebook? Facebook? literal translation17 find your friends cari teman-teman anda literal translation whos not on siapa yang belum ada di18 Facebook? facebook? literal translation19 invite them now undang mereka sekarang literal translation whos here because siapa saja yang ada disini20 of you berkat anda? literal translation21 find your invites lacak undangan anda literal translation22 connect on the go terhubung saat bepergian? literal translation23 try facebook mobile cobalah facebook seluler literal translation24 about tentang literal translation25 advertising iklan literal translation26 developers pengembang literal translation27 terms ketentuan literal translation28 help bantuan literal translation29 wall dinding literal translation30 boxes kotak literal translation31 notes catatan literal translation32 search pencarian literal translation33 setting pengaturan literal translation
  19. 19. 34 network jaringan literal translation 35 notification pemberitahuan literal translation 36 mobile seluler literal translation 37 languange bahasa literal translation 38 payment pembayaran literal translation 39 facebook ads iklan facebook literal translation 40 getting started memulai literal translation 41 message and inbox pesan dan pesan masuk literal translation 42 troubleshooting penyelesaian masalah literal translation4. TranspositionAccording to Vinay and Dalbernet in Sari (2009 : 62), “transposition involves replacing oneword class with another without changing the meaning of the message in SL. Table. 3 Transposition TRANSLATION NO. SOURCE TARGET PROCEDURES 1 password kata sandi transposition 2 its free Gratis transposition 3 username nama pengguna transposition untuk mengenali anda 4 security question sebagai pemilik akun transposition 1. “Password” Kata sandi (Compound) (A Phrase) “Password” which is a compound (word level) in SL turning into a phrase (NP) “kata sandi in TL. 2. “It’s free” Gratis (Clause) (A word) “It’s free” which is a clause in SL is translated as a word Gratis in TL. 3. “Username” Nama pengguna
  20. 20. (Compound) (A Phrase) “Username” which is a compound (word level) in SL turning into a phrase (NP) “nama pengguna” in TL. 4. “Security Question” Untuk mengenali anda sebagai pemilik akun (A Phrase) (A dependent clause) “Security Question” which is a phrase in SL turning into a dependent clause “untuk mengenali anda sebagai pemilik akun” in TL.5. Modulation There is no modulation founded in the data.6. Equivalent There is no equivalence founded in the data.7. Adaptation There is no adaptation founded in the data.3.2 Analysis of The Most Dominant Types of Translation Procedures From the analysed data, there are only 3 types of translation procedures that are found. They are (1) Borrowing, (2) Literal Translation and (3) Transposition. From 65 analysed data, there are 19 cases of Borrowing, 42 cases of Literal Translation and 4 cases of Transposition. So, the percentage of each type of translation procedures can be calculated as follows : a. Borrowing : 19 x 100% = 29,2 % 65 b. Literal Translation :
  21. 21. 42 x 100% = 64, 6 % 65 c.Transposition : 4 x 100% = 6, 2 % 65 Chart. 1 Percentage of Existing Types of Translation Procedures A = Borrowing B = Literal Translation C = Transposition From the chart above, it can be concluded that the most dominant type ofTranslation Procedure occurs in the analysed data is Literal Translation (64,60%),followed by Borrowing (29,2%) and Transposition (6,2%).
  22. 22. CHAPTER IV CONCLUSIONHaving analysed the data on this paper, two conclusion can be drawn, they are :1. From 7 (seven) types of Vinay and Dalbernet’s Translation Procedures Theory, the are only 3 (three) procedures that are exist on the analysed data. They are : (1) Borrowing (2) Literal Translation and (3) Transposition.2. The most dominant type of Translation Procedure that occurs in the analysed data is Literal Translation (42 cases in 65 collected data, or 64.60% ), followed by Borrowing (19 cases in 65 collected data or 29.2%/) and Tansposition at the third place (with only 4 cases in 65 collected data or 6.2%)
  23. 23. BIBLIOGRAPHYBell, Roger.T.1991.Translation and Translating.Longman.Singapurahttp://www.facebook.comhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TranslationNewmark,P.1988.A Textbook of Translation. Singapore : Prentice Hall International (UK) Ltd.Nida,E.A.1964. Toward A Science of Translation. Leiden:E.J.BrillNida,E,A.Theories of Translation. http://www.pliegosdeyuste.eu/n4pliegos/eugeneanida.pdfNur, Muhamas.2008.A Thesis : Translation and Signification Analysis of Computer Technical Terms”. Denpasar : Post Graduate Programme Udayana UniversityOrdudari, Mahmou. 2007. Translation procedures, strategies and methods. http://accurapid.com/journal/41culture.htmSari, Fachwinalia Keumala. 2009. An Analysis of Translation Procedures of Translating Computer Terms in Andrew S. Tanenbaum 3rd Computer Networks Into Bahasa Indonesia. Medan :University of Sumatera Utara

×