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Myelogram

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myelogram brief explanation

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Myelogram

  1. 1. MYELOGRAM • A myelogram is a radiographic study combining the use of a contrast medium with fluoroscopy to evaluate abnormalities of the spinal cord and its nerve root branches. • Routinely done to detect spinal canal narrowing and presence of cysts or mass lesions before advent and widespread use of MRI • usually completed within 30 to 60 minutes • Follwed by CT evaluation routinely • Cisternography using intrathecal contrast media has also been used for many years in the diagnostic evaluation of disease processes involving the basal cisterns and skull base.
  2. 2. Contrast media used • Earlier - oil-based, air-contrast. Ionic contrast media • Current - Non ionic, water soluble iodine-based media. WHY?? (1). Oil-based agents (e.g., iophendylate) lack of fine image detail (due to cohesiveness) and the need to remove the dye (to prevent arachnoiditis and post-spinal headaches) made these agents suboptimal (2) ionic water-soluble media (e.g., iothalamate meglumine), they are unsuitable for direct contact with neural tissue, as such contact could lead to severe muscle spasms, seizures, cerebral edema and hemorrhage,, hypotension, hyperthermia, rhabdomylolysis, multi-system organ failure, and death. Also cause disruption of BBB. • nonionic water-soluble agents (e.g., metrizamide, iohexol OMNIPAQUE 300), which are significantly less neurotoxic than the ionic water-soluble agents are been used instead for last two decades. • Many radiological contrast agents are neurotoxic and should not be administered intrathecally.
  3. 3. INDICATIONS 1. Demonstration of the site of a cerebrospinal fluid leak (postlumbar puncture headache, postspinal surgery headache, orthostatic headache, rhinorrhea or otorrhea). 2. Symptoms or signs of spontaneous intracranial hypotension 3. Surgical planning, especially in regard to the nerve roots. 4. Evaluation of the bony and soft tissue components of spinal degenerative changes. 5. Radiation therapy planning. 6. Diagnostic evaluation of spinal or basal cisternal disease. 7. Nondiagnostic MRI studies of the spine or skull base. 8. Poor correlation of physical findings with MRI studies. 9. Use of MRI precluded because of: a. Claustrophobia. b. Technical issues, e.g., patient size. c. Safety reasons, e.g., pacemaker. d. Surgical hardware. 10. Delineation of congenital anomalies () when MRI is insufficient.
  4. 4. Contraindications 1. Known space-occupying intracranial process with increased intracranial pressure. 2. Historical or laboratory evidence of bleeding disorder or coagulopathy. 3. Recent myelography performed within 1 week. 4. Previous surgical procedure in anticipated puncture site (can choose alternative puncture site). 5. Generalized septicemia. 6. History of adverse reaction to iodinated contrast media and/or gadolinium based MR contrast agents. 7. History of seizures (patient may be premedicated). 8. Grossly bloody spinal tap (may proceed when benefit outweighs risk). 9. Hematoma or localized infection at region of puncture site. 10. Pregnancy
  5. 5. PROCEDURE • The patient is placed prone or lateral decubitus on the tabletop, and the skin of the midlumbar back is prepped and draped in standard sterile technique. • L2-L3 or L3-L4 interlaminar or interspinous space is localized. • Subcutaneous and intramuscular local anesthetic is administered. • spinal needle is introduced through the anesthetized region and directed toward the midline. Smaller needles are associated with lower risk of bleeding and post-tap headache • A nonionic iodinated contrast medium is slowly administered intrathecally through the lumbar needle under intermittent imaging. Dose varies (usually 6- 17ml) depends upon manufacture label.
  6. 6. • Prior to removing the needle, imaging may be obtained to document the needle position • The needle is then removed from the back, and the patient is secured to the tabletop by a support device prior to being tilted into Trendelenburg or reverse Trendelenburg position. • Using intermittent imaging, table tilting, and patient rotation, anteroposterior, oblique, and cross-table lateral images of the region in question are documented on film or digital media. • For cervical myelography, and in some instances, thoracic myelography with the patient prone, the head is hyperextended on the neck, thus creating a lordotic “trough,” and the table is then gradually and slowly tilted head downward until the opacified cerebrospinal fluid “column” flows through the area of interest.
  7. 7. • Following completion of the fluoroscopic examination , the patient may be transferred to the CT scanner for CT myelographic or cisternographic imaging.
  8. 8. Vanishing bone disease • Gorham's disease or vanishing bone disease is a poorly understood rare skeletal condition which manifests with massive progressive osteolysis along with a proliferation of thin walled vascular channels. • The disease starts in one bone but can spread to adjacent bony and soft tissues. • Commonly affect young adults Involving Scapula , mandible , Humerus
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myelogram brief explanation

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