PRACTICE - 1
- Drug Distribution
- Patient Counseling
- Drug Information Service
- Drug Formulary
• EVERY PHARMACIST MANAGER SHALL BE RESPONSIBLE FOR:
different companies may bring the same drug !
consider the best price “economic savings”.
consider the best brand “in case of alternatives”.
relationship with the selling company etc..
be sure to get the bill.
be sure of quantity & price of the purchased item.
be sure of the expiry date.
be sure of the batch “lot” no.
be sure of the products integrity.
arrange the drugs in their place “FEFO vs. FIFO”
be aware of storage conditions “temp., light etc..”
some drugs have strict storage conditions “e.g. narcotics”.
in drug store, pharmacy, or hospital wards?
- DISPOSAL OF DRUGS IN THE PHARMACY.
once the drugs can no longer be used “expired, damaged,
contaminated etc..”, the right way of disposal should be
• Choose randomly 3 drug invoices, indicate their details, &
follow the drugs journey from purchase till storage or
• Drug generic: Amoxicillin. Drug brand: Moxypen.
• Quantity: 50 boxes. Price: ---- NIS.
• Selling company: ----- Batch no.: ---------
• Expiry date: ------
• Storage: suitable conditions? FEFO / FIFO? Integrity?
• Distribution: pharmacy or to wards?
• Pharmacy support personnel may be utilized to reduce the
professional time committed to the mechanics of the drug
distribution service, without reducing the professional and
Procurement of Drugs
• The purchase of all drugs shall be:
- under the supervision of a pharmacist.
- in accordance with the Formulary Standard.
• The pharmacy department shall maintain adequate records of
drug purchases for:
- inventory control.
- legal requirements.
Receiving/Storage of Drugs
• Narcotic and Controlled substances shall be delivered to:
- the institution's pharmacy department directly.
- or, where applicable, to the receiving area and
subsequently delivered to the pharmacy department.
• If drugs are stored in a place outside the pharmacy:
- The pharmacist manager shall be responsible to ensure
the proper storage of received drugs in this area.
• The pharmacist should ensure the security of received
- from the actual receiving time until it is stored properly by
• What narcotics & controlled substances are available in the
hospital pharmacy? Mention dosage forms & strengths.
• Are they stored securely & how?
• Are they counted & registered by chief pharmacist in a special
record (input vs. output)?
Receiving/Storage of Drugs
• All drugs within the pharmacy and throughout the hospital
shall be stored under proper conditions of:
- sanitation, temperature, light, humidity, ventilation,
regulation and security.
• This includes investigational drugs, patient's own medications
from home, samples…
Receiving/Storage of Drugs
• The pharmacy personnel shall make regular inspections of all
drugs storage areas:
i) disinfectants and drugs for external use are stored separately
from internal and injectable medications.
ii) drugs requiring special environmental conditions for stability are
iii) no outdated drugs are stocked.
iv) narcotics and controlled drugs substances are being stored with
proper measures of security.
v) drugs are not being overstocked.
vi) drugs which may be required on an urgent or emergency basis
are in adequate and proper supply.
• Go to one of the hospital wards & check if the previous list (6
points) applied. If any not applied, give an example.
• Check if the list applies also in the pharmacy itself.
Drug Recall Procedure
• Some drugs may be returned to pharmacy.
• There shall be implemented drug recall procedures for:
- patient medications no longer required “discharged,
- expired / near expired medications.
- contaminated drug product “batch”.
- FDA disapproval of a previously approved drug “due to a
new study, for example”.
• The text of medication orders made by physicians shall
a) the patient's name, age, hospital number and location
b) the name of medication and dosage
c) route and frequency of administration
d) duration of treatment, if limited
e) name of authorized prescriber
f) date the order was written
g) the time the order was written, if deemed appropriate
h) for verbal orders, the name and signature of the person who
received the order
i) if pediatric patient, weight of child
• Check one medication order for 5 patients & examine if the
previous list applies. Give examples. You can find medication
orders in patients’ files in hospital wards. Ask the permission
before checking patients’ files.
• The medication orders should be sent to the pharmacy department, and
the original medication order should be retained on the patient's chart.
• When a patient goes to surgery:
- medication orders should be cancelled automatically (HOLD drugs).
- medication orders shall be rewritten postoperatively.
• The use of standing orders shall be discouraged:
- A standing order is a written instruction issued by a medical practitioner or
dentist. It authorizes a specified person or class of people (e.g. paramedics,
registered nurses) who do not have prescribing rights to administer and/or
supply specified medicines and some controlled drugs. The intention is for
standing orders to be used to improve patients’ timely access to medicines.
• The pharmacy department shall work toward developing a
medication profile system for hospitalized patients.
• Medication profiles should be reviewed before dispensing the
• Medication profile should include ALL patients medications
taken in the hospital, including:
- Regular medications.
- STAT medications.
- prn medications.
• Get medication profiles for 5 patients (in pharmacy or wards)
and mention what medications are present within, with all
relevant information (dose, duration, regular or stat or prn….)
• Dispensing shall be restricted to the pharmacist,
• or authorized personnel under the direction and supervision of
the pharmacist “e.g. pharmacy assistant, pharmacy technician”.
• The pharmacist shall be responsible for:
a) determining the appropriateness of the medication order before
dispensing (INDICATION, SAFETY, EFFECTIVENESS).
b) selecting auxiliary labels “e.g. keep in refrigerator” and/or
cautionary statements “e.g. high alert medication”.
c) monitoring patient files, if accessible, for the detection of
inappropriate drug therapy “e.g. non-selective beta-blocker may not
be dispensed to a patient whose profile indicates that he/she has
d) final check on all aspects of the completed prescription (DOSE,
ROUTE & FREQUENCY OF ADMINISTRATION…).
• A stop-order procedure:
• Shall be used when a definite number of doses or a time
limitation for administration has not been stipulated by the
physician on the drug order “e.g. Ibuprofen 400mg 1x3”.
• Drug specific automatic stop-order policies shall be appropriate
for the type of treatment given in the hospital.
• There shall be a system to notify “alarm” the prescriber of the
impending expiration of the medication order, so that
appropriate patient reassessment is completed prior to rewriting
• Pharmacists shall use standardized terminology, metric units, and
generic nomenclature of all drug labels to minimize confusion.
• There shall be a list of abbreviations and symbols approved by the
hospital “e.g. Micrograms should be referred as mcg not µg”.
• Medication labels shall be typed or machine printed, and shall be
free from erasures and strikeovers.
• Medication labels shall be firmly affixed to the container.
• Medication containers shall not be altered by anyone other than
Unit-Dose Medication System
• Unit-dose systems shall dispense medications contained in,
and administered from, unit-dose packages.
• Not more than a 24-hour supply of unit dose medication shall
be provided to the acute patient care area at any time.
• The medication profile shall be utilized for the individual
medication doses to be scheduled, prepared, distributed and
administered on a timely basis.
• Unit-dose carts or medication trays shall be used as
medication storage facilities on the ward.
Unit-Dose Medication System
• The particular tray for a specific patient shall be labeled with
the patient's name, location and hospital number.
• The following information shall be indicated on the individual
a) name of drug
c) expiry date
d) lot number
UNIT DOSE CART
• Medication shall be delivered from the pharmacy to the ward
with the least amount of delay.
• All parts of the transportation system shall protect the
medication from pilferage and breakage.
• Special procedures for delivery of Narcotic and Controlled
medications shall be established to ensure that the drugs are
delivered promptly, intact and placed in proper storage areas.
• Drugs having different lot numbers and expiry dates should
not be combined in the same package.
• Medications dispensed for administration, but not used, shall
be returned to the pharmacy.
• Returning drugs to stock “to be dispensed again” shall take
a) integrity of returned drug package.
b) proper storage of the drug on the nursing care station.
• The following types of medication shall be discarded:
a) any opened topical medications (including ophthalmic, otic and
b) opened multi-dose and single dose vials.
c) any medication handled by the patient.
d) any medications returned by ambulatory patients.
e) improperly stored medications.
f) any open or used I.V. admixtures.
g) any opened liquid medications.
Ward Stock Medications
• The pharmacy shall establish a list of ward stock medications for
each ward, and that list shall be reviewed on an annual basis by the
• The supply, distribution and control of ward stock medication shall
be the responsibility of the pharmacy department.
• Narcotic and Controlled drugs may be provided as a special form of
ward stock, and shall be stored in a secured area in accordance with
• Emergency drugs shall be readily accessible and stored
• Medication shall be stored securely on the ward, and available to
authorized personnel only.
• Investigational and emergency release drugs shall:
a) be used only under the direct supervision of the principal
b) be approved for use by the appropriate hospital committees.
c) be administered by personnel only after they have been given
appropriate pharmaceutical information about the drugs.
d) be the responsibility of the pharmacy department for storage
Administration of Medication
• Safe administration of drugs to patients:
a) drugs shall be administered only upon the order of a medical
authorized practitioner who has been assigned clinical privileges.
b) all medications shall be administered by appropriately licensed
personnel “nurses” in accordance with laws and regulations.
c) whenever medications are added to parenteral products “bags”,
proper auxiliary labeling should include:
- the name and amount of drug added,
- the date and time of the addition,
- the person who prepared the mixture,
- stability of the mixture,
- specific storage conditions,
- patient's name.
• In one of the hospital wards, check if the previous list applies
for 3 given admixtures prepared by nurses or pharmacists.
Administration of Medication
d) medication shall be given as near the specified time as possible.
e) the patient for whom the medication is intended shall be positively
identified in accordance with hospital policy “preferably 3 identifiers”:
- patient name.
- patient ID.
- patient hospital no.
f) all administered, refused or omitted medication doses shall be
recorded in the patient's medical record or chart.
- Information to be recorded:
drug name, dose and route of administration, the date and time of
administration, and the person administering the dose.
Administration of Medication
g) self-administration of medication by patients shall be permitted
when specifically ordered by the physician.
- pharmacy shall be involved with the patient medication
h) all medication errors shall be reported in specific forms.
- dispensing errors, transcription errors, administration errors…
i) adverse drug reaction reporting (Pharmacovigilance).
j) procedures for drug administration.
Patient's Own Medication
• If patients bring their own drugs into the hospital, these drugs
shall not be administered unless:
- they can be identified
- written orders to administer these drugs are given by the
• If the drugs the patient brought to the hospital are not to be
used during hospitalization, they shall be:
- stored securely, then:
- if appropriate, returned to the patient at time of discharge.
- if inappropriate, destroyed by the pharmacy department.
In case of conflicts
• Pharmacist has responsibilities to refuse providing products or
• for moral or religious reasons,
• or when the prescribed drug may harm the patient.
• Pharmacists shall hold the health and safety of the public to
be their first consideration in the practice of their profession.
• Pharmacists who object, as a matter of conscience, to provide
a particular pharmacy product or service to a patient must
explain the basis of their objections.
• Objections should be conveyed to the pharmacy manager, not
In case of conflicts
• Pharmacist should inform the patient of the realistic
consequences of drug use, and to respect patient autonomy.
• This requires eliciting informed consent,
• the patient possesses sufficient information and mental capacity
to understand the risks and benefits of taking a particular drug,
• so the patient may voluntarily accept or reject that particular
• Pharmacist is obliged to accurately disclose the drug risks and
benefits that may occur.
• A PHARMACIST SHALL PROMOTE THE SAFE AND EFFECTIVE
USE OF MEDICATION BY EDUCATING PATIENTS ABOUT THEIR
• The pharmacist shall monitor patient compliance to
• Prior to the release of prescribed medications, the pharmacist
shall verbally counsel the patient for safe and effective drug
• Patient counseling shall provide information to the patient about:
a) confirmation of identity of the patient.
b) confirmation of identity of the medication being dispensed.
c) confirmation of prescribed dosage regimen.
d) importance of compliance and what to do if a dose is missed.
e) special storage requirements.
f) prescription refill information.
g) instruction required to achieve the intended therapeutic response
which may include:
i) information regarding significant drug - drug (including non-prescription
medication) and drug - food interactions.
ii) activities to avoid.
iii) common side effects and what to do if they occur.
• Pick a patient (from outpatient settings) & provide him counseling
regarding one of his/her drugs in a private atmosphere.
• Drug Generic: Atenolol tablets 100mg.
• Drug Brand: Normiten.
• Dose: 100mg once daily regardless of food.
• Indication: HTN.
• Expected drug side effects (important / common ones): fatigue,
• Expected drug effectiveness: decreases BP.
• Storage of drug: in room temp. away from children.
• How to prevent / deal with side effects: routine monitoring of BP.
• What to avoid in this disease: high salt intake.
• Others: ----------------------
• Patient medication counseling shall be provided in an
atmosphere of confidentiality and privacy.
• The pharmacist is encouraged to provide appropriate written
supplemental information with each new prescription.
• Where the prescribed order is for a medical device or some
other health care item, the pharmacist must supply complete
instruction for proper usage.
• If the patient refuses to participate in patient counseling, the
pharmacist should document the refusal in a record.
• Where prescribed medication is being released for delivery off
• the pharmacist shall make all reasonable attempts to contact the
• Where prescribed medication is being released to a person
acting as an agent for the patient,
• the pharmacist shall provide the required counseling information
through the agent.
• or obtain the necessary information to contact the patient
• The pharmacist shall document the occurrence of drug
consultation in a permanent record in the patient's chart.
• Persons qualified to provide patient counseling regarding
• licensed pharmacist,
• pharmacy student or intern under direct supervision of a licensed
• The pharmacist shall use any reasonable means in counseling
patients or agents with language or communication
• The pharmacist shall evaluate the patient's understanding of
the counseling information provided,
• through appropriate questioning and/or follow-up.
• A PHARMACIST SHALL PROVIDE ACCURATE, UNBIASED, PERTINENT
• All drug information requests must be handled by:
• licensed pharmacist,
• pharmacy student or intern under the direct supervision of a licensed
• The pharmacist shall select from the current drug literature:
• evidence-based updated reference sources, which will meet the drug
information needs of the specific area of practice.
• The pharmacist shall evaluate and analyze relevant drug and
therapeutic information contained in the current drug literature.
• What drug information sources are available in the hospital
pharmacy (electronic & hard copies).
• The pharmacist shall use professional expertise and judgment
in processing drug information requests:
a) obtaining the necessary background information, so that the
request is received in a complete and understandable form.
b) interpreting the drug information request.
c) systematically and thoroughly conducting a literature search.
d) evaluating the literature in an accurate, unbiased manner.
e) formulating a relevant, coherent and informative response.
f) communicating the response in a verbal and/or written form.
• The pharmacist should contribute to the drug literature.
• The drug information service shall provide current information
on the assessment, management and the prevention of drug
• The pharmacist shall be aware of more extensive (external)
sources of information and the procedures necessary to
• Drug information services shall be available 24 hours a day,
7 days a week.
• If pharmacy staff is not available after regular working hours,
• drug information shall be provided by a pharmacist "on-call".
• The pharmacist must make arrangements in advance for the
provisions of drug information services during his absence.
• The pharmacist should contribute to the education of health
care personnel “seminar programs, newsletters or bulletins ”.
• A PHARMACIST WHO PRACTICES IN A HEALTH CARE FACILITY SHALL
PRACTICE IN ACCORDANCE WITH A FORMULARY ESTABLISHED AND
APPROVED BY THE FACILITY.
• The minimum requirement for the hospital Formulary:
• written list of selected drug products approved for use within the hospital.
• The pharmacist shall have a knowledge of which products are
• The pharmacist shall participate in the development and management
of a hospital formulary system,
• based on both therapeutic and economic considerations of drug use.
• The hospital Formulary shall receive approval from the appropriate
• The Formulary shall be specific to each institution.
• The drug products shall be classified according to:
• pharmacologic-therapeutic use.
• Information shall be provided on:
• available dosage forms,
• available dosage strengths,
• unit-of-issue “mg, ml, tablet, vial etc..”
• A formal, published hospital formulary shall also contain:
• information on formulary use and administration.
• regulations governing the prescribing of drugs in the hospital.
• relevant pharmacy policies and procedures controlling drug
• cross-index of selected drug products according to generic and
trade name. The pharmacy department shall encourage the
prescribing of drugs by generic name.
• information on special aspects of drug use.
• There shall be policies for the approval and subsequent provision of
drugs not included in the formulary.
• The formulary shall be available to all healthcare professionals,
• prescribing, dispensing or administering medications.
• There shall be policies for the approval of automatic substitution of
specific drugs by the pharmacy department.
• The pharmacy department shall be responsible for the supervision
and control of the hospital formulary system throughout the
• The hospital formulary shall be continuously updated according to
the specific needs of the hospital.
Nov. 10, 2020
Sep. 10, 2020
Aug. 25, 2020
Jul. 30, 2020
Apr. 2, 2019
Oct. 27, 2018
Jul. 22, 2018
May. 15, 2018
Apr. 16, 2018
Dec. 6, 2017
Nov. 23, 2017
Hospital Standards Practice - 1
- Drug Distribution
- patient counseling
-drug information service